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R 1 54.  L58  Ea7  The  biography  of  Dio 

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DIO   LEWIS,   A.M.,   M.D 







FOWLEK  &  WELLS  CO,  Publishers 

775  Broadway 


Copyright,  1890, 








this  volume  is  most  respectfully  dedicated  bt 

Mrs.   lewis 

whose  every  thought  of  her  husbais'd 

is  still  associated  with 

LliTE,    LOVE,    AjSTD    SERVICE 


To  do  some  good  to  his  felloio-men  was  the 
motive  wliicli,  througliout  his  life,  inspired  the 
work  of  Dio  Lewis. 

In  pursuit  of  this  end  he  was  steadily  loyal  to 
his  convictions,  counting  in  their  advocacy  no  per- 
sonal cost,  whether  of  money,  friends,  or  public 
favor.  Through  all  conflicts  and  misrepresenta- 
tions he  kept  the  largest  charity  for  his  opponents 
and  his  own  sweetness  of  spirit. 

The  story  of  his  life  is  here  faithfully  told,  in 
hope  that  it  may  help  to  give  to  his  work  and 
words  what  he  most  desired  for  himself,  continued 
service.  One  of  his  latest  utterances  was,  '^  Use  is 
still  my  word." 

The  record  is,  in  the  main,  of  work  accom- 
plished, but  to  those  engaged  in  its  preparation 
especial  value  attaches  to  principles  bearing 
upon  the  reform  of  temperance,  which  Dr.  Lewis 
clearly  stated  and  persistently  advocated,  in  forms 


no  longer  available,  and  which  are  here  concisely 
reproduced.  It  is  their  hope  that  when  these 
may  be  calmly  considered,  they  may  prove  a  help- 
ful clue  out  of  some  complicated  and  impracticable 
methods  which  now  block  the  way  of  temperance 

The  story  of  the  "Temperance  Crusade"  has 
been  gathered,  and,  in  the  main,  has  been  given 
verbatim  from  the  current  newspapers  of  its  time 
and  from  the  published  narratives  which  followed 
it.  Dr.  Lewis,  always  absorbed  by  work  in  hand, 
preserved  little  that  told  what  he  had  done. 

For  the  graphic  presentation  of  the  causes  and 
results  of  the  Crusade  by  Mrs.  Annie  Wittenmyer, 
Miss  Fiances  E.  Willard,  and  Mrs.  W.  A.  Ingham, 
we  are  indebted  to  the  volume  "AYoman  and 

With  tender  sympathy  Mrs.  Lewis  dedicates 
this  volume  to  those  who  have  found  in  Dr.  Lewis 
friend,  guide,  or  helper. 




Ancestors  of  Dio  Lewis.  Family  sketches.  Work  of 
the  mother,  Mrs.  Lewis,  for  home,  for  church,  and 
for  temperance, 19 


Boyhood  of  Dio  Lewis.  His  investigating  turn  of 
mind  ;  his  rehgious  experience  ;  his  great  working 
power.  A  teacher  at  the  age  of  fifteen.  Original 
methods  of  discipline  and  instruction.  He  estab- 
lishes a  select  school  in  Ohio  ;  studies  medicine ; 
enters  Harvard  College  Medical  School,  and  also 
serves  as  an  assistant  editor.  He  practises  med- 
icine ;  becomes  a  homoeopathist ;  receives  the  degree 
of  M.D., 39 


Settles  in  Buffalo,  N.  Y.  His  marriage.  Publishes 
papers  on  the  cholera,  and  establishes  a  magazine, 
"  The  HomoeopathisV  His  view  of  the  true  work 
of  the  physician.  Illness  of  Mrs.  Lewis  leads  to  a 
visit  to  the  South.  Dr.  Lewds  lectures  and  addresses 
schools  in  Virginia  on  temperance  and  hygiene,    .      88 




He  deplores  the  substitution  of  legal  for  moral -suasion 
methods  in  temperance  work.  Joins  the  "Sons  of 
Temperance,"  but  protests  against  the  exclusion  of 
women.  Indifference  to  his  appeals  leads  him  to 
lecture  publicly  on  "  The  Influence  of  Christian 
Women  in  the  Cause  of  Temperance."  Lecture  on 
homoeopathy  causes  him  to  be  attacked  in  the 
street.  Mrs.  Lewis  recovers  her  health.  Her 
tribute  to  her  husband, 46 

Letters  from  Virginia  on  the  effects  of  slavery,    .        .      54 


Dr.  Lewis  visits  Europe.  Lectures  on  his  return.  In 
1858  he  puts  in  practice  his  theories  as  to  woman's 
work  in  temperance,  at  Dixon,  111. ,  and  elsewhere. 
Committees  of  women  appeal  to  saloon-keepers,  .      62 


Conviction  of  the  general  need  of  physical  culture.  No 
means  of  training  provided  for  girls  and  women. 
Wants  which  a  true  course  of  gymnastics  should 
meet.  Development  of  the"Dio  Lewis  System 
of  Light  Gymnastics."  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Lewis  remove 
to  Boston.  Classes  organized.  Col.  T.  W.  Higgin- 
Bon's  estimate  of  the  Lewis  system  of  gymnastics,        70 


Incorporation  of  "  The  Boston  Normal  Institute  for 
Physical  Education."  Introduction  of  the  system 
of  light  gymnastics  into  England  by  Rev.  Moses 
Qoit  Tyler.    Rev.  Mr.  Tyler's  estimate  of  the  system. 

CONTENTS.  ,  y 


Its  extension  to  Europe,  Asia,  and  Africa.  The  com- 
parative advantages  of  military  drill  and  of  those 
of  the  new  gymnastics  presented  before  a  committee 
of  the  Massachusetts  Legislature,      ....      80 


Sanitarium  established.  Why  women  students  and 
teachers  break  down  in  health.  Women  superior 
to  men  as  gymnasts.  What  a  graduate  of  a  young 
ladies'  school  should  have  gained  there.  Dr.  Lewis 
opens  a  school  at  Lexington,  Mass.,  to  embody  his 
views  on  a  true  education.  He  advertises  for  girls 
who  have  broken  down  at  other  schools.  Notable 
corps  of  professors  and  lecturers,      ....      89 


Regimen  of  the  pupils  at  the  Lexington  school.    Social 

life  and  moral  quality  of  the  school.  Close  relation 
between  pupils  and  teachers.  Secret  of  the  popu- 
larity of  the  school, 99 


Democratic  spirit  at  Lexington.  Admission  of  a  pupil 
of  the  colored  race.  Another  takes  the  position  of 
a  daughter  in  the  family  of  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Lewis. 
Letters  from  Mrs.  Annie  Fields,  John  G.  Whit  tier, 
and  Wendell  Phillips.  Reminiscences  of  anti- 
slavery  mobs  and  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Wendell  Phillips,  109 


The  Lexington  school  building  destroyed  by  fire.  A 
temporary  removal  to  Spy  Pond.  Close  of  the 
school,    ....,,,,,,     117 




Dr.  Lewis  removes  to  Boston  and  builds  a  private  ho- 
tel, "  The  Bellevue."  Temperance  work.  Visit 
to  England.  Books  published.  Their  warm  recep- 
tion by  distinguished  thinkers,  .        .        .        .124 


Dr.  Lewis  in  the  lecture-field  in  behalf  of  education 
and  temperance.  Extracts  from  his  lectures  on 
temperance  illustrate  his  spirit  and  methods  of 
work, 133 


Spirited  response  to  his  methods  for  closing  the  dram- 
shops in  Fredonia,  N.  Y.,  and  elsewhere.  Reports 
of  the  first  campaign  day.  Permanent  results  re- 
ported,    142 


Campaign  in  Jamestown,  N.  Y.,  also  in  Hillsboro,  Ohio. 
External  view  of  the  work  in  progress,  from  the 
'''"Watchman  and  Reflector,^''  Boston.  Legal  action 
for  trespass.  Claim  of  $10,000,  for  damages  by 
prayer.  The  work  from  the  stand  point  of  a  worker — 
Mrs.  Eliza  Thompson, 153 


Official  report  of  the  camj)aign  at  Washington  Court 
House.  Prayer ;  the  march ;  mass-meetings.  A 
dealer  pours  his  liquor  on  the  ground.  Cincinnati 
whiskey-dealers  come  to  the  rescue  of  their  patrons. 
Bitter  cold  weather  and  a  tabernacle  built.  Work 
of  destroying  liquor  given  to  the  women.  Dr. 
Lewis's  account  of  it,  .       , 167 




Charley  Beck  stoutly  resists  the  efforts  of  the  women, 
and  procures  an  injunction  against  them.  Relig- 
ious services  held  before  his  door  for  two  weeks, 
day  and  night.  Racy  account  from  the  Cincinnati 
Commercial.  "Dem  vimmens,  dey  stay  mit  a  man 
all  day,  a-singi^i'  unt  udder  foolishness."  After  three 
weeks,  Beck  announces,  "You  comes  so  many  I 
quits."  Two  days  later  the  last  liquor-seller  in  the 
town  surrendered.  Dr.  Lewis  returns  to  Washing- 
ton Court  House  and  is  publicly  welcomed,    .        .     175 


New  Vienna.  Sacrilegious  devices  of  Van  Pelt,  "the 
wickedest  man  in  Ohio, "  to  resist  the  saloon  visitors. 
The  men  cause  his  arrest,  to  no  advantage.  The 
w^omen  renew  their  efforts  and  he  surrenders.  He 
speaks  from  the  lecture  platform.  Injunction  upon 
the  crusaders  at  Morrow  ;  it  is  dissolved  at  the 
plaintiff's  cost.  Devices  of  Max  Goeppert,  "  a  hard 
case,"  Clyde,  Delaware.  Dr.  Lewis  lectures  at  the 
Ohio  Wesleyan  University,  New  Lexington,  Green- 
field, Pomeroy,  Bucyrus,  Ripley,  Waynesville,      .     189 


Dr.  Lewis  abandons  the  general  lecture-field  to  give 
himself  entirely  to  temperance  work.  Character 
of  the  crusade  work.  Patience  and  self-control  of 
the  leaders.  Sympathy  of  press  and  people.  Ex- 
ample of  misrepresentation, 200 


Springfield.  Sketch  of  "Mother  Stewart."  Lecture 
by  Dr.  Lewis  and  Van  Pelt.  Organization.  Dr. 
Lewis's  caution.     State   temperance    convention. 



Dr.  Lewis's  terms  for  temperance  work.  His  advice 
upon  permanent  work  to  follow  crusade  methods. 
Xeuia.  Sectarian  walls  broken  down.  Saloon- 
keepers are  offered  help  by  Cincinnati  brewers. 
Brilliant  success  of  the  crusaders  in  a  street  of 
saloons.     Chronicle  of  progress,        ....     209 


Press  opinions  of  Dr.  Lewis's  methods.  Crusade  work 
opens  in  Cincinnati.  Incidents  of  street  work  told 
by  a  worker — ''Lord,  give  us  the  esplanade!" 
Ladies  urged  by  the  mayor  to  desist  from  street- 
praying.  A  mob  sets  upon  the  mayor  and  his  sec- 
retary. The  mayor  issues  a  proclamation  forbidding 
street-praying.  Arrest  of  forty-three  women,  A 
conundrum.  Trial  before  police  court.  Offenders 
dismissed  with  an  admonition.  Organized  work 
substituted  for  street  work.  Effect  of  temperance 
work,  as  shown  by  revenue  returns.  Shelbj^'ville. 
■  Liquor  venders  serve  a  notice  on  the  temperance 
alliance,  and  are  met  by  "peace,  persuasion,  and 
prayer," 230 


Scope  of  the  crusade  plan  put  to  a  severe  test  at  the 
State  Capital.  Call  for  State  conference.  Fifteen 
hundred  delegates  assemble.  Women  as  managers 
and  speakers.  Successful  efforts  to  defeat  the 
license  clause  in  the  neAv  Constitution  of  Ohio. 
Logan.  Lebanon.  Dr.  Lewis  solicitous  to  keep 
the  movement  free  from  legal  proceedings,      .      ,  .    229 


Mount  Vernon.  Advisory  committee  of  men.  Two 
weeks'  effort   substitutes   lemonade  for  whiskey. 

coxteK'TS.  is 


Pride  felt  in  surrender.  Business  places  closed 
during  the  hour  of  public  morning  prayer.  Scene 
at  the  Episcopal  church.  A  night  visit  to  saloons. 
Madisonville.  Germans  from  Cincinnati  are  treated 
to  free  beer,  then  to  a  free  prayer-meeting,      .        .     238 


Opening  scene  in  the  crusade  drama  at  Chicago.  Bra- 
matis  personcB:  saloon-keepers;  saloon  habitues; 
a  quiet  old  lady.  Presentation  of  the  petition  of 
sixteen  thousand  women  against  oi^en  saloons  on 
Sunday  calls  out  a  howling  mob.  The  Common 
Council  passes  an  ordinance  permitting  open  saloons. 
The  mayor  refuses  to  the  ladies  his  veto,  being 
"pledged  to  the  citizens."  As  "the  citizens"  in- 
clude the  mob  and  do  not  include  women,  the 
defeat  of  the  latter  is  complete.  Quiet  but  stead- 
fast work  follows.  Cleveland.  Women  take  up 
the  work  under  spiritual  compulsion.  Account  of 
difficulties  and  successes,  condensed  from  that  of 
Mrs.  Sarah  K.  Bolton, 345 


Pittsburg.  Difficult  ground.  Thirty-two  women 
arrested.  Scene  at  the  station-house.  Comparison 
of  effect  of  mob  of  1874  with  the  labor  riot  of  1877. 
Song  of  the  crusade.  Spread  of  the  work  to  the 
Pacific  Coast.  The  new  movement  considered  by 
the  English  press.  It  is  espoused  by  leaders  among 
the  women  of  the  United  Kingdom, and  the  "British 
Women's  Christian  Temperance  Union  "  is  formed,  254 


New  York  a  walled  city  of  saloons.  An  appeal  to  the 
Excise  Board  and  to  the  leading  clergvmen  meets 


only  apathy.    Scene  in  a  house  of  ill -repute.    Action 

of  Trinity  church.  Miss  Smiley  sees  that  "this" 
(the  temperance  crusade)  "  is  the  gospel,"  and  ad- 
dresses a  public  meeting  in  its  bphalf.  Testimony 
to  the  good  work  done  by  the  crusade  from  Thurlow 
Weed,  Hon.W.  E.Dodge,  Rev. Henry  Ward  Beecher, 
Rev.  T.  L.  Cuyler,  and  Dr.  Duryea,  .        .        .261 


Extracts  from  a  temperance  address  by  Dr.  Lewis. 
Candid  review  of  the  conditions  of  the  work  from 
the  New  York  Tribune,  1874.  Brooklyn.  Faith- 
ful work  of  the  women  and  some  of  the  clergy. 
Conversion  and  work  of  Capt.  Oliver  Cotter.  Phil- 
adelphia. Washington,  D.  C.  Dr.  Lewis  as  he 
appeared  to  a  Washington  press  reporter.  Mass- 
uieeting  at  the  Foundry  church,        ....     270 


Worcester.  Letter  from  Dr.  Lewis.  Public  meeting. 
Organization.  Doubt  as  to  method  of  work.  Sev- 
eral ways  tried,  including  at  length,  and  with 
much  distrust,  the  crusade  method.  Dr.  Lewis's 
opinion  of  the  local  work.  Convention,  in  which 
was  formed  the  "Women's  Christian  Temperance 
Union  "  of  Massachusetts, 278 


Boston.  Address  of  Dr.  Lewis  before  the  Young 
Men's  Christian  Association,  to  an  audience  of  di- 
verse views  on  temperance.  A  financial  report  of 
his  personal  work  and  sketches  of  the  movement  in 
Ohio.  The  subject  of  prohibition  is  forced  upon 
him,  and  great  excitement  follows.     Dr.  Lorimer 


lectures  on  "  The  Woman's  Crusade."  A  fortnight 
later  the  crusade  movement  is  denounced  in  Music 
Hall.  Dr.  Lewis  attempts  to  speak,  but  is  forbid- 
den, even  after  the  close  of  the  meeting.  Discussion 
on  prohibition  at  Hyde  Park  (near  Boston),  be- 
tween Rev.  A.  A.  Miner  and  Dr.  Lewis,  .        .        .     288 


Work  in  Maine,  in  Rhode  Island,  and  in  New  York. 
The  sweep  of  the  crusade  movement  pictured  by- 
Frances  E.  Willard.  Why  the  effort  accomplished 
less  in  New  England  than  in  Ohio,    ....     299 


Dr.  Lewis's  attitude  to  the  work  of  the  crusade.  The 
spirit  of  his  co-workers  and  of  close  observers. 
The  significance  of  the  crusade  method  and  the 
source  of  its  power.  The  women  of  the  crusade. 
Dr.  Lewis's  reverence  for  them,         ....     306 


"The  Conditions  which  Compelled  the  Crusade,"  by 
Mrs.  Annie  Wittenmyer.  ' '  What  Did  the  Crusade 
Do  ? "  by  Miss  Frances  E.  Willard.  The  child  of 
the  crusade.  "  The  Women's  Christian  Temper- 
ance Union."  Narrative  of  its  birth,  by  Mrs.  Mary 
B.  Ingham.  Point  of  departure  of  the  union 
from  the  faith  which  inspired  the  crusade  move- 
ment,        310 


Dr.  Lewis  publishes  "Prohibition  a  Failure."  His 
views  on  the  subject  essentially  restated.  Pro- 
hibitory laws  efficacious  against  crimes  only.     Dis- 

16  Contents. 


tinction  between    crimes    and  vices.      Distinction 
between  a  moral  and  a  legal  right,    ....     321 


Phrenological  sketch  of  Dr.  Lewis.  Pen  jjictures  of 
him  as  a  lectui-er, 337 


Need  of  rest.  Visit  to  California.  Charms  of  camp- 
life.  Meeting  unknown  friends.  Close  relationship 
to  domestic  animals  ;  the  Indian  pony  ;  the  dog. 
Humanitarian  work  in  Oakland.  Attack  of  par- 
alysis. Return  to  Boston.  Purchase  of  sanitarium 
at  Arlington  Heights.  A  remarkable  cure  of  the 
opium  habit, 340 


Dr.  Lewis's  ability  to  hold  many  interests  in  hand 
without  friction.  His  deliberate  speed.  Analysis 
of  his  character,  by  Mr.  Theodore  D.  Weld.  His 
daily  life  as  seen  by  one  of  his  gypsy-jjarty  in 
California, 351 


Enforced  rest.  Removal  to  New  York.  Publication  in 
1883  of  '^In  a  Nutshell,"  and  ''Dio  Lewis's  Monthly:' 
The  latter  suspended  through  the  fraudulence 
of  an  employe.  Dr.  Lewis  retires  to  Smithtown, 
Long  Island,  for  rest.  He  soon  resumes  lecturing 
and  the  work  of  publication.  The  doctrine  of 
personal  freedom  illustrated  in  family  relations. 
Death  of  Madame  Lewis,  the  doctor's  mother. 
Love  and  reverence  for  her  the  mainspring  of  his 
profound  esteem  for  women.      His  claim  for  equal 



Hghts  and  oppoi*tunit.ies  for    all.      Tribute  from 
Frances  E.  Willard, 363 


Dr.  Lewises  literary  methods.  Extracts  from  his  Writ- 
ings,                ♦        .     371 

Extracts  fromi  writings,  continued,  ....     883 


Preparation  of  "  The  Dio  Lewis's  Treasury."  Home 
removed  to  Yonkers-on-the-Hudson.  Interest  in 
local  philanthropy.  Sickness  and  death  of  Dr. 
Lewis.     Cremation  of  his  body,  ....     393 



DIO   LEWIS,   A.M,   M.D 


The  ancestors  of  Dio  Lewis  were  of  Welsh 
stock.  At  the  time  of  the  marriage  of  his  father 
and  mother,  in  1820,  their  parents  owned  farms 
adjoining  each  other  in  Cayuga  County,  N.  Y., 
two  or  three  miles  from  Auburn,  then  a  village. 

The  father  of  Mrs.  Lewis,  Friend  Barbour,  was 
one  of  the  largest  of  men,  weighing  three  hundred 
pounds.  He  was  well-proportioned,  of  erect  car- 
riage, and  of  great  strength  of  body  and  mind. 
His  voice  was  so  loud  and  clear  that  he  never  used 
a  horn  to  call  his  men,  as  was  the  custom,  for  his 
shout  could  be  heard  anywhere  on  his  farm  of 
seventy-five  acres.  Indeed,  Dr.  Peter  Clark  used 
to  say  that  at  a  house-raising,  when  the  frame 
was  lifted  with  the  cry  of  "  he-ho  heave !  "  he  had 
heard  Mr.  Barbour's  voice  a  mile  away. 

He  was  a  master  builder,  and  pushed  work  with 


such  vigor  that  when,  at  one  time,  he  wished  to 
substitute  a  frame  house  for  the  log-house  in 
which  he  lived,  he  moved  his  family  into  the 
church  across  the  street  on  Monday  morning,  took 
3,way  the  log-house,  built  a  new  frame  house 
with  three  rooms  on  the  ground-floor,  and  moved 
his  family  into  it  on  the  next  Saturday  afternoon. 

His  oldest  daughter,  D electa,  married,  at  the 
age  of  twenty,  their  neighbor's  son.  Major  John  C. 
Lewis,  who  had,  at  that  time,  assumed  the  man- 
agement of  his  father's  farm.  He  was  a  member 
of  the  Baptist  Church,  gifted  in  speaking,  polished 
and  courteous  in  manner,  a  general  favorite,  and 
of  exceptional  promise. 

Mrs.  Lewis  inherited  from  her  father  both  men- 
tal and  physical  strength,  and  from  her  mother, 
in  exceptional  degree,  a  devotion  to  duty  which 
characterized  her  through  her  long  life  of  almost 
eighty-six  years. 

In  time  ^ve  children  gathered  about  the  hearth- 
stone, three  sons  and  two  daughters,  a  brief  sketch 
of  whom  we  here  make. 

The  oldest,  Asenath  Ann,  became  at  the  age 
of  fifteen,  the  wife  of  a  farmer,  Mr.  E.  R.  Handy, 
who  died  in  Iowa,  where  Mrs.  Handy  still  resides. 

The  second  child  and  oldest  son,  Dioclesian,  or, 
as  he  wrote  the  name  in  later  life,  Dio,  is  the  sub- 
ject of  this  sketch,  and  was  born  on  March  3d, 


Two  years  later  was  born  Loran  L.  Lewis,  whose 
history  in  brief  we  copy  from  "  Life  Sketches  of 
Executive  Officers  and  Members  of  the  Legisla- 
ture of  New  York ''  of  1870: 

"  Mr.  Lewis  was  educated  at  Auburn  Academy. 
When  about  eighteen  years  old  he  warmly  en- 
listed in  the  Washingtonian  movement,  and  was 
soon  recognized  as  one  of  the  most  elective  speak- 
ers on  the  subject  of  temperance.  He  then  studied 
law,  finishing  his  legal  course  in  the  ofl[ice  of  Gov. 
WiUiam  H.  Seward.  After  his  admission  to  the 
bar,  in  1848,  he  removed  to  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  and 
devoted  himself  with  singular  zeal,  to  the  practice 
of  his  profession.  Achieving  but  moderate  suc- 
cess for  a  few  years,  he  toiled  on,  occupying  an 
obscure  office,  accepting  no  adventitious  aids,  un- 
wavering in  the  faith  that  integrity  and  fidelity 
would  eventually  command  success.  The  result 
has  fully  justified  his  confidence.  For  several 
years  past  he  has  had  a  large  and  lucrative  prac- 

'^  He  steadily  declined  nomination  to  ofiSce,  until 
in  1870,  he  accepted  that  for  State  Senator,  which 
was  given  him  by  acclamation,  without  any  solici- 
tation on  his  part.  He  held  the  office  of  Senator 
for  two  terms. 

"  In  1882  he  received,  unsolicited,  the  nomination 
for  Justice  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  the  State  of 
I^ew  York,  a  post  which  he  still  fills  with  fidelity 


and  honor.  In  all  situations  he  has  been  an  earnest, 
I)ractical,  working  American  citizen." 

The  third  son  was  George  Washington  Lewis. 
He  received  the  degree  of  M.D.  from  the  Medical 
Department  of  the  New  York  University,  from 
which  he  was  graduated  in  1850.  He  established 
himself  in  1850  in  Buffalo,  'N.  Y.,  as  a  homoeo- 
pathic physician,  where  he  still  remains,  enjoying 
a  successful  practice,  in  connection  with  his  son 
of  the  same  name. 

The  youngest  of  the  family,  Flora  Lewis,  mar- 
ried Dr.  T.  P.  Tisdale,  of  Canada.  They  passed 
some  years  in  the  Sandwich  Islands,  where  Dr. 
Tisdale  was  physician  to  the  king.  Later  they  re- 
turned to  the  United  States,  where  the  doctor  re- 
sumed the  x:)ractice  of  his  profession,  in  partnership 
with  his  son,  in  Alameda,  California. 

Though  the  careers  of  the  children  of  Mr.  and 
Mrs.  Lewis  were  thus  fortunate,  they  ascribe  to 
reverses  which  came  to  the  family  in  their  youth, 
the  habits  of  industry  and  self-denial  which, 
with  the  religious  training  of  their  mother,  they 
esteem  their  best  inheritance. 

As  in  all  households  of  those  days,  the  needs  of 
the  grooving  family  taxed  to  the  utmost  the 
mother's  wisdom  and  skill  and  readiness  of  re- 
source. Brought  up  in  the  time  when  spinning 
and  weaving,  as  well  as  household  work,  devolved 
upon  the  women  of  the  family,  Mrs.  Lewis  had 

THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF    DIO    LEWIS.  23 

developed  strength,  energ}^,  and  skill,  which  stood 
her  in  good  stead  when,  as  hapj^ened,  pjecuniary 
embarrassment  came  to  the  family. 

In  her  early  days  it  was  customary  for  the  shoe- 
maker and  the  tailor  to  go  from  house  to  house  to 
make  shoes  and  clothing  for  the  family.  In  her 
father's  house  when  the  tailor  came  she  helped  to 
sew  for  her  brothers,  for  she  was  the  only  daughter 
by  the  first  wife,  and  there  were  seven  brothers. 
She  had  thus  learned  enough  of  the  trade  to  cut 
and  fit  for  her  own  family,  and  when  it  became 
necessary  that  she  should  supply  material  also, 
she  hired  assistants  and  did  tailoring  for  others. 

At  about  the  age  of  fourteen  she  joined  the 
Baptist  Church.  Twenty  years  later,  when  the 
doctrines  of  "The  Disciples"  were  preached  in 
central  'New  York,  the  simple  story  of  the  cross 
and  her  reverence  for  the  pure  Word  of  God  led 
her  to  yield  to  the  arguments  offered  in  favor  of 
"  the  Bible  only  "  as  against  all  human  creeds  and 
professions,  and  she  united  mth  the  "  Church  of 
the  Disciples,"  maintaining  her  faith  to  the  close 
of  her  life. 

In  a  Philadelphia  publication  called  To-day, 
which  Dio  Lewis  edited  in  1871-72,  he  bears  tender 
witness  to  the  depth  and  earnestness  of  his 
mother's  religious  trust.  Speaking  of  her  habit- 
ual way  of  meeting  trouble,  he  said:  "When  she 
could  bear  it  no  longer  she  would  go  away  by 

24:  THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF    DIO    LEWIS. 

herself,  up-stairs.  We  knew  what  she  went  there 
for,  and  sometimes  we  could  hear  her  say :  '  O 
God!  help  me!  help  me! '  Then  she  would  keep 
very  still  for  a  while.  When  she  came  down  to 
us  again  her  cheeks  were  wet,  but  her  face  shone 
like  an  angel's. 

"  She  taught  us  to  pray.  We  grew  up  with  a 
very  large  estimate  of  the  power  of  prayer.  The 
day  was  never  so  dark  at  our  house  that  mother 
could  not  go  up-stairs  and  open  the  clouds.  To- 
day, more  than  forty  years  after  these  times,  I 
believe  in  my  heart  that  woman's  prayer  is  the 
most  powerful  agency  on  earth." 

Exacting  though  the  home  claims  were  upon 
the  hands,  heart,  and  mind  of  Mrs.  Lewis,  her  in- 
terests did  not  stop  with  her  family.  Then  and 
to  her  latest  days  her  sympathies,  and,  as  she  felt, 
her  duties  were  as  wide  as  humanity. 

The  interests  of  the  church  were  at  all  times 
sure  of  her  support,  and  when,  in  later  years, 
all  of  her  own  sons  had  successfully  passed  the 
perils  which  beset  the  path  of  youth,  and  already, 
in  their  young  manhood,  faced  the  future  with  the 
clear  outlook  of  self -controlled  natures,  cultivated 
minds,  and  high  purposes,  the  sorroAv  of  others 
weighed  upon  her  heart  and  stirred  her  to  action. 

A  mile  from  Auburn  was  a  village  then  called 
Clarksville,  where  there  was  a  great  water-power. 
There  were  cotton  mills  where  the  young  people 


went  to  work  as  soon  as  old  enough.  There,  too, 
were  places  where  liquor  was  sold.  So  fear  as 
well  as  hope,  danger  as  well  as  advantage  lay 
that  way. 

It  is  difficult  for  people  of  our  day  to  realize 
how  common  was  the  use  of  liquor  throughout 
the  country  a  half -century  and  more  ago. 

Prior  to  the  Washingtonian  movement,  which 
began  in  1840,  the  use  of  stimulants  was  as  gen- 
eral and  almost  as  unquestioned  as  was  that  of 
tea.  On  every  sideboard,  at  every  dinner-table, 
at  the  evening  fireside  gathering,  in  the  hay  field, 
at  the  dedication  of  the  meeting-house,  and  at  the 
installation  of  the  minister,  liquor  ran  almost  as 
freely  as  water. 

Dr.  Lewis  in  1875,  wrote:  "A  few  years  ago 
everybody  thought  liquor  a  good  thing,  and  almost 
everybody  drank  it.  My  grandfather  Barbour 
was  a  deacon  in  the  church  and  a  distiller.  He 
was  a  very  prayerful  man,  but  I  suppose  that 
for  each  prayer  uttered  by  him  in  the  ear  of 
heaven,  he  sent  out,  for  the  stomachs  of  his 
fellow-men,  five  hundred  gallons  of  peach  brandy 
and  whiskey.  He  was  a  very  conscientious  man, 
whose  word  was  his  bond,  and  yet  he  was  an 
active  distiller  for  forty  years." 

Against  the  sale  and  use  of  liquor  there  was, 
indeed,  at  this  time,  no  public  sentiment.  In 
view  of  this  and  of  the  danger  at  hand,  Mrs.  Lewis 

26  THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF    DIO    LEWIS. 

and  some  of  the  neighbors  held  many  and  anxious 
consultations  as  to  what  could  be  done  to  ward 
off  the  perils  which  threatened  every  household. 
It  became  clear  to  them  that  there  was  nothing  to 
hope  save  in  the  united  action  of  women.  These 
neighbors  were,  almost  withou.t  exception,  sisters 
in  the  church.  They  made  their  grief  and  their 
duty  a  subject  of  meditation  and  of  prayer. 

By  these  earnest  workers,  as  in  fact  by  all  who 
knew  her,  Mrs.  Lewis  was  looked  upon  as  a  mother 
in  Israel.  They  had  been  long  in  the  habit  of 
turning  to  her  for  counsel  in  domestic,  in  social, 
and  in  religious  work.  To  her  they  naturally 
looked  as  a  leader  in  their  extremity.  But 
trust  in  God  and  love  to  man  were  to  her  both 
shield  and  weapon.  It  Avas  determined  to  visit 
the  men  who  sold  liquor,  to  set  before  them  the 
evils  to  which  this  traffic  was  leading,  and  to  en- 
treat them  to  abandon  it.  Deeply  impressed,  too, 
with  the  power  of  prayer,  these  women  resolved 
to  seek  its  aid  in  the  work  of  conversion. 

A  few  ladies,  acting  for  many,  began  their  work 
by  visiting  one  of  the  most  objectionable  places 
in  Clarksville.  The  dealer  received  them  courte- 
ously and  listened  to  their  plea,  permitting  them 
also  to  sing  and  pray.  He  said  he  would  like  to 
gratify  them  by  yielding  to  their  request,  as  they 
were  his  neighbors,  but  he  j)leaded  that  his  fam- 
ily, in  which  there  was  sickness,  depended  on  this 


business  for  support.  The  ladies  promised  lielp  in 
every  way  possible  till  lie  should  get  other  work. 
They  would  care  for  the  sick  and  sew  for  the  fam- 
ily. They  had  the  satisfaction  of  being  taken  at 
their  word  and  of  fulfilling  the  j)ledges  made. 

A  visit  was  made  to  another  dealer,  but  the  day 
ended  before  the  work  was  finished.  As  soon  as 
their  houses  were  in  order  the  next  morning  they 
returned  to  their  work  of  prayer  and  song  and 
entreaty,  and  just  as  the  dinner  hour  gave  the 
proprietor  a  hope  for  a  change  of  company,  the 
rattling  of  paper  and  the  opening  of  lunch  baskets 
warned  him  that  they  had  come  to  stay  as  long 
as  it  should  x^rove  necessary. 

When  but  one  place  remained  where  liquor  was 
sold,  public  opinion  had  come  to  the  support  of 
the  workers  and  the  last  one  yielded.  The  ladies, 
however,  remembered  the  injunction  to  w^atch  as 
well  as  to  pray,  and  having  prayed  they  continued 
on  guard  lest  the  sale  should  be  renewed,  and  for 
years,  at  least,  the  place  was  absolutely  free  from 
the  curse  of  dram-selling. 

An  incident  told  by  Mrs.  Dio  Lewis  illustrates  the 
influence  which  the  women  long  held  in  that  com- 
munity. More  than  twenty  years  later.  Dr.  Lewis 
and  his  wife,  when  visiting  their  mother  Lewis  at 
Auburn,  were  notified  one  afternoon  that  a  tem- 
perance meeting  would  be  held  in  the  evening  in 
the  school-house.    The  special  motive  for  the  call 

28  THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF    DIO    LEWIS. 

did  not  appear.  When  all  were  assembled,  and 
were  seated  on  the  long  wooden  benches  usually 
occupied  by  the  school  children,  each  turned  to 
the  other  to  ask  why  they  had  been  called  to- 
gether. Soon  some  one  arose  and  stated  that  one 
of  the  storekeepers  in  the  village  was  selling 
liquor.  Dr.  Lewis,  who  knew  the  man  well,  sj)rang 
to  his  feet  and  said :  ''I  do  not  believe  that  Mr. 
Blank  would  do  such  a  thing.  I  will  go  and  ask 
him."  "  Of  course  he  Avill  not  tell  you  if  he  does," 
several  cried.  "  I  believe  he  will,"  said  Dr.  Lewis, 
and  hurried  away.  He  soon  returned  bringing 
the  man  with  him.  On  hearing  the  charge  the 
latter  distinctly  denied  that  he  had  sold  any  liquor. 

Old  Mrs.  Smith,  who  as  wife  and  mother  knew 
the  sufferings  which  come  from  strong  drink,  was 
upon  her  feet  on  the  instant.  Standing  tall  and 
determined  she  looked  the  man  steadily  in  the 
eye  and  said:  ''What  did  I  see  you  turn  out 
that  was  red,  from  a  bottle,  for  Mr.  A.  ? "  "  That? " 
said  the  challenged  man.  "  That  was  nothing  but 
pop."  "  Then,"  said  the  excited  woman,  lifting  her 
long,  bony  finger,  and  shaking  it  at  him  emphati- 
cally, "  then  you  have  no  business  to  sell  pop." 

And  while  the  dealer  declared  that  there  was 
nothing  intoxicating  about  pop,  he  promised  not 
to  sell  it  again  if  the  women  were  opposed. 

Such  had  come  to  be  the  unwillingness  of  the 
men  in  that  town  to  offend,  however  innocently, 
the  temperance  sentiment  of  the  women, 



The  following  outline  of  the  early  life  of  Dio 
Lewis  has  been  furnished,  so  far  as  indicated  by 
quotation  marks,  by  his  brother  next  in  age, 
Judge  Loran  L.  Lewis,  of  Buif  alo,  N.  Y. : 

"At  the  age  of  twelve  Dio  was  as  large  and  ma- 
ture as  ordinary  boys  of  fifteen.  His  mind  was 
remarkably  active;  so  were  his  movements.  He 
could  do  anything  he  desired  to  do  with  more 
rapidity  than  any  person  I  ever  knew.  When  ac- 
customed to  committing  to  memory  he  could  read 
a  page  in  a  book  once,  close  the  book,  and  repeat 
it  all.  He  had  an  investigating,  inquisitive  mind. 
He  liked  miscellaneous  reading,  but  did  not  relish 
digging  into  study.  He  learned  a  great  many 
facts,  but  did  not  read  many  books  thoroughly. 
He  was  enthusiastic  in  everything  in  which  he 

"  He  developed  as  a  child  a  talent  for  declaiming, 
even  before  he  could  read  much,  and  as  a  youth 
he  engaged  in  debates  and  talked  on  temperance. 

"  Dio  was  of  a  peaceable  disposition,  and  rarely, 
if  ever,  engaged  in  quarrels  with  other  boys.  He 
was  cheerful  and  full  of  fun. 


"  He  was  from  a  boy  an  earnest  opponent  of  slav- 
ery. I  remember  being  awakened  one  night  by 
his  crying.  I  asked  what  troubled  him.  He  said 
he  had  been  thinking  of  the  poor  slaves.  In  the 
school  to  which  he  went,  when  a  little  fellow,  there 
was  a  colored  boy  whom  the  rest  of  the  children 
persecuted.  Dio  became  his  protector,  accompany- 
ing him  home  from  school  and  often  going  for 
him  lest  any  '  should  molest  or  make  him  afraid.' 

"  Early  in  life  he  united  with  the  people  known 
as  Disciples.  He  was  a  zealous,  active  Christian, 
taking  part  in  religious  meetings,  and  at  one  time 
he  was  disposed  to  study  for  the  ministry.  He 
urged  me  to  join  him,  but  I  declined,  having  other 
plans  for  life-work. 

"  At  the  age  of  twelve  Dio  left  school  and  went 
into  a  cotton  factory  in  Clarksville,  near  Auburn, 
where  he  remained  perhaps  six  months,  working 
some  sixteen  hours  a  day  and  receiving  from  $1.25 
to  $2.50  a  week  in  orders  on  stores  in  Auburn. 
After  this  he  worked  in  Wadsworth's  hoe,  axe, 
and  scythe  factory  for  about  two  years,  attending 
school  at  intervals.  He  did  polishing  on  emery 
wheels  and  was  paid  by  the  piece  at  customary 
rates,  which  enabled  the  operatives  to  earn  $1.00 
to  $1.25  per  day.  So  deft  and  so  rapid  was  his 
movement  of  hand  and  fingers  in  polishing  the 
sharpened  instruments,  that  people  came  to  watch 
it  as  a  curiosity.     Dio  was  soon  able  to  perform  an 


amount  of  work  wliicli,  at  the  prices  paid,  netted 
him  $2.50  to  $3.00  a  day,  and  he  did  his  work 
well.  His  emploj^er  becoming  dissatisfied  at  the 
amount  of  his  earnings,  tried  to  find  fault  with 
the  quality  of  his  work,  but  Dio  shamed  him  from 
that  jjosition.  The  prices  were  thereupon  reduced, 
and  even  then  the  boy  was  obliged  to  work  short 
hours  and  to  idle  somewhat,  so  as  not  to  earn  too 

"  When  he  was  about  fourteen  years  old  a  dam 
was  constructed  and  a  large  number  of  men  were 
employed  to  wheel  earth.  Dio  went  into  line  with 
the  men.  When  pay-day  came  the  employer 
gave  the  men  $1.25  a  day,  but  offered  Dio  only 
seventy-five  cents.  '  Why  don't  you  pay  me  the 
same  as  the  others  ? '  Dio  asked.  '  You  are  a 
boy,'  was  the  reply.  '  But  don't  I  wheel  as  large 
loads  and  just  as  many  as  the  rest  ? '  '  Yes.' 
'  Then  why  not  pay  me  the  same  ? '  The  answer 
was  repeated.  'You  are  a  boy.'  'If  I  do  as 
much  work  I  must  have  the  same  pay  or  I  will 
quit  work,'  replied  Dio.  He  was  told  to  keep  at 
work  and  he  should  have  full  wages. 

"  At  about  the  age  of  fifteen  he  began  teaching 
school  in  our  district.  He  surprised  the  patrons 
with  novel  ways  of  teaching  and  managing  the 
school.  Heretofore  the  masters  had  moved  around 
the  room  with  ferule  in  hand,  always  ready  to 
deal  a  blow  as  occasion  might  offer.     The  young 

S2  tME  feioaHAl'ttY   OF  i)10   LEWIS. 

teaclier  discarded  the  whip  and  went  to  singing'^ 
and,  for  a  change,  he  would  march  with  the  children 
into  a  piece  of  woods  near  the  school-house,  and 
sometimes,  after  the  children  got  tirod,  he  would 
allow  them  to  play  hide-and-seek." 

The  kindliness  and  originality  of  his  method 
were  noteworthy  and  characteristic,  and  not  less 
so  was  the  courage  of  his  opinion  in  this  youth  of 
fifteen.  No  story  of  the  exceptional  educator 
who  had  made  study  a  joy  as  well  as  an  advantage 
to  the  young,  could  have  come  to  the  boy  whose 
days  had  been  spent  in  the  workshop,  and  his 
personal  experience  of  school  management  he  has 
himself  narrated,  as  follows: 

"When  I  was  a  boy  the  pupil  that  escaped 
w^hipping  for  a  whole  term  was  a  curiosity.  In  a 
school  where  I  S2)ent  a  year  the  whip  was  in 
almost  constant  use.  I  saw  a  class  of  forty-six 
boys  and  girls  stand  up  in  a  row  to  be  whipped, 
and  as,  in  turn,  they  got  their  beating,  they  took 
their  seats.  The  plan  of  punishment  differed  a 
little  with  the  two  sexes.  The  teacher  stood  with 
his  legs  apart,  and  each  boy  got  down  on  his 
hands  and  feet,  and  crawled  between  the  teacher's 
legs.  The  idea  was  for  the  teacher  to  bring  his 
legs  together  suddenly  and  catch  the  urchin ;  then 
holding  him  fast,  he  would,  with  a  big  ruler,  give 
him  about  ten  ringing  blows.  If  a  boy  thus  down 
on  all  fours  succeeded  in  plunging  through  three 

THE   BIoaRAPHY   OF   1)10   LEWIS.  83 

times  without  being  cauglit  by  tlie  teacher's  knees, 
he  went  free ;  but  this  very  rarely  occurred.  The 
girls  were  not  put  through  this  game  of  all  fours, 
but  each  girl  stood  ui3  and  took  the  whip  over 
her  shoulders.  In  that  school,  which  was  in  the 
fine  town  of  Auburn,  IN".  Y.,  and  was  kept  by  Dr. 
Tucker,  a  famous  teacher,  I  saw  a  girl  eighteen 
years  old  whipped,  in  the  x)resence  of  the  school, 
till  she  fainted.  Dr.  Tucker  w^as  paid  a  large 
salary  because  of  his  ability  to  govern.  Such 
brutalities  excited  no  comment  that  I  can  recall; 
certainly  there  was  no  protest,  for  Dr.  Tucker  re- 
mained to  the  last  the  most  poi3ular  teacher  in 
town.  I  never  heard  any  one  claim  for  him  any 
excellence  except  his  remarkable  talent  for  gov- 
erning. He  did  not  lay  down  the  whip  from 
morning  till  night,  and  it  was  rare  that  an  hour 
passed  without  its  being  used." 

The  report  of  young  Lewis's  unheard-of  ways  of 
keeping  school  soon  spread  through  the  town. 
Coming  to  his  father's  ears,  Mr.  Lewis,  Sr.,  thought 
it  well  to  investigate  by  listening  under  a  school- 
room window  one  day.  Yes,  there  was  singing — 
he  heard  it  plainly.  Then  there  was  perfect  quiet 
in  the  school  and  the  teacher  was  saying  some- 
thing in  pleasant  tones,  he  could  not  tell  what ; 
but  suddenly  there  was  a  rush,  and  out  of  the  door 
came  teacher  and  children,  and  were  off  to  the 
woods  in  high  spirits.  Astonished  and  mortified, 


Mr.  Lewis  Aveiit  home  and  said  to  liis  wife,  "  Wliat 
that  boy  of  ours  is  up  to  I  don't  know.  It's  queer 
school-keeping,  and  tlie  people  never  will  stand  it. 
He'll  lose  his  place,  that's  certain." 

In  fact,  the  people,  accustomed  to  other  methods, 
did  not  like  it  at  first,  but  they  soon  found  that 
their  children  were  learning  better  than  ever,  and 
that  the  influence  of  the  teacher  was  as  great  out 
of  the  school  as  in.  Indeed,  the  enthusiastic  love 
of  the  children  for  the  young  teacher,  who  Avas  also 
their  sympathizing  companion,  made  his  Avishes 
their  law  at  all  times. 

Judge  Lewis  says :  "  Dio  continued  teaching 
near  home  for  a  year  or  two,  and  when  eighteen 
years  old  he  went  to  what  Avas  then  Lower  San- 
dusky, now  Fremont,  Ohio,  and  organized  a  select 
school.  Here  he  began  the  study  of  Latin  and 
Greek,  and  the  classes  which  he  soon  formed  in 
them,  as  well  as  in  algebra  and  geometry,  kept 
him  hard  at  work  with  his  own  studies  in  order 
to  keej)  well  ahead  of  his  pux)ils.  The  school  was 
patronized  by  most  of  the  leading  citizens,  and 
gave  so  great  satisfaction  that  in  a  few  months 
some  of  them  volunteered  to  erect  a  handsome 
school  building.  They  obtained  an  act  of  incor- 
poration, naming  it,  in  compliment  to  Mr.  Lewis, 
'  The  Dioclesian  Institute,'  and  the  new  quarters 
were  occuioied  just  before  the  close  of  the  school 

I'HE    BIOGRAPHY    OF   DlO    LEWIS.  85 

"  Of  this  institute  ex-President  Kutherford  B. 
Hayes  wrote  to  Mrs.  Lewis  on  December  7tli,  1886 : 

''  The  institute  established  by  your  late  husband, 
Dr.  Dio  Lewis,  is  well  remembered  here.  I  often 
heard  Mr.  Lewis  Leppelman,  now  deceased,  speak 
of  Mr.  Lewis.  He  was  much  esteemed  as  an  in- 
structor and  as  a  man  of  ability. 

"  I  did  not  attend  school  here  and  was  not  in 
Lower  Sandusky,  except  as  a  visitor,  during  the 
year  1841. 

"The  institute  was  superseded  by  the  high 
school,  established  under  the  public-school  system 
of  the  State." 

Before  the  close  of  the  school  year  Mr.  Lewis 
was  attacked  by  ague  of  a  grave  tyx)e,  which  con- 
tinued after  he  returned  to  iS'ew  York,  confining 
him  to  his  bed  for  several  weeks.  The  malady 
]3roved  so  persistent  that  by  the  advice  of  parents 
and  physician  he  reluctantly  abandoned  his  pur- 
pose of  returning  to  Sandusky. 

He  shortly  decided  to  enter  upon  the  study  of 
medicine,  which  he  did  in  the  office  of  Dr.  Lan- 
sing Briggs,  who  was  then  physician  at  the  Au- 
burn State  Prison. 

"As  an  illustration  of  the  enthusiasm  with 
which  he  entered  upon  his  studies,  I  remember," 
says  Judge  Lewis,  "  that  a  few  weeks  after  he  en- 
tered the  office  of  Dr.  Briggs  he  found  a  clumsy 
turnkey  for  pulling  teeth.     He  brought  in  from 

'S6  THE   EIOGliAPHY    OF    i»IO   LEWIS. 

tlie  field  an  armful  of  tlie  liead-bones  of  animals 
and  practised  extracting  the  teeth,  and  was  soon 
ready  to  operate  upon  any  of  the  villagers  who 
would  consent. 

"  He  had  much  trouble  during  his  studies  from 
his  imagination,  which  was  so  strong  that  he 
thought  he  was  afflicted  with  about  all  the  diseases 
of  which  he  read.  He  had  a  small  wen  on  his  neck, 
and  when  he  read  on  the  subject  of  cancers  he 
thought  he  had  all  the  symptoms,  and  I  went  with 
him  to  an  eminent  surgeon  for  an  examination. 
Being  asured  that  there  was  no  danger  of  cancer 
whatever,  the  twitching  ceased." 

He  remained  with  Dr.  Briggs  for  three  years, 
excepting  that  he  taught  school  for  one  winter 
session,  accompanying  him  on  his  rounds  at  the 
prison  and  at  length,  often  acting  as  his  deputy. 
He  thus  gained  varied  and  valuable  experience. 

In  1845  he  entered  the  Medical  Department  of 
Harvard  College.  Although  he  eked  out  his 
means  by  helping  to  edit  a  religious  paper  called 
The  Gen  his  of  CTLristianity  ^  which  was  published 
in  Boston,  he  was  not  able  to  remain  through  the 
entire  course.  He  returned  to  New  York  and  im- 
mediately began  the  i)ractice  of  medicine  at  Port 
Byron,  in  partnership  with  Dr.  Lewis  McCarty,  the 
family  physician  of  his  parents. 

This  gentleman  was  a  believer  in  the  new  school 
of  medicine,  homoeopathy,  and  through  his  in- 

THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF    DIO    LEWIS.  87 

fluence  and  instruction  Dr.  Lewis,  as  lie  was  then 
called,  became  a  convert  to  the  system.  At  this 
time,  it  is  believed,  there  was  no  practitioner  of 
homoeopathy  west  of  Buffalo,  N.  Y. 

In  1849  the  Homoeopathic  Hospital  College  was 
organized  at  Cleveland,  Ohio.  In  1851  the  college 
conferred  upon  Dr.  Lewis  the  honorary  degree  of 



I^  1848  Dr.  Lewis  removed  to  Buffalo,  N.  Y. 
While  at  Port  Byron  lie  had  become  engaged  to 
the  daughter  of  Dr.  Peter  Clarke,  formerly  of  the 
Broadway  Hospital,  New  York,  whose  country 
residence  was  in  the  vicinity.  Having  become 
well  established  in  his  profession  in  Buffalo,  his 
marriage  with  Miss  Helen  Cecelia  Clarke  took 
place  on  July  11th,  1849. 

This  occurred  in  the  midst  of  the  cholera  sea- 
son, when  so  great  was  the  claim  on  a  physician's 
services  that  on  leaving  for  his  wedding  several 
of  his  patrons  followed  him  to  the  railroad  station 
for  advice  in  case  of  emergency.  Leaving  by  a 
night  train  for  what  was  then  a  long  journey  to 
the  centre  of  the  State,  he  was  married  the  next 
morning,  and  returned  with  his  bride  at  9  o'clock 
on  the  same  evening.  On  reaching  Buffalo,  leav- 
ing his  wife  to  the  escort  of  her  brother-in-law, 
with  whom  they  were  to  make  their  home,  Dr. 
Lewis  went  directly  from  the  station  to  his  pa- 

During  the  ravages  of  the  cholera  he  gave  him- 
self with  such  devotion  tp  his  practice  that  lie 


was  repeatedly  prostrated  by  attacks  of  tlie  dis- 
ease. His  x^liysicians  warned  him  that  if  he  did 
not  withstand  the  claims  upon  him  he  would  be- 
come so  debilitated  that  he  could  not  rally,  but 
he  did  not  remit  his  labors.  During  the  cholera 
seasons  of  1849  and  1851  Dr.  Lewis  wrote  a  num- 
ber of  x)3.pers  on  the  causes  and  treatment  of 

While  living  in  Buffalo,  he  published  Tfte 
Honiceo'pathist^  a  monthly  magazine,  in  which,  in 
addition  to  the  truths  of  the  school  which  he 
represented,  he  laid  stress  on  the  prevention  of 
disease  as  above  every  other,  the  work  of  the  physi- 
cian.    In  a  published  lecture  Dr.  Lewis  says: 

''  There  are  two  classes  of  physicians,  the  good 
and  the  clever.  They  are  very  different  characters, 
though  mistaken  by  many  persons  for  each  other. 
A  good  doctor  strives  to  prevent  sickness ;  a  clever 
doctor  only  to  cure  it.  While  the  peoj)le  are  in 
health  the  good  doctor  is  ever  giving  such  advice 
as  would,  if  followed,  prevent  disease  and  suffering. 
The  clever  doctor  says  nothing  until  disease  comes, 
although  then  he  may  be  very  attentive  and  affec- 
tionate. The  good  doctor  is  laying  the  founda- 
tion for  public  well-being.  The  clever  doctor  is 
only  mitigating  evils  which  need  not  have  existed, 
or  which,  existing,  need  not  have  been  developed. 
The  true  physician  Avill  spend  nine-tenths  of  his 
time  in  preventing  disease  and  not  more  than  one- 


tenth  in  curing  it."  These  views  he  never  ceased 
to  emphasize,  although  it  cost  him  throughout  his 
life,  to  his  sorrow,  the  co-operation  and  sympathy 
of  the  practitioners  of  the  medical  schools. 

Dr.  Lewis  found  his  personal  experience  in  in- 
troducing hygienic  methods  adndrably  told  in 

The  Doctor's  Story. 

By  "VViLL  M.  Carlton. 

Deacon  Rogers,  he  came  to  me  : 
"Wife  is  a-goin'  to  die,"  said  he. 

"Doctors  great  an'  doctors  small 
Haven't  improved  her  any  at  all. 

"Physic  and  blister,  powders  and  pills, 
And  nothing  sure  but  the  doctors'  bills  ! 

"Twenty  women,  with  remedies  new, 
Bother  my  wife  the  whole  day  through, 

"  Sweet  as  honey  or  bitter  as  gall — 
Poor  old  woman,  she  takes  'em  all. 

"  Sour  or  sweet,  whatever  they  choose — 
Poor  old  woman,  she  daren't  refuse. 

"  So  she  pleases  whoe'er  may  call, 
An'  Death  is  suited  the  best  of  all. 

"  Physic  and  blister,  powder  an'  pill — 
Bound  to  conquer  and  sure  to  kill ! " 

Mrs.  Rogers  lay  in  her  bed. 

Bandaged  and  blistered  from  foot  to  head  ; 

Blistered  and  bandaged  from  head  to  toe  | 
Mrs,  Rogers  ^as  very  low, 


Bottle  and  saucer,  spoon  and  cup, 
On  the  table  stood  bravel}^  up. 

Physics  of  high  and  low  degree  : 
Calomel,  catnip,  boneset  tea — 

Everything  a  body  could  bear, 
Excepting  light  and  water  and  air. 

I  opened  the  blinds, — the  day  was  bright,— 
And  Grod  gave  Mrs.  Rogers  some  hght. 

I  opened  the  window, — the  day  was  fair, — 
And  God  gave  Mrs.  Rogers  some  air. 

Bottles  and  J^listers,  powders  and  pillp, 
Catnip,  boneset,  syrups  and  squills. 

Drugs  and  medicines,  high  and  low, 
I  threw  them  as  far  as  I  could  throw. 

"  What  are  you  doing  !  "  my  patient  cried  ; 
"Frightening  Death,"  I  coolly  replied. 

"  You  are  crazy  !  "  a  visitor  said  ; 
I  flung  a  bottle  at  his  head. 

Deacon  Rogers,  he  came  to  me  ; 
"Wife  is  a-gettin'  her  health,"  said  he. 

"  I  really  think  she  will  worry  through  ; 
She  scolds  me  just  as  she  used  to  do. 

"All  the  people  have  poohed  an'  slurred, — 
All  the  neighbors  have  bad  their  word. 

"  'Twere  better  to  perish,  some  of  'em  say, 
Than  to  be  cured  in  such  an  irregular  way." 

"  Your  wife,"  said  I,  "had  God's  good  care, 
Aiid  Hi^  remedies,  light  and  water  and  air. 


"  All  of  the  doctors,  beyond  a  doubt, 
Couldn't  have  cured  Mrs.  Rogers  without." 

The  deacon  smiled  and  bowed  his  head  : 
"  Then  your  bill  is  nothing,"  he  said. 

"God's  be  the  glory,  as  you  say  ! 
God  bless  you,  doctor  !  good-day  !  good-day  ! " 

In  the  sirring  of  1851  the  strength  of  Mrs.  Lewis 
had  been  severely  taxed  by  devotion  to  a  sister 
who  died  of  consiimi^tion,  one  of  three  daiigliters 
of  Dr.  Clarice  who  fell  victims  to  that  disease.  In 
the  fall  of  that  year  Mrs.  Lewis's  health  also  gave 
way,  and  the  daily  hectic  Hush  and  the  hacking 
cough,  under  which  her  weight  w^as  reduced  from 
one  hundred  and  sixteen  x)ounds  to  eighty  pounds, 
warned  her  friends  of  her  imminent  i^eril.  With 
her  constitutional  tendency  there  seemed  indeed 
little  room  for  hope  that  any  human  power  could 
save  her,  but  to  the  effort  to  do  so  Dr.  Lewis  bent 
all  his  energies. 

Like  all  physicians  of  that  day,  he  supposed 
that  the  only  chance  for  consumptives  was  to  be 
found  in  going  South.  He  at  once  began  to  look 
for  some  lohysician  to  take  his  medical  practice. 
Meantime  no  precaution  was  omitted.  It  was 
decided  that,  warmly  clothed  in  flannel  and  wear- 
ing thick  shoes  with  heavy  soles,  Mrs.  Lewis 
should  take  long  walks  in  all  weathers.     She  had 


discarded  corsets  long  before  her  marriage  and 
she  yielded  to  the  doctor's  argument,  "If  I  need 
suspenders  to  supj)ort  a  pair  of  pantaloons,  how- 
much  more  do  you  need  them  to  hold  your  heavy 
skirts."    In  adopting  them  she  found  great  relief. 

The  proprietor  of  the  Buffalo  gymnasium, 
patronized  hitherto  only  by  men,  was  induced  to 
take  a  class  of  ladies,  selecting  for  them  some  of 
the  lightest  exercises.  But,  as  it  proved,  only  a 
few  of  the  simplest  of  these  could  be  made  help- 
ful to  such  an  invalid  as  Mrs.  Lewjs,  and  the  effort 
became  discouraging.  "Perseverv3  for  the  X3res- 
ent,"  urged  Dr.  Lewis,  "  and  we  Avill  also  try  saw- 
ing wood,  which  will  be  good  exercise,  because 
the  harder  you  saw  the  deej)er  you  must  breathe." 
So  while  Mrs.  Lewis  sawed  Dr.  Lewis  split  the 
wood,  for  companionship  and  encouragement. 

"  It  proved  helpful, "  says  Mrs.  Lewis,  "  for  it 
did  drive  the  air  through  the  air-cells  of  the  lungs, 
but  there  was  a  drawback  in  the  cramped  position 
required  in  bending  over  the  work.  However, 
from  being  able  to  saw  only  a  few  sticks  as  large 
as  my  wrist  at  a  time,  resting  after  each  stick,  I 
became  able  before  the  winter  was  over  to  saw  all 
the  wood  needed  for  two  fires.  At  the  outset  a 
finger's  length  had  been  added  to  my  skirt-bind- 
ings to  insure  plenty  of  room  for  exercise.  In  six 
months  I  put  in  another  finger's  length,  and  again 
a  third  time,  and  it  took  two  years  to  bring  my 


waist  to  the  proportions  adapted  to  tlie  width,  of 
my  shoulders." 

Daily  walks  and  drives  with  her  husband  on  his 
rounds  to  visit  his  i)atients,  were  faithfully  perse- 
vered in  by  Mrs.  Lewis,  regardless  of  storms. 

"  You  have  not  another  patient  whom  you  would 
dare  to  treat  as  you  are  treating  me,"  she  said  to 
the  doctor. 

"  Not  another  one!  "  he  replied.  "  There  is  not 
another  who  would  have  the  courage  to  try  it,  but 
it  is  in  line  with  what  all  consumptive  patients 

Though  there  was  steady  improvement  through 
the  summer,  the  cough  returned  in  the  autumn. 
Abruptly  closing  his  business,  Dr.  Lewis  took  his 
wife  to  Virginia  for  the  winter. 

Passing  New  Year's  Day  of  1853  in  Washington, 
D.  C,  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Lewis  went  thence  to  Fred- 
ericksburg, Va.,  where  they  remained  several 
weeks.  While  there  Dr.  Lewis  employed  his  en- 
forced leisure  in  giving  talks  on  health  before 
schools.  He  found,  to  his  surprise,  that  the 
knowledge  of  the  human  system  was  not  only 
held  a  matter  of  indifference,  as  was  too  generally 
the  case,  even  in  the  Northern  States,  at  that  time, 
but  that  the  study  of  it,  especially  by  young 
people,  was  regarded  with  something  like  repug- 

Letters  to  a  Presbyterian  minister  of  Fredericks- 

THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF    DIO    LEWIS.  45 

burg  who  had  a  small  school  of  young  ladies, 
insured  to  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Lewis  a  very  courteous 
reception  by  him.  Dr.  Lewis  offered  to  talk  to 
this  gentleman's  jiupils  on  health  subjects,  and 
added  that  he  would  bring  a  sheej^'s  lungs  with 
him,  with  which  to  illustrate  the  necessity  of  deep 
breathing  and  therefore  of  loose  dress. 

"  Why,"  said  the  reverend  gentleman,  "  I  would 
on  no  account  have  these  young  ladies  learn  physi- 
ology! An  agent  for  Dr.  Cutter's  work  on  that 
subject  has  just  been  here  trying  to  have  the  book 
introduced  into  my  school.    Of  course  I  refused!  " 

"  But  how  can  the  girls  take  care  of  themselves 
if  they  do  not  know  how  they  are  made? "  asked 
Dr.  Lewis. 

"  I  wish  them  to  consider  themselves  a  mass  of 
animated  matter  of  which  God  will  take  care,  if 
they  love  and  serve  Him,"  was  the  reiDly.  How- 
ever, the  reverend  doctor  brought  the  young  ladies 
to  one  of  Dr.  Lewis's  i3ublic  lectures,  but  as  it 
proved  to  be  on  i^hysiology  he  left  the  hall  in  the 
midst  of  it,  taking  his  pupils  with  him,  thus  pro- 
tecting them  from  the  imminent  peril  of  knowing 
something  of  themselves. 

A  presentation  of  silver  plate  by  ladies  of  his 
audiences  in  Fredericksburg,  through  the  mayor 
of  the  city,  showed  that  the  general  sentiment  on 
the  discussion  of  health  topics  was  not  in  har- 
mony with  that  of  the  doctor  of  divinity* 



The  subject  of  temperance  had,  from  Dr.  Lewis's 
youth,  deeply  concerned  him.  Almost  his  earliest 
efforts,  before  the  village  gatherings  in  the  school- 
house  of  his  native  village,  had  been  made  in  its 

He  had  known  the  earnest  and  successful  work 
of  his  noble  mother  and  her  equally  noble  asso- 
ciates, along  new  lines.  Toward  any  victim  of 
the  fatal  appetite  with  whom  he  came  into  rela- 
tion, his  common  expression  was  "  we  must  do  all 
we  can  to  help  him,"  and,  through  personal  trials 
which  put  his  feelings  and  his  principles  to  sever- 
est tests,  his  gentleness  and  his  patience  were  un- 
failing. It  was  with  deep  regret,  therefore,  that 
he  saw  the  decadence  of  the  great  movement, 
which  in  1840  had  been  started  in  Baltimore  by  a 
half-dozen  members  of  a  social  drinking  club, 
who,  having  been  themselves  redeemed,  went  forth, 
in  the  spirit  of  love  and  pity,  to  redeem  others, 
and  who,  in  a  single  year,  counted  some  fifteen 
thousand  drunkards  permanently  reformed. 

But  he  saw  the  temperance  people,  eager  for 
immediate  results  and  impatient  of  moral-suasion 

THE    BIOGRAPHY    OJP^    DIO    LEWIS.  47 

metliods,  gradually  transfer  tlieir  reliance  for  cure 
of  tlie  great  evil  to  law  and  authority,  and  in 
several  of  the  Eastern  States,  expend  their  zeal  in 
securing  statutes  which  prohibited  the  sale  and 
authorized  the  confiscation  of  alcoholic  liquors. 

"When  that  remarkable  movement  of  moral 
and  religious  forces  known  as  '  Washingtonian- 
ism'  had  given  jjlace  to  the  agitation  of  legal 
measures,"  wrote  Dr.  Lewis,  "  I  feared  the  end  of 
the  great  temperance  revolution  had  come.  Prayer, 
song,  and  brotherly  love  seemed  to  me  to  have 
given  place  to  the  constable." 

He  was  painfully  impressed  by  the  spirit  of  an- 
tagonism on  the  one  side  and  of  domination  on 
the  other  which  were  developed,  and  he  came  to 
believe,  first,  that  prohibition  was  impracticable 
and,  finally,  that  it  was  wrong.  So  strong  on  the 
part  of  some  was  this  latter  feeling  that  Mr. 
George  Bradburn,  a  distinguished  anti-slavery 
lecturer  who  was  an  earnest  temperance  man  and 
of  the  highest  character,  said  to  him : 

"Why,  doctor,  after  the  prohibitory  law  was 
passed  I  felt  that  the  only  way  I  could  assert  my 
manhood  was  to  take  a  jug  of  whiskey  over  my 
shoulder  and  march  down  State  Street." 

A  beneficial  society,  based  on  total  abstinence, 
and  called  *'  The  Sons  of  Temperance,"  was  organ- 
ized in  1842.  It  soon  spread  through  all  the  States 
of  the  Union  and  across  its  borders.   This  Dr.  Lewis 

48  TiiE   BIOGRAPHY    OF   DIO    LeWIS. 

joined  in  1853,  in  Fredericksburg,  Ya.,  prottsting, 
however,  against  the  incompleteness  of  the  pledge, 
which  did  not  enjoin  abstinence  from  tobacco, 
and  also  against  the  exclusion  of  women  from 
membership.  He  urged  upon  the  leaders  that  in 
failing  to  enlist  woman  in  the  work  they  were 
leaving  out  the  element  most  essential  and  indis- 
pensable to  success. 

"From  my  earliest  recollection,"  wrote  Dr. 
Lewis,  "  I  have  had  great  confidence  in  women. 
My  remarkable  mother  inspired  and  deepened 
this  faith.  I  have  always  thought  that  if  they 
would  combine  they  might,  by  love  and  faith 
alone,  drive  out  of  American  life  rum,  tobacco, 
and  licentiousness.  My  confidence  in  this  power 
increases  with  my  age." 

Meeting  only  indifference  to  his  appeal  for  the 
admission  of  women  to  the  organized  temperance 
work,  he  wrote  a  paper  on  "The  Influence  of 
Christian  Women  in  the  Cause  of  Temperance," 
and  read  it  in  a  hall  in  the  old  town  of  Fred- 
ericksburg, Ya.,  the  same  year.  This  was  his  first 
apj)earance  on  the  public  platform.  Directly 
afterward  he  gave  lectures  on  this  subject  and  on 
health  topics  in  Fredericksburg,  Richmond,  Peters- 
burg, Norfolk,  and  Portsmouth,  Ya, 

Dr.  Lewis  found  that  in  Richmond  the  system 
of  homoeopathy  was  exceedingly  unpopular.  This 
was  to  be  expected  in  a  Southern  city  where  there 


was  a  large  and  fiourishing  allopathic  medical 
school.  As  the  doctor  was  not  in  practice,  he  had 
no  occasion  to  give  expression  to  his  opinions  on 
the  subject  until  an  esteemed  citizen  fell  ill,  and, 
the  case  becoming  critical,  the  young  physicians 
in  attendance,  the  only  homoeopathic  practitioners 
in  the  city,  called  Dr.  Lewis  as  consulting  physi- 
cian. The  patient  recovered,  and  his  cure  was 
credited  to  Dr.  Lewis,  with  a  sneer  that  "  those 
boys,"  as  the  younger  physicians  were  contemptu- 
ously called,  "  could  never  have  saved  him." 

The  x)ublic  prejudice  against  the  system  mani- 
fested itself  with  almost  as  much  bitterness  as  did 
that  against  abolitionism.  The  attention  of  the 
college  being  drawn  to  Dr.  Lewis's  position,  a 
public  discussion  of  the  princijiles  of  the  new 
practice  was  proposed  and  was  held  in  the  pres- 
ence of  a  large  audience,  mainly  composed  of  the 
medical  fraternity  and  of  professors  and  students 
from  the  college.  The  scene  was  boisterous. 
Cheers  greeted  the  arguments  for  allopathy,  and 
hisses  met  those  for  homoeopathy. 

The  press  echoed  the  feeling  of  the  meeting. 
The  sentiment  of  the  community  exj)ressed  itself 
in  the  syllogism,  '^Xew  things  are  humbugs. 
Homoeopathy  is  a  new  thing,  therefore  homoeop- 
athy is  a  humbug."  A  few  days  later,  while  Dr. 
Lewis  was  talking  with  a  gentleman  in  the  street, 
one  of  the  city  editors  who  had  denounced  him  in 

60  THE    BIO(i^RAPHY    OF    1)10    LEWIS. 

liis  paper  chanced  to  pass.  Lifting  Ms  cane  lie 
struck  Dr.  Lewis,  laming  Ms  arm.  He  was  ar- 
rested and  pnt  nnder  bonds  to  keep  the  peace. 

Before  he  left  the  city  a  service  of  silver  was 
presented  to  Dr.  Lewis  by  a  committee  of  ladies 
at  the  Baptist  church,  in  acknowledging  wMch 
he  said: 

"  During  the  ^ve  weeks  of  my  sojourn  in  your 
beautiful  city  I  have  delivered  seventy-three  lec- 
tures. Half  of  them  have  been  in  the  young 
ladies'  seminaries  of  this  city.  I  have  given  a 
series  of  lectures  before  the  professors  and  stu- 
dents of  Richmond  College,  and,  as  you  know, 
not  less  than  twenty  addresses  in  this  church." 

During  several  summers  Dr.  Lewis  lectured  in 
the  State  of  New  York,  and  in  the  winter  of 
1853-54  and  a  part  of  that  of  1855,  in  Kentucky. 
In  the  cities  of  Paris,  of  Lexington,  and  of  George- 
town he  received  elegant  testimonials  of  silver 
from  those  who  had  listened  to  him. 

In  February,  1855,  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Lewis  went  to 
Toronto,  Canada,  where  the  clear  and  invigorating 
air  proved  more  helpful  to  Mrs.  Lewis  than  the 
damp  atmosphere  of  the  Mississippi  Valley.  Dr. 
Lewis  had  gradually  been  growing  into  the  opin- 
ion, which  he  always  held  afterward,  that  con- 
sumptive patients  should  not  be  transferred  to  a 
warmer  and  more  debilitating,  but  to  a  cooler  and 
more  invigorating  atmosphere. 


Still,  with  autumn  the  dreaded  cough  returned. 
Change  of  climate  had  proved  inadequate  to  effect 
a  complete  cure,  and  this  led  the  doctor  to  a  more 
thorough  consideration  of  a  healthful  dress  for 
women  and  of  the  best  methods  of  exercise.  The 
results  were  so  satisfactory  in  the  individual  case 
of  Mrs.  Lewis  that  it  proved  the  inspiration  to  a 
work  for  the  general  good.  The  combined  efforts 
in  behalf  of  Mrs.  Lewis  restored  her  to  health  in 
the  course  of  three  years. 

So  little  expectation  of  her  recovery  had  those 
felt  who  saw  Mrs.  Lewis  during  her  winters  in 
the  South,  that  when,  some  years  later,  a  physi- 
cian who  had  met  her  in  1853  called  on  Dr.  Lewis 
in  Buffalo  and  Avas  invited  to  go  home  with  him 
to  see  his  wife,  he  exclaimed,  "  Why,  are  you 
married  again?  How  long  did  Mrs.  Lewis  whom 
I  knew  live?" 

"  She  is  the  same  lady,  who,  in  good  health,  will 
welcome  you  to  our  happy  home,"  was  the  doc- 
tor's reply. 

The  illness  of  Mrs.  Lewis  has  been  reported 
here  at  some  length  especially  to  show  to  those 
who  have  the  baleful  inheritance  of  consumption, 
that  the  disease  may  be  conquered  even  after  it 
has  begun  to  assert  itself,  by  strict  obedience  to 
the  laws  of  health  if  one  have  the  courage  to  dis- 
obey the  behests  of  fashion,  which  are  perilous 
and  often  fatal,  and  by  the  judicious  and  patient 


use  of  systematic  exercise.  Though  it  is  held  to 
be  almost  impossible  to  correct  defects  of  form 
after  full  maturity,  it  was  at  the  age  of  thirty -four 
that  Mrs.  Lewis  found  herself  an  invalid,  with  the 
right  shoulder  so  much  larger  than  the  left  that 
the  latter  required  padding,  and  with  the  hips 
very  unequal  in  height,  the  result  of  curvature  of 
the  spine. 

The  adoption  of  a  dress  whose  weight  rested  on 
the  shoulders,  and  so  loose  that  there  was  abso- 
lutely no  restriction  of  breathing,  and  of  boots  so 
thick  that  she  could  walk  without  risk  in  all 
weathers,  together  with  daily  systematic  exercise, 
restored  her  to  jjerfect  health  in  a  few  years.  She 
also  recovered  the  natural  erectness  and  symmetry 
of  shoulders  and  hips,  and  at  seventy -three  years 
of  age,  she  finds  herself  with  no  tendency  to  colds, 
headaches,  or  other  pains,  and  with  the  thrill  of 
health  in  every  nerve,  and  its  flush  in  her  cheeks; 
in  short,  a  perfectly  healthy  and  vigorous  woman, 
to  whom  a  walk  of  live  miles  is  a  pleasure,  and 
causes  but  little  fatigue. 

That  Mrs.  Lewis  did  not  yield  to  the  malady 
which  threatened  to  make  her  the  fourth  victim 
from  her  family,  she  is  well  aware  was  due  only 
to  the  persistent  efforts  of  her  husband,  who 
cheerfully  sacrificed  his  business  prospects  when 
they  were  most  promising,  and  forsook  the  activi- 
ties most  consonant  with  his  tastes,  not  only  to 

THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF    DIO    LEWIS.  53 

seek  a  climate  favorable  to  her,  but  by  careful 
study  to  develop  methods  of  restoration  along 
new  and  unrecognized  lines.  To  Ms  ready  and 
encouraging  supx)ort  slie  gratefully  ascribes  the 
ease  with  which  she  could  disregard  the  speech  of 
society,  ready  of  course  with  its  surprises  at  easy 
dress  and  thick  boots,  at  a  time  when  health  or 
invalidism,  if  not  life  or  death,  hung  in  the  bal- 

She  knows  from  the  testimony  of  many  women, 
that  thousands  consent  to  the  conditions  of  dress 
and  custom  which  lead  to  permanent  invalidism 
because,  as  many  a  one  has  said  to  her  in  sub- 
stance, with  touching  pathos: 

"  I  could  bear  the  comments  of  others,  but  I 
could  not  bear  that  my  husband  should  say,  with 
wounded  pride,  '  Why  don't  you  dress  like  other 
ladies? '  No!  terrible  as  it  is,  I  would  rather  bear 
the  discomfort  and  take  the  risks  of  the  burden- 
some dress." 

54  THE   BIOGRAPHV^    OF   L>10    LEWIS. 


DuRiTs^G  the  three  winters  of  residence  in  Vir- 
ginia and  Kentucky,  Dr.  Lewis  wrote  letters  to 
Northern  papers.  Some  are  quoted  here,  as  they 
give  a  picture  of  the  South  while  under  the  do- 
minion of  the  system  of  negro  slavery,  a  picture 
which  is  being  rapidly  obliterated : 

"  Fredericksburg,  Va.,  April  18th,  1853. 

"Mr.  Editor:  I  have  seen  no  other  town  in 
the  State  of  Virginia  so  unlike  our  Northern 
tow^ns  as  this.  While  our  cities  and  villages  are 
filled  with  bright,  enterprising  mechanics,  in 
Fredericksburg  you  see  none  but  pompous,  rich 
peoj^le,  all  of  the  first  families  of  Virginia,  and 

"  There  are  no  manufactories,  and,  indeed,  noth- 
ing is  done  by  the  whites  except  dressing  and  call- 
ing, and  nothing  by  the  blacks  except  waiting  in 
the  laziest  possible  manner  upon  their  masters  and 
mistresses.  There  is  probably  no  other  town  in 
the  whole  South  Avhere  the  '  olden  times '  are  more 
correctly  represented  than  in  this  little  city  of  six 
thousand  inhabitants.    Many  of  the  white  gentle- 

THE    BIOGEAPHY    OF    IHO    LEWIS.  00 

men  kee^)  up  the  style  of  feudal  lords,  and  tlie 
servants  are  obsequious  to  every  white  man,  and 
always  address  him  as  '  mas'r.' 

"  Such  a  society  is  very  difficult  to  describe. 
There  is  little  reading,  little  intelligence.  Indeed, 
there  is  nothing  more  common  than  to  meet  a 
first-class  gentleman,  living  in  the  style  of  a  lord, 
who  has  not  half  the  real,  substantial  intelligence 
possessed  by  the  farmers  and  mechanics  of  the 

"  Yet  in  regard  to  the  courtesies  and  proprieties 
of  social  life,  the  common  white  people  of  Vir- 
ginia, so  far  as  I  have  seen  them,  are  equal  to  the 
best  class  at  the  K'orth.  So  I  think  it  would  be 
entirely  just  to  state  the  difference  between  us  as 
follows :  The  white  people  of  the  South  have  one- 
half  our  intelligence;  we  have  one-half  their 
manners.  Such  a  scarcity  of  books  would  aston- 
ish you.  I  have  not  seen  more  than  two  or  three 
private  libraries  of  a  respectable  size  in  the  State. 
We  have  occasionally  been  invited  to  visit  a 
planter,  and  have  never  seen  in  their  houses  a 
library  of  fifty  volumes.  I  am  told  by  Virgin- 
ians themselves  that  hundreds  of  their  w^ealthi- 
est  country  gentlemen  have  no  library,  and  many 
of  them  do  not  even  take  a  newspaper. 

"  In  a  morning's  walk  my  wife  and  I  called  at 
the  house  of  a  planter  and  prominent  citizen.  The 
house  was  built  before  the  Revolution,  and  the 

56  THE    BIOGKAPHY    07   DIO    LEWIS. 

only  means  of  fastening  the  front  door  was,  as  it 
had  been  from  the  first,  a  bar  reaching  quite 
across  it,  like  the  door  of  old  barns  in  the  North. 
There  were  but  two  volumes  in  the  house,  the  Bible 
and  the  hymn-book. 

"  Richmond,  sixty-two  miles  farther  south,  con- 
tains forty  thousand  inhabitants,  half  of  whom  are 
blacks.  For  commercial  purposes  it  enjoys  a  most 
fortunate  location,  being  at  the  head  of  navigation 
on  James  River. 

"  Of  the  refinement  and  hospitality  of  its  citizens 
I  could  speak  in  highest  terms ;  but  '  their  praise 
is  in  all  the  churches,'  and  anything  I  might  add 
would  not  increase  their  already  enviable  reputa- 

"And  yet  what  I  have  said  of  the  intelligence 
of  the  people  of  Virginia  is  applicable  to  the  citi- 
zens of  Richmond. 

"  They  are  wonderfully  cultivated  and  interest- 
ing in  their  manners,  but  astonishingly  averse  to 
thought.  In  criticising  a  lecturer,  for  instance, 
they  speak  of  his  gestures,  voice,  and  j)ronuncia- 
tion,  but  very  rarely  of  his  ideas.  The  structure 
of  the  whole  social  organization  is  calculated  to 
exclude  thought  of  a  vigorous  and  substantial 
character.  In  the  first  place,  the  whites  perform 
no  hard  labor,  and  I  believe  that  physical  must 
precede  mental  development  and  strength. 

"  The  mental  lassitude  and  indisposition  to  hard 

THE    BIOGUAPHY    OF    DIO    LEWIS.  57 

labor,  so  cliaracteristic  of  the  Sontli,  is,  undoubt- 
edly, tlie  result  of  several  causes.  I  have  men- 
tioned but  one,  but  I  think  it  the  most  important 
and  fruitful  one. 

''  Then  Virginia  has  no  system  of  public  schools ; 
indeed,  there  are  no  public  schools  in  the  State. 
In  one  or  two  of  the  large  towns  they  have  made 
an  effort  to  establish  free  schools,  but  thus  far  the 
scheme  has  failed  because  nearly  all  the  wealthy 
and  influential  people  think  the  plan  a  bad  one. 
They  think  there  is  danger  that  their  children  may 
associate  with  others  lower  in  the  social  scale — a 
great  misfortune  in  the  estimation  of  the  'first 
families  of  Virginia.' 

''  In  spite  of  these  drawbacks  we  left  both  Fred- 
ericksburg and  Richmond,  and  the  friends  whose 
unfailing  kindness  had  won  our  love  and  grati- 
tude, with  sincere  regret." 

"'AuBUR]?r,  N.  Y.,  Sept.  lOth,  1853. 
"Dear  Editor:  'Uncle  Tom's  Cabin '  is  really 
the  only  anti-slavery  agency  that  has  ever  pene- 
trated the  South.  The  great  mass  of  anti-slavery 
movements  at  the  North  have  been  so  shamefully 
misrepresented  by  Southern  pajDers  that  the  peo- 
ple of  the  South  have  only  been  led  to  hate  us 
and  to  close  every  aperture  in  their  hearts  against 
our  sentiments.  But  Uncle  Tom  has  made  his 
way  into  the  very  citadel  of  the  enemy.     You 

68  THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF    1)10    LEWIS. 

can  lind  the  sable  old  gentleman  away  up  in  tlie 
])me  forests  o"f  Georgia  and  Alabama.  Books  are 
about  as  scarce  there  as  they  are  in  the  Barbary 
States,  but  '  Uncle  Tom '  is  in  almost  every  house. 
And  such  a  preacher  as  he  has  proved  in  those 
benighted  regions !  To  be  sure,  they  do  not  as  a 
general  thing  listen  very  attentively  or  prayer- 
fully to  the  simj)le  old  preacher,  being  unused  to 
arguments  other  than  bad  whiskey,  j^istols,  and 
bowie  knives,  but  even  these  pirate-like  felloAvs 
cannot  close  their  hearts  entirely  to  the  Christ- 
like love  of  poor  old  Tom. 

"  While  in  the  South  I  asked  not  less  than  a 
hundred  persons,  male  and  female,  what  they 
thought  of  '  Uncle  Tom's  Cabin.'  It  was  rare  to 
meet  one  wdio  had  not  read  it.  Perhaps  half  a 
dozen  of  the  hundred  told  me  they  thought  it  '  a 
perfect  humbug,  and  that  Mrs.  Harriet  Beecher 
Stowe  ought  to  be  hung  up  for  the  boys  to  throw 
rotten  eggs  at.'  But  the  great  majority  of  them 
assured  me  that  it  was  a  just  and  faithful  picture 
of  the  institution.  Quite  a  number,  and  those  the 
most  intelligent,  declared  the  book  too  favorable 
to  the  South.  One  intelligent  lawyer,  who  lived 
in  the  very  heart  of  pro-slavery  bigotry  and  hatred, 
assured  me  that  he  had  resided  all  his  life  in  the 
South,  had  read  Uncle  Tom  three  times,  and  was 
prepared  to  say  that  the  book  represented  the 
sunny  side  of  the  picture. 

THE    BIOGKAPHY    OF    DIO    LEWIS.  59 

"But  oh!  that  'Key!'  that  is  a  bitter  pill! 
'  Yet  are  not  all  these  extracts  from  your  statute 
books  and  from  your  court  trials,  and  so  correct  and 
fair? '  I  asked  them.  '  But  Mrs.  Stowe  has  x:)icked 
up  the  worst  laws  and  the  worst  crimes  from  the 
whole  thirteen  slave  States,'  they  rej)ly.  '  Still, 
are  not  these  laws  and  crimes  uj)held  by  Southern 
sentiment? '  And  I  ask  in  vain,  '  Where  is  the 
community  in  the  South  that  has  remonstrated 
against  the  laws  or  the  crimes? ' 

''The  'Key'  has  had  an  immense  sale  at  the 
South.  I  was  in  one  book-store  in  which  they 
had  retailed  six  hundred  and  fifty  cox^ies.  These 
books  are  a  godsend  to  the  jjooi"  slave.  They 
cannot  fail  to  make  the  master  treat  his  chattel 
better,  and  they  cannot  fail  to  hasten  the  day  of 
the  negro's  emancipation. 

"  By  the  way,  I  threw  out  some  questions  in  my 
letter  day  before  yesterday  which  I  wish  to  ex- 
jiress  again  more  fully. 

"  Imagine  yourself  to  have  passed  directly 
through  the  heart  of  Virginia  from  north  to  south, 
and  that  you  are  now  on  the  southern  boundary. 
You  meet  an  intelligent.  Christian  man,  over  whose 
passions  the  institution  has  not  gained  the  entire 
mastery.  And  you  ask  him.  Why  is  your  State 
such  a  barren  wilderness  ?  Why  is  your  Great 
Southern  Railroad  such  a  miserable  rickety  con- 
cern, allowing  the  trains  to  go  only  eight  and  twelve 


miles  per  hour,  Avith  all  sorts  of  delays  and  irregu- 
larities? Why  do  we  not  see  from  the  cars,  in 
passing  through  the  whole  State,  half  a  dozen  fine, 
newly-x)ainted  residences  ?  Why  are  all  the  out- 
houses mere  sheds  and  only  half  roofed  ?  Why 
are  there  no  fences,  so  that  to  feed  your  mules 
you  have  to  tie  straps  around  their  necks  and 
attach  the  other  end  to  a  stake  driven  into  the 
ground?  And  why  the  old  sj^ade-hoe?  Why  do 
your  working  animals  look  like  the  daguerreo- 
type of  a  shadoAv?  Why,  to  say  nothing  of  jonr 
miserable  negroes,  have  you  such  a  host  of  poor, 
half -brute  whites,  in  whom  Ave  can  recognize  hu- 
manity only  by  the  outAvard  form?  Why  have 
you  no  employment  for  this  large  class,  so  that 
they  have  to  gather  crabs  and  roots  for  subsist- 
ence? And  why  are  such  an  immense  majority 
of  your  planters'  sons  and  daughters  savages  in 
their  passions,  ignorant  and  extremely  rude? 
Why  have  you  no  public  schools?  Why  is  it  that 
so  small  a  proportion  of  your  Avhite  population 
can  AA^rite  and  read  their  names?  Why  is  it  that 
nearly  half  of  your  AA^hites  never  visit  the  house 
of  God?  AVhy  is  it  that  colporteurs  have  to  re- 
port that  they  go  into  large  neighborhoods  in 
AAdiich  not  a  single  copy  of  the  Bible  is  to  be 
found?  Why  is  there  this  miserable,  half -barbar- 
ous state  of  things  in  the  Old  Dominion.  And  to 
every  question  the  sincere,  Christian  Virginia  gen- 

^HE   BIO(>]RAPHY   OF   DIO   LEWIS.  61 

tleman  will  reply,  'Slavery!  Slavery!'  I  liave 
propounded  such  questions  twenty  times  to  sober, 
tMnking  men,  and  never  failed  to  get  this  re- 

''  He  who  is  jDrepared  to  appreciate  all  the  bear- 
ings of  slavery  will  return  from  a  Southern  tour 
infinitely  more  settled  and  fixed  in  his  hatred  of 
American  slavery." 



The  lectures  on  health  given  by  Dr.  Lewis  in 
Virginia  were  in  line  with  what  he  had,  from  the 
beginning  of  his  practice,  held  to  be  the  highest 
duty  of  the  physician,  the  prevention  rather  than 
the  cure  of  disease.  Growing  conviction  of  its 
importance  determined  him,  as  he  said,  "  to  shift 
the  switch,"  and  to  devote  himself  to  the  work  of 
the  platform.  For  the  next  six  years  he  lectured 
almost  continuously  through  the  Middle  and 
Northern  United  States  and  Canada. 

The  only  break  in  his  work  during  this  time 
was  made  by  a  short  visit  to  Europe  in  1856.  In 
Paris  he  attended  the  cliniques  of  the  famous 
doctors  Brocha  and  Desmarres. 

The  especial  purpose  of  his  visit  was  the  pur- 
chase of  illustrative  apparatus  of  the  best  sort  for 
use  in  his  lectures  on  physiology,  returning  with 
which  he  resumed  the  w^ork  of  his  profession. 

It  was  his  custom  to  speak  on  six  evenings  in 
the  week  on  the  laws  of  health,  laying  special 
stress  on  his  favorite  axiom,  adapted  to  suit  him- 
self, "An  ounce  of  prevention  is  worth  a  '  ton '  of 
cure."     On  Sunday  evenings  he  j)resented  in  the 


churches,  or,  by  preference,  in  a  large  hall,  when 
snch  could  be  obtained,  his  favorite  subject,  "  The 
Duty  of  Christian  Women  in  the  Temj)erance 
vVork."  In  such  cases  he  invited  the  clergy  to 
omit  their  customary  service  to  share  in  the  exer- 
cises, an  invitation  which  usually  was  cordially 

To  imx3ress  the  need  of  mutual  consideration 
and  co-operative  action,  he  sometimes  told  this 
story : 

In  the  city  of there  had  been  no  minister 

settled  for  many  years  because  of  a  division 
in  the  church  which  led  those  of  one  party  to 
oppose  any  candidate  proposed  by  the  other 
party.  Finally  the  congregation  became  ashamed 
of  the  heathenish  way  in  which  they  were  living, 
and  determined  to  agree  upon  a  minister,  so  a 
meeting  was  called  and  a  candidate  proposed. 
When  the  general  feeling  seemed  settling  in  his 
favor.  Brother  Darby  was  observed  to  shake  his 
head.  A  second  candidate  was  suggested,  but  still 
Brother  Darby  shook  his  head.  Finally,  a  wise 
member  who  saw  that  nothing  would  be  accom- 
plished in  this  way,  moved  that  they  adjourn  to 
another  evening,  and  that  meantime  they  confer 
with  Brother  Darby.  The  next  meeting  resulted 
in  the  same  way.  Still  Brother  Darby  shook  his 
head,  and  they  were  in  despair  of  agreeing,  when 
a  half-witted  member  of  the  church  arose  and 

64  TtlE    BiOGKAPiiY    OJ'   1)10    LiEWtg. 

said:  "  Brethren,  I  want  to  tell  a  dream  I  had  last 
night.  I  thought  I  died  and  went  to  the  place 
where  bad  people  go.  His  Satanic  Majesty  came 
forward  and   asked  me  w^here  I  came  from.     I 

said,  'From  .'     'And  what  are  they  doing 

in ? '     '  They  are  trying  to  settle  a  minister.' 

'Trying    to    settle    a    minister?'    exclaimed    he. 

'Bring  my  boots!     I  must  goto to-night.' 

He  w^as  in  the  act  of  drawing  on  one  boot,  when  I 
said,  '  Brother  Darby  is  opposed  to  it.'  '  Brother 
Darby  is  opposed  to  it,  is  he?  Then  he  wdll  do  as 
well  as  I  could  if  I  were  there  myself.  Put  away 
my  boots.' " 

In  his  lectures  Dr.  Lewis  forcibly  urged  upon 
women  their  great  powder,  through  their  aff  ectional, 
spiritual,  and  religious  endow-ments,  to  take  the 
lead  in  ridding  the  land  of  the  gigantic  evil  of  in- 

"  How  vividly  I  recall,"  says  one  who  often  lis- 
tened to  him,  "the  earnestness  with  which  Dr. 
Lew^is  w^ould  try  to  im]3ress  w^omen  with  a  con- 
sciousness of  the  w^eight  of  their  influence  over 
young  men.  He  w^ould  sometimes  say:  'When 
I  see  a  winsome  lady  in  beautiful  attire,  graciously 
dispensing  the  hospitalities  of  her  elegant  home, 
and  hear  her  say  in  persuasive  tones  to  a  young 
man  who  declines  the  proffered  glass,  "  What,  not 
take  wine  with  me  on  an  anniversary?  New 
Year's  Day  comes  but  once  a  year !  "  I  can  imag- 

THE    BIOGRAPHY    01^    DIO    LEWIS.  65 

ine  the  devil  standing  near  and  saying,  with  a 
look  of  exultation,  "  I  want  no  better  helper.  I 
could  not  have  done  the  work  of  temptation  more 
successfuky  myself."  '  " 

He  often  told  of  the  quiet  and  efficient  work  of 
the  women  of  Clarksville,  a  section  of  Auburn, 
IS".  Y.,  who  had  freed  one  small  village  from  the 
curse  of  rum-selling,  and  in  his  later  work,  in 
Ohio,  he  openly  ascribed  the  conception  of  the 
plan  to  his  mother.  He  believed  that  these  hum- 
ble women  had  unconsciously  found  the  line  of 
action  along  which  the  great  work  of  redemption 
must  be  wrought. 

In  1858,  when  speaking  at  a  union  service  of 
the  Baptist,  Presbyterian,  and  Methodist  churches 
in  Dixon,  HI.,  which  was  even  then  quite  a  city, 
he  resolved  to  make  an  attempt  to  put  his  theory 
of  temperance  work  into  practice.  Of  this  under- 
taking he  afterward  wrote : 

"  I  called  upon  Hev.  Mr.  Harsha,  so  well  known 
later  for  his  Avork  in  the  Sanitary  Commission, 
ujpon  Hev.  Mr.  Webb,  the  Baptist  clergyman,  and 
upon  the  Methodist  clergyman,  whose  name  I 
cannot  recall,  and  asked  them  to  forego  their  Sun- 
day evening  services  to  unite  in  a  meeting  for  the 
discussion  of  a  scheme  for  the  removal  of  the 
drink  curse.  This  I  had  been  publicly  advocating 
for  nearly  six  years. 

"  The  meeting  was  large  and  enthusiastic,  and  at 

66  THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF    DIO    LEWIS. 

its  close  a  committee  of  fifty  or  more  women  were 
appointed  and  named  'tlie  committee  of  visita- 
tion.' This  committee  included  the  wives  of  the 
clergymen,  who  were  made  a  special  committee  to 
draft  an  appeal  from  the  women  of  Dixon  to  the 
retailers  of  intoxicating  drinks  of  the  city. 

"This  was  prepared,  and  Avas  remarkably  elo- 
quent and  touching.  The  next  morning  at  ten 
o'clock  the  visiting  committee  assembled  in  the 
hall  where  we  had  held  our  meeting,  heard  and 
indorsed  the  appeal,  and  immediately  left  the  hall 
in  a  body  to  begin  their  work. 

"  The  first  effort  was  directed  to  the  saloon  under 
Union  Hall,  where  their  meetings  were  held,  into 
which  they  marched  with  hymns  of  trust  upon 
their  lips.  They  knelt,  prayed,  sang,  and  implored, 
and  there  was  struck  a  blow  which  fell  with  di- 
vine power  upon  the  thirty-nine  grog-shops  which 
were  desolating  Dixon.  In  six  days'  time  not 
even  a  glass  of  beer  could  be  bought  in  the  town." 

The  following  resolution  w^as  passed  in  Dixon, 
111.,  and  published  in  the  city  papers: 

"  Whereas,  An  interest  is  now  manifested  by 
the  people  of  Dixon,  111.,  on  the  subject  of  tem- 
perance, entirely  unparalleled  in  the  history  of  the 
place,  and  whereas  a  special  movement  has  been 
inaugurated  here  for  the  suppression  of  the  traffic 
in  alcoholic  liquors;  therefore 

"  Resolved,  That  the  thanks  of  every  friend  to 

THE    BlOGRAPIir    OF    1)10   LEWIS.  67 

the  cause  of  temperance  and  to  moral  and  physi- 
cal reform  in  Dixon  are  due  to  Dr.  Dio  Lewis,  the 
originator  of  the  movement,  for  his  noble  and  self- 
sacrificing  efforts  in  the  cause  of  God  and  hu- 

Years  later  Dr.  Lewis  wrote: 

"  It  would  be  difficult  to  conceive  a  more  inter- 
esting story  than  that  of  the  labors  of  the  vromen 
of  Dixon  during  that  week.  The  triumph  was 
for  the  time  being  complete. 

"  I  shall  never  forgive  myself  for  not  remaining 
on  the  ground,  that  I  might  organize  social  and 
literary  clubs  and  amusement  halls  and  other 
substitutes  for  the  lighted,  wai^med,  social  dram- 
shops. Thus  the  woman's  crusade  would  have 
been  fairly  inaugurated.  But  at  that  time  I  was 
burdened  with  what  I  felt  to  be  my  life-work, 
that  of  urging  upon  the  j)eople  their  right  to  'a 
sound  mind  in  a  sound  body,'  and  the  introduc- 
tion of  a  new  system  of  physical  training  into  the 
schools  of  the  country,  and  I  therefore  gave  only 
Sundays  to  the  temperance  work. 

"  Two  months  later  a  Sunday  was  thus  occupied 
in  Battle  Creek,  Mich.  There  I  was  ably  seconded 
by  the  ministers. 

"  The  Episcopal  clergyman,  also  the  Rev.  Charles 
Jones,  the  Congregational  minister,  joined  in  the 
work.  I  remember  that  the  committee  was  one 
hundred   strong.      Their  special   committee  pre- 


pared  an  aj)peal.  On  Monday  morning  it  was 
adopted,  and  one  liundred  and  sixteen  women, 
marching  two  and  two,  began  their  visits. 

^'  The  leader  of  the  women  was  Mrs.  E.  W.Pendill, 
wife  of  the  mayor  of  the  city.  This  gentleman 
was  also  a  zealous  advocate  of  temperance.  Mrs. 
Pendill  afterward  became  a  noted  woman  suffra- 
gist, and  at  the  first  suffrage  convention  held  in 
Michigan  she  arose  in  the  meeting  and  gave  her 
gold  watch  to  assist  the  cause.  The  watch  Avas 
sold  repeatedly  till  several  hundred  dollars  were 
realized.  The  last  purchaser  had  it  framed  and 
donated  it  to  the  State,  and  it  is  now  in  the  State 
Museum  at  Lansing. 

"  This  town,  which  hitherto  had  been  untouched 
by  any  temperance  sentiment,  was  shaken  as  by 
the  Spirit  of  Grod. 

"  At  the  end  of  two  weeks  only  one  of  the  forty- 
nine  drinking  places  in  Battle  Creek  remained 
open.  Within  six  weeks  the  last  of  these  gave 
way  before  women's  prayers  and  pleadings." 

The  editor  of  the  Reed  City  (Michigan)  Clarion, 
Mr.  C.  E.  Barnes,  who  in  1883  published  his  remi- 
niscences of  the  work  at  Battle  Creek,  says: 

"  The  second  place  visited  by  the  ladies  was  the 
Des  Moines  Saloon,  kept  by  old  Erastus  Clark. 
We  frequently  talked  with  Clark  about  this  mem- 
orable affair.  He  said  the  ladies,  who  completely 
filled   the   room    while   many  remained    outside 


around  the  door,  frightened  him  almost  to  death, 
and  he  solemnly  promised  them  to  destroy  his 
liquors  and  quit  the  business." 

Mrs.  Lewis  recalls,  as  one  of  the  incidents  of  the 
campaign,  a  visit  of  persuasion  to  an  inn-keeper 
just  outside  of  the  town.  The  sign  of  the  inn 
hung  from  the  linib  of  a  tree.  Pointing  to  this 
the  landlord  said: 

''If  you  Avill  take  down  my  sign  yourselves  I 
will  quit  selling." 

The  ladies  hunted  uj)  a  ladder  on  the  premises, 
and  closely  following  each  other  they  climbed  it 
and  removed  the  sign,  which  they  bore  in  triumph 
past  the  house  where  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Lewis  were 

Work  similar  to  that  in  Battle  Creek  was  accom- 
plished in  Mies,  Hinmanville,  and  other  places. 



In  Dr.  Lewis's  observations  of  people  in  all  sec 
tions  of  the  country,  lie  was  so  painfully  impressed 
by  the  prevalence  of  pale  faces,  undeveloped  and 
distorted  bodies,  and  nervous  debility  that  he  be- 
came anxious  to  arouse  the  peoY)le  to  active  inter- 
est in  x^hysical  culture,  and  especially  to  the  neces- 
sity of  making  it  a  part  of  school  training.  He 
did  not  agree  with  an  eminent  writer  who  said : 
*'  Give  the  boys  the  unrestrained  use  of  the  grove, 
the  field,  the  yard,  the  street,  with  the  various 
sorts  of  apparatus  for  boys'  games  and  sports,  and 
they  can  dispense  with  the  scientific  gymnasium." 

The  doctor  certainly  had  no  disposition  to  limit 
the  opportunity  to  boys.  He  considered  the 
physical  development  of  girls  quite  as  imjDortant 
to  themselves,  and  more  so  to  the  general  welfare. 
He  said:  "It  is  not  enough  that  children  grow. 
Their  growth  must  be  symmetrical.  It  is  our 
duty  to  see  that  both  boys  and  girls  get  an  all- 
sided  development,  and  this  no  one  game  or  set  of 
games,  no  one  avocation  can  give.  The  writer 
above  quoted,  Avho  believes  in  letting  the  body 
take  its  chance,  would  not  argue  in  like  way  for 

THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF    DIO    LEWIS.  71 

the  mind.  In  the  midst  of  conversations,  news- 
papers, and  lectures  which  evoke  intense  mental  ac- 
tivity, we  turn  aside  for  the  methodical  training  of 
the  academy  and  college.  The  poorest  man  in 
the  State  demands  for  his  children  the  organized 
school.  He  is  right.  An  education  left  to  chance 
could  not  result  in  the  symmetry  which  is  the 
highest  form  of  develojoment.  Discriminating, 
systematic,  scientific  culture  is  our  demand.  Let 
it  be  for  both  body  and  mind." 

The  military  drill  used  to  a  limited  extent  in 
some  schools  for  boys,  he  considered  valuable  only 
in  the  cultivation  of  uprightness  of  body  and  pre- 
cision of  movement,  and  singularly  deficient  in  the 
requisites  of  a  system  of  muscular  training. 

In  the  endeavor  which  had  been  made  to  em- 
ploy gymnastic  exercise  as  a  means  of  restoring 
Mrs.  Lewis  to  health,  the  doctor  had  soon  discov- 
ered serious  defects  in  the  system  in  vogae.  It 
was  apparent  from  the  outset  that  the  mere  wield- 
ing of  the  heavy  apparatus  tired,  and  as  the  aim 
was  development,  not  exhaustion,  the  dumb-bells 
and  heavy  clubs  were  given  up  for  wooden  ones. 
Carefully  observing  where  fatigue  was  induced  by 
exercise.  Dr.  Lewis  began  to  devise  a  series  of 
movements  which  should  give  development  to 
every  set  of  muscles. 

He  also  saw  that  pulling  on  fixed  weights 
strained  certain  muscles,  and  that  these  tended  to 

72  THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF    DIO    LEWIS. 

become  stiff  while  others  were  left  unexercised. 
This  he  comx:)ared  to  the  effect  that  pulling  heavy 
loads  has  upon  a  cart-horse,  who  therefore  wears 
out  early.  To  develop  the  carriage,  or  race  horse, 
where  ease,  grace,  and  speed  of  motion  require  the 
fullest  command  of  every  muscle,  he  is  attached 
by  the  trainer  to  the  lightest  vehicle,  or  mounted 
by  the  light-weight  jockey. 

Considering  a  model  gymnast  Dr.  Lewis  wrote: 
"  We  visit  the  circus.  Let  us  study  three  persons, 
the  man  who  lifts  the  cannon,  the  India-rubber 
man,  and  the  general  performer.  The  lifter  and 
the  India-rubber  man  are  the  extremes ;  neither  is 
in  the  highest  physiological  condition.  The  gen- 
eral performer  is  our  model.  He  cannot  lift  a 
cannon  nor  tie  himself  into  a  knot.  He  holds  a 
point  midway  between  the  two  extremes.  He  is 
neither  the  slow  cart-horse  nor  the  loose- join  ted 
animal,  but  he  is  the  fine,  active,  vigorous  carriage- 
horse.  He  is,  in  a  certain  sense,  strong,  but  it  is 
not  the  strength  of  grace,  flexibility,  agility,  and 

Dr.  LeAvis  argued  that  what  the  human  being 
wants  is  not  the  muscular  power  to  lift,  for  a  few 
years,  a  great  weight  in  slow  time,  but  health  and 
flexibility  of  muscle  with  which  to  meet  quickly 
and  with  facility  the  varied  demands  of  life 
through  a  long  period  of  years. 

It  appeared  to  him  that  the  attractions  of  a  sys- 

THE    BIOGKAPHY    OF    L)IO    LEWIS.  73 

tern  of  gymnastics  from  vvhicli  all  but  vigorous 
young  men  are  practically  excluded  are  about 
equal  to  those  wliicli  a  ball-room  would  offer  if 
limited  to  the  same  class. 

To  gain  health  and  flexibility  through  systema- 
tic exercise  Dr.  Lewis,  therefpre,  decided  that  the 
following  conditions  must  be  met: 

The  ap23aratus  must  be  light,  that  the  strength 
may  not  be  spent  in  lifting  and  wielding  it,  but 
be  available  for  exercise. 

It  must  be  adapted  to  a  great  variety  of  move- 
ments, since  the  physiological  purpose  of  all  mus- 
cle-training is  the  marriage  between  nerve  and 

Since  enjoyment  is  also  a  prime  condition  of 
life  and  health,  nerve-stimulus  should  be  secured, 
to  which  end  the  movements  should  be  rhythmic 
and  accompanied  by  music. 

The  exercises  should  be  social,  not  individual. 
They  should  have  the  character  of  games.  They 
should  be  adapted  to  both  sexes  and  all  ages. 

In  order  to  carry  out  these  principles  Dr.  Lewis 
devoted  the  leisure  hours  of  many  years  to  devis- 
ing the  proper  apparatus,  and  developed  a  system 
in  which  the  athlete  finds  opportunity  for  great- 
est exertion,  while  in  the  use  of  it  the  delicate 
child  need  never  be  overtaxed. 

The  disciples  of  the  old  system  of  gymnastics, 
which  involved  heavy  apparatus,  often  challenged 

7-1  THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF    1)10    LEWIS. 

the  former  assertion,  but  Dr.  Lewis  found  it  easy 
to  prove,  by  practical  tests,  that  "  by  vigorous  ex- 
ercise after  the  new  method,  in  less  than  fifteen 
minutes  legs,  hips,  back,  arms,  shoulders,  neck, 
lungs,  and  heart  will  all  |)lead  for  rest." 

For  the  cumbrous,  costly,  and  fixed  machinery  of 
the  old  system,  which  required  a  hall  expensively 
fitted  up  for  the  purpose,  was  substituted  appara- 
tus which  was  portable,  light,  and  inexj)ensive, 
consisting  of  wooden  dumb-bells,  rings,  clubs,  and 
wands,  which  could  be  used  in  any  school-room  or 
private  apartment.  The  simj)le  device  of  a  small 
bag  of  ticking  three-quarters  filled  with  beans, 
for  tossing  and  catching,  in  games  adapted  to  two 
or  two  hundred  persons,  not  only  proved  an  ex- 
cellent means  of  exercise,  bringing  into  healthy 
activity  several  hundred  muscles,  but  afforded  in- 
valuable training  in  quickness  of  eye  and  hand 
and  in  presence  of  mind.  The  games,  invented  in 
great  variety,  were  an  incitement  to  exercise, 
quickened  the  spirits  into  a  glow,  and  provoked 
hilarious  fun. 

Of  exercises  classed  as  "free  gymnastics,"  be- 
cause performed  without  apparatus,  the  number 
developed  was  almost  without  limit.  To  avoid 
too  strong  a  determination  of  blood  toward  one 
group  of  muscles,  the  order  of  these  movements 
was  carefully  planned  so  as  to  provoke  circulation 
always  from  tliQ  main  blood-vessels  toward  their 

THE    BIOGKAPHY    OF    DIO    LEWIS.  75 

natural  and  successive  distributions.  Noticing 
that  in  the  German  system  of  gymnastics  the  ex- 
ercises were  almost  exclusively  confined  to  the 
training  of  the  flexor  muscles,  a  series  of  what  he 
called  "mutual  help"  exercises  was  devised  for 
the  equable  development  of  the  flexor  and  exten- 
sor muscles.  These  were  performed  by  two  or 
three  persons  without  apparatus  and  accompanied 
by  music,  and  were  especially  graceful. 

Confident  that  these  methods  of  j)hysical  train- 
ing would  prove  a  health-lift  in  the  truest  sense, 
without  restriction  as  to  age,  sex,  or  condition,  he 
resolved  to  leave  his  interesting  and  successful 
work  on  the  platform  to  establish  an  institution 
for  physical  training.  To  this  end  Dr.  and  Mrs. 
Lewis  went  to  Boston,  Mass.,  in  June,  1860. 

Locating  themselves  in  the  beautiful  suburbs  of 
West  Newton  for  the  summer,  Dr.  Lewis  visited 
with  interest  the  schools  in  Boston  and  vicinity, 
to  observe  the  physical  condition  of  the  pupils 
and  methods  of  instruction.  He  directly  organ- 
ized evening  classes  in  gymnastics  in  several  ad- 
jacent villages,  in  West  Newton,  Newtonville, 
Newton,  Newton  Upper  Falls,  Newton,  and  Water- 

He  was  fortunate  in  finding  in  West  Newton 
the  English  and  classical  school  of  N.  T.  Allen, 
then  and  still  ranking  among  the  most  popular, 
as  it  is  one  of  the  most  thorough  of  Massachu- 


setts  scliools,  and  notable  for  its  Mgh.  grade  of 
moral  as  well  as  of  intellectual  and  physical 

Mr.  Allen,  with  quick  appreciation  of  whatever 
could  be  of  genuine  service  to  his  pupils,  gave 
cordial  welcome  to  the  new  gymnastics  and  to 
the  lectures  on  health,  for  which,  in  his  school. 
Dr.  Lewis  was  at  once  engaged.  These  lectures 
were  continued  by  the  doctor,  with  great  pleasure 
to  himself,  until  he  left  Boston  for  California  in 

"  No  one  else,"  wrote  Mr.  Allen  in  1887,  "  has 
presented  his  subjects  with  such  interest  and 
power,  nor  have  I  ever  found  a  system  of  gym- 
nastics so  effectual  for  good.  Heavy  gymnastics 
got  its  death-l)low.  The  x>upils  were  aroused  to 
enthusiasm ;  such  enthusiasm  as  I  have  never  seen 
kindled  in  my  school  by  any  other  lecturer.  Dr. 
Lewis  was  grand." 

Perhaps  the  most  interesting  and  encouraging 
of  all  his  classes  was  formed  at  the  McLean  Hospi- 
tal for  the  Insane,  a  private  institution  at  Somer- 
ville,  Mass. 

Appreciating  the  difficulties  under  which  the 
physicians  to  the  insane  labor  in  stimulating  the 
interest  of  their  patients  and  in  providing  activi- 
ties for  them,  he  proposed  to  the  superintendent 
to  conduct  a  class  in  gymnastics.  It  was  not  held 
safe  to  put  apparatus  in  the  hands  of  the  patients. 

THE    BIOGKAPHY    OF    DlO    LEWIS.  77 

SO  "free  gymnastics"  were  at  first  introduced. 
The  success  was  so  great  in  fixing  the  attention 
of  the  class,  the  excitement  was  so  happif ying  in 
its  effects,  and  the  order  was  so  good  that  Dr. 
Lewis  gained  consent  to  furnish  the  patients  with 
apparatus,  and  it  was  soon  found  that  while  wands 
and  bean -bag  games  x)roved  as  delightful  to  these 
invalids  as  to  the  jjupils  of  other  classes,  not  an 
injury  to  any  jDerson  resulted. 

The  report  of  Dr.  John  E.  Tyler,  superintendent 
of  the  McLean  Asylum  at  Somerville,  Mass.,  for 
1860,  says: 

"In  addition  to  the  standard  amusements  of 
ball,  billiards,  and  bowling,  for  which  we  have 
abundant  facilities,  an  innovation  j^leasantly  com- 
bining diversion  and  exercise  has  been  made,  under 
the  direction  of  Dr.  Dio  Lewis,  in  the  introduc- 
tion of  his  valuable  system  of  gymnastics.  He 
has  spent  much  time  in  patient  and  judicious  in- 
struction to  large  classes  on  both  sides  of  the 
house,  and  succeeded  in  interesting  and  accom- 
plishing them  in  the  numerous  feats  of  his  art. 
Much  benefit  has  resulted  therefrom  which  was 
not  confined  to  those  actually  engaged  in  the  ex- 
ercise; the  bystanders  could  laugh  heartily  at 
the  efforts  of  others." 

Previous  experiences  in  the  State  Lunatic 
Asylum  at  Utica,  N.  Y.,  had  given  the  same 
results,  and  Dr,  Lewis  was  convinced  that  such 

78  THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF    DIO    LEWIS. 

exercise,  judiciously  conducted,  Avould  be  an  in- 
valuable aid  in  restoring  physical  liealtli  and 
mental  sanity  to  the  patients,  and  would  prove  a 
great  assistance  in  the  management  of  institutions 
for  the  insane. 

In  August,  1860,  the  American  Institute  of  Edu- 
cation met  in  Tremont  Temple,  Boston,  and  the  sys- 
tem of  the  "  new  gymnastics  "  was  brought  before 
it  and  illustrated  by  trained  pupils.  The  interest 
excited  gave  impetus  to  the  work,  and  the  atten- 
tion of  prominent  citizens  being  turned  to  the 
method,  classes  were  formed,  some  of  children,  and 
in  the  evening  some  of  ladies  and  gentlemen,  while 
one  on  Monday  morning  drew  the  leading  minis- 
ters of  the  city,  who  keenly  appreciated  the  gain 
made  through  the  development  of  unused  muscles, 
and  the  recuperation  which  came  to  overstrained 
nerves  and  mental  powers. 

The  local  enthusiasm  soon  spread,  and  messages 
of  interest  and  encouragement  from  educators 
and  physicians  were  received  from  all  parts  of  the 
country,  urging  upon  Dr.  Lewis  the  fulfilment  of 
his  project. 

Col.  Thomas  Wentworth  Higginson,  in  an  arti- 
cle on  "  Gymnastics  "  which  was  published  in  the 
Atlantic  Monthly  oi  March,  1861,  said: 

"  It  would  be  unpardonable  in  this  connection 
not  to  speak  a  good  word  for  the  favorite  hobby 
of  the  day,  Dr.  Lewis  and  his  system  of  gymnastics. 

Me  biogeaphy  of  dio  lewis.  79 

.  .  .  Dr.  Windsliip  liaci  done  all  that  was  needed 
in  apostleship  of  severe  exercises,  and  there  was 
wanting  some  man  with  a  milder  hobby,  perfectly 
safe  for  a  lady  to  drive.  The  Fates  provided  that 
man  in  Dr.  Dio  Lewis,  so  hale  and  hearty,  so  pro- 
foundly confident  in  the  omnipotence  of  his  own 
methods  and  the  nselessness  of  all  others,  with 
such  a  ready  invention  and  such  an  inundation 
of  animal  spirits  that  he  could  flood  any  com- 
pany, no  matter  how  starched  or  listless,  with  an 
unbounded  appetite  for  ball-games  and  bean-bag 
games.  Wherever  Dr.  Lewis's  methods  have  been 
introduced  important  advantages  have  followed. 
.  .  .  His  movement  is  undoubtedly  the  most  im- 
portant single  step  yet  taken  for  the  physical 
education  of  American  women." 



In  1861  Dr.  Lewis  obtained  from  the  Massa- 
chusetts Legislature  an  act  of  incorporation  of 
"  The  Boston  Normal  Institute  for  Physical  Edu- 
cation." The  school  was  at  once  opened  and 
largely  attended.  During  the  next  seven  years 
four  hundred  and  twenty-one  ladies  and  gentle- 
men, in  about  equal  numbers,  were  graduated 
from  it.  These  were  able  to  answer  the  demand 
for  instructors  in  the  "  new  gymnastics  "  which 
soon  came  from  the  schools  and  from  private 
classes  in  the  larger  cities  of  New  England,  and 
later  from  the  remoter  parts  of  the  country,  until 
at  length  the  system  was  taught  in  every  State  of 
the  Union. 

The  board  of  directors  of  the  Normal  Institute 
included  many  of  the  most  distinguished  edu- 
cators of  New  England.  President  Felton,  of 
Harvard  University,  was  its  active  presiding  offi- 
cer up  to  the  time  of  his  death. 

Able  professors,  including  the  renowned  Dr. 
Walter  Channing,  of  Harvard  College,  filled  the 
department  of  anatomy,  physiology,  and  hygiene. 
The   eminent    philosopher,   A.   Bronson    Alcott, 

THE    BlOGKAPHY   OF    DIO    LEWtS.  81 

of  Concord,  Mass.,  gave  a  series  of  Ms  original 
and  interesting  "conversations."  The  section  of 
vocal  culture  was  in  charge  of  Prof.  T.  E.  Leonard. 

At  the  close  of  each  half -year's  session  a  public 
exhibition  Avas  given  in  Tremont  Temple,  which 
furnished  a  large  audience-room,  seating  two  thou- 
sand people. 

It  was  necessary,  in  order  to  limit  the  attend- 
ance, to  charge  an  admission  fee,  the  proceeds  of 
which  were  always  given  to  some  charity.  Still 
many  more  came  than  could  gain  admittance. 
The  exercises  were  commended  in  the  most  eulo- 
gistic terms  by  such  men  as  Edward  Everett,  Dr. 
Oliver  Wendell  Holmes,  Rev.  Dr.  Kirk,  James  T. 
Fields,  and  John  D.  Philbrick,  the  superintendent 
of  Boston  schools. 

As  the  system  was  a  growing  one,  and  Dr.  Lewis 
was  constantly  making  new  inventions  of  exer- 
cises, in  order  to  keep  the  public  informed  he 
commenced,  in  the  same  year,  the  publication  of  a 
small  monthly  magazine.  At  the  request  of  the 
editor  of  the  Atlantic  Monthly  he  also  prepared 
an  illustrated  article  for  that  magazine. 

In  1862  the  developed  system  was  published  in 
a  volume  called  "  The  New  Gymnastics."  In  two 
years  this  had  reached  its  eighth  edition  and  the 
sale  is  still  large. 

In  the  report  of  necrology  of  the  Massachu- 
setts Teachers'  Association  in  1886,  more  than  a 

82  THE    BIOGBAPHY    OF    DlO    LEWIS. 

quarter  of  a  century  after  tlie  system  was  pre- 
sented before  the  American  Institute  of  Educa- 
tion, in  Boston,  in  a  sketch  of  Dio  Lewis  occurs 
this  statement:  "It  is  noteworthy  that  of  the 
numerous  treatises  published  on  light  gymnastics 
in  this  country,  all  are  but  modifications  of  the 
Dio  Lewis  system.  No  person  has  succeeded  in 
exciting  such  enthusiasm  in  classes  of  both  adults 
and  youth  as  this  magnetic  man." 

In  London,  England,  the  system  was  success- 
fully introduced  by  an  early  graduate  of  the 
Normal  Institute,  the  Rev.  Moses  Coit  Tyler,  now 
professor  of  English  literature  in  Cornell  Uni- 
versity, Ithaca,  N.  Y.,  and  author — a  gentleman 
who  so  valued  the  system  that  he  said :  "  Of  the 
establishment  of  the  Institute  for  Physical  Edu- 
cation the  same  words  maybe  used  which  Neander 
employed  concerning  a  book  written  by  Marsilius, 
of  Padua,  ^It  made  an  epocli^  " 

Mr.  Tyler's  articles  in  the  leading  English  maga- 
zines, his  lectures  in  London  before  educational 
bodies,  to  the  aristocratic  visitors  on  Saturday 
mornings  at  the  Royal  Polytechnic  Institute,  to 
the  gentlemen  of  science  and  of  critical  acumen 
gathered  at  the  meetings  of  the  Metropolitan  As- 
sociation of  Medical  Officers  of  Health,  to  the 
learned  scholars  and  practical  educators  compos- 
ing the  College  of  Preceptors,  and  to  j)opular  audi- 
ences in  town  and  country,   his  instruction  to 


private  pupils  of  eminence,  including  Dr.  John 
Garth.  Wilkinson,  to  whom  lessons  were  given 
early  in  the  morning  in  the  doctor's  beautiful 
garden,  and  his  classes  demonstrating  the  value 
of  the  system,  were  all  conducted  with  an  ability 
and  enthusiasm  which  proved  of  inestimable  value. 
In  forcible  words  he  presented  the  various  ad- 
vantages of  the  methods  which  have  been  already 
indicated  in  these  pages  and  are  fully  developed 
in  Dr.  Lewis's  work  entitled  "  New  Gymnastics." 

Addressing  the  British  College  of  Preceptors, 
London,  he  said :  "  Dr.  Lewis  has  inaugurated  in 
America  a  great  national  reform,  as  distinct,  as 
influential,  as  glorious  as  that  which  was  wrought 
in  Germany  by  Salzmann  and  Jahn,  or  in  Sweden 
by  the  poet  and  gymnasiarch,  Ling." 

In  the  following  appreciative  words  he  set  forth 
the  service  and  the  charm  of  that  feature  in  the 
system  which  made  it  known  in  England  as  "  the 
musical  gymnastics : " 

""  I  can  only  hint  at  the  peculiar  benefit  result- 
ing from  the  habit  of  performing  all  these  bod- 
ily movements  in  strict  musical  time.  Whatever 
musical  development  ensues  becomes  closely  as- 
sociated with  the  intelligence  and  will.  The  whole 
frame  at  last  seems  imbued  with  the  musical  prin- 
ciple, vitalized  and  permeated  by  some  breath  of 
harmony,  grace,  and  accurate  ease.  .  .  .  The  new 
system  insists  upon  being  enjoyed  if  pursued  at  all. 

84  THiJ  Biography  of  ijio  Lewis. 

It  seeks  to  stir  the  sources  of  exhilaration,  mirtli, 
enthusiasm,  and  accomplishes  this  by  the  viva- 
cious character  of  the  movement,  by  the  contagion 
of  perfectly  concerted  action,  and  by  the  delight- 
ful stimulus  of  music. 

"The  'new  gymnastics'  rise  far  above  the 
dreary  level  of  task- work,  and  are  literally  and 
permanently  a  pleasure.  They  recognize  the  ar- 
tistic necessity  of  touching  the  play-impulse. 
They  attempt  to  inaugurate,  during  the  hour  de- 
voted to  gymnastics,  a  sort  of  physical  jubilee,  a 
carnival  of  the  emotional  and  vital  powers.  .  .  . 
Indeed,  music  is  made  so  central  to  the  system 
that  without  it  we  can  do  nothing.  When  the 
music  leaves  we  adjourn." 

Mr.  Tyler  went  to  London  in  May,  1863,  bearing 
simply  a  few  letters  of  introduction.  His  first 
communication  to  Dr.  Lewis  confessed  to  misgiv- 
ings. He  said :  "  When  last  Tuesday  I  arrived  in 
this  huge  city,  so  awful  in  its  greatness,  and 
passed  through  it  alone,  a  total  stranger,  I  must 
tell  you  that  I  found  my  heart  in  my  throat.  But 
now,  after  three  days  sjDent  in  feeling  the  public 
pulse,  I  rise  to  an  absolute  certainty  not  only  that 
I  am  to  succeed,  but  that  I  am  to  succeed  tremen- 
dously. I  write  these  words  with  joy  at  the  mag- 
nificent prospect  of  usefulness  now  spread  before 
me,  and  of  gratitude  to  you  for  guiding  me  to 
this  work." 

THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF    DIO    LEWIS.  85 

Mr.  Tyler  was  cordially  received,  and  by  none 
more  helpfully  so  than  by  Mr.  Tweedie,  the  emi- 
nent publisher,  a  gentleman  widely  esteemed  for 
his  great  service  in  the  anti-slavery,  temperance, 
and  other  reform  movements. 

"  Mr.  Tweedie  said,"  writes  Mr.  Tyler,  "  that  I 
could  not  have  come  to  London  with  a  better 
business ;  that  the  people  are  waiting  and  eager 
for  just  such  a  system  of  gymnastics,  and  he  as- 
sures me  that  I  have  nothing  to  do  but  stretch 
out  my  arms  and  bind  up  the  sheaves.  He  has 
already  put  me  into  communication  with  the 
right  kind  of  men,  who  bid  me  welcome  and  thrice 
welcome.  Your  article  in  the  August  Atlantic 
has  greatly  interested  them  in  your  system.  On 
reading  it  they  sent  for  your  book  on  gymnastics 
and  had  thought  of  writing  to  you  to  send  a  man 
who  could  teach  it,  when  lo !  my  arrival." 

In  June  he  wrote :  "  Five  weeks  ago  to-day  I  ar- 
rived, and  when  I  think  of  the  progress  made,  of 
the  firm,  broad  foothold  in  London  that  I  have 
already  secured,  think  of  my  classes,  which  are 
under  flourishing,  nay,  enthusiastic  headway  at 
Brompton,  of  other  classes  in  other  sections  of 
London  that  are  in  embryo,  of  the  families  I  have 
come  to  know,  of  the  multitude  I  have  reached 
by  my  published  articles,  of  the  strong,  influential 
men  and  women  who  have  become  my  co-workers, 
surely  I  must  congratulate  myself  that  these  five 

86  THE    1310GKAPHY    OF    DIG    LEWIS. 

weeks  have  more  than  answered  the  promise  of 
the  beginning.  The  events  of  an  ordinary  year 
have  been  crowded  into  them." 

July  brought  reports  from  Prof.  Tyler  of  lec- 
tures and  enthusiastic  audiences  in  different  parts 
of  London,  and  before  the  faculty  and  students  of 
Regent's  Park  College,  and  of  the  work  alto- 
gether in  so  high-tide  of  success  that  it  was  with 
reluctance  that  he  yielded  to  the  necessity  of 
pausing  while  the  London  world  took  its  summer 

Dr.  Lewis  cordially  appreciated  and  acknowl- 
edged the  eminent  services  of  Prof.  Tyler  in  this 
work.  Speaking  publicly  of  his  address  before 
the  British  College  of  Preceptors,  London,  in  1864, 
he  said :  "  I  devoted  many  years  to  inventing  the 
new  system,  but  I  have  never  been  able  to  pre- 
sent its  salient  features  in  language  so  classic  and 
so  beautiful." 

For  three  years  the  classes  in  London  were  con- 
tinued under  the  able  management  of  Prof.  Tyler. 

The  system  extended  in  the  course  of  the  next 
decade  of  years  to  Great  Britain,  to  Germany,  to 
Africa,  to  India,  and  it  may  be  said  that  it  was 
introduced  almost  wherever  the  English  language 
was  spoken.  Elizabeth  P.  Peabody  said  that  on 
visiting  Berlin  the  first  announcement  Avhich  at- 
tracted her  attention  was  that  of  a  school  for 
physical  exej^cise  oyer  which  was  written  in  Ger- 


maD,  "Die  Lewis's  Gymnastics."  A  gentleman 
returning  from  St.  Petersburg,  Russia,  in  1872, 
brought  watli  bim  a  programme  of  tbe  closing  ex- 
ercises of  a  ladies'  seminary  in  tbe  city,  a  school 
patronized  almost  exclusively  by  the  nobility.  In 
this  programme,  beautifully  printed  upon  satin, 
there  were  three  re j)etitions  of  the  "Dio  Lewis's 
Calisthenics."  A  gentleman  travelling  in  Scot- 
land in  1873  had  handed  to  him,  in  two  small 
towns,  a  circular  announcing  some  person  as  "  the 
only  representative  of  Dio  Lewis's  system  of  gym- 

In  1864  two  bills  looking  to  the  introduction  of 
military  drill  into  the  i)ublic  schools  had  passed 
to  a  second  reading  in  the  Massachusetts  Legisla- 
ture, when  the  movement  attracted  the  attention 
of  some  prominent  educators  who  believed  such 
training  not  helpful,  but  prejudicial  to  the  best  de- 
velopment of  the  young,  and  who  also  deprecated 
any  farther  stimulation  of  the  war-spirit  which 
the  recent  national  events  had  kindled  to  fever- 

IS".  T.  Allen,  James  Allen,  William  Lloyd  Garri- 
son, and  others  asked  to  be  heard  in  opposition 
to  the  bill.  This  was  granted.  So  earnest  was 
Mr.  Garrison  that  he  said :  "After  thirty  years  of 
retirement  I  will  buckle  on  my  armor  and  go  from 
Berkshire  to  Nantucket  sands  to  help  wipe  the 
barbarous  statute  from  the  State," 

88  THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF    DIO    LEWIS. 

Dr.  Lewis  was  invited  to  j^resent  liis  views  before 
the  committee.  A  very  large  audience  was  in  at- 

A  young  soldier  fresh  from  the  army  and  fa- 
miliar with  the  manual  of  arms,  who  had  also 
received  Dr.  Lewis's  training  in  the  new  gymnas- 
tics, illustrated  before  the  audience,  under  the 
doctor's  direction,  the  movements  of  both  systems. 

So  manifest  to  every  observer  was  the  suj)erior 
adaptation  of  the  latter  method  to  secure  to  every 
muscle  health  and  flexibility,  the  sure  conditions 
of  grace  and  precision  of  movement,  that  the  fate 
of  the  bill  was  sealed. 



While  Dr.  Lewis  was  directing  tlie  institute 
for  physical  culture,  so  many  came  from  a  dis- 
tance to  take  advantage  of  a  system  of  treatment 
wMcli,  rejecting  all  medicines,  looked  for  cure  to 
healthful  diet,  well-adapted  exercise,  baths,  direct 
exposure  to  the  sun's  rays,  and  cheerful  home-life, 
that  he  concluded  to  establish  a  sanitarium  in 
Boston.  Here  chronic  complaints  were  treated. 
When  the  spring  of  1864  came  the  invalids  were 
transferred  to  Lexington,  Mass.,  for  more  complete 
accommodations  and  for  country  air,  and  here 
the  sanitarium  continued  until  1868. 

During  all  this  period  the  Normal  Institute 
for  Physical  Education  continued,  the  winter 
session  being  held  in  Boston  and  the  summer  ses- 
sion in  Lexington. 

Among  the  members  of  the  classes  at  the  Nor- 
mal Institute  there  were  so  many  school-teachers, 
and  young  women  who  had  broken  down  from 
study,  as  it  was  the  custom  to  say,  that  Dr.  Lewis 
studied  their  condition  and  their  gain  under 
physical  training  with  especial  interest.  He  be- 
came convinced  that    in  most  cases,  while  the 

90  THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF    DIO    LEWIS. 

break-down  was  only  too  real,  the  case  was  by  no 
means  the  one  assigned,  but  that  it  was  due,  in- 
stead, to  the  fact  that  the  girls  had  been  but  half- 
trained  ;  that  for  the  sake  of  stimulating  some  of 
the  mental  faculties  to  a  high  degree  and  achiev- 
ing certain  prescribed  results,  the  mind,  by  whicli 
was  often  meant  scarcely  more  than  the  memory, 
had  been  overtaxed,  while  every  law  governing 
the  body  had  been  persistently  violated. 

"In  these  classes,  representing  about  equally 
the  two  sexes,"  wrote  Dr.  Lewis,  "the  average 
health  of  the  women  was,  in  the  beginning,  lower 
than  that  of  the  men,  but  with  the  removal  of  the 
corset  and  the  long,  heavy  skirts,  from  which,  I 
am  sure,  without  being  able  to  demonstrate  it,  that 
ninety  per  cent,  of  the  so-called  female  weaknesses 
come,  and  with  such  exercises  as  thus  become 
possible,  a  remarkable  change  ensued.  In  every 
one  of  the  thirteen  classes  of  graduates  the  best 
gymnast  was  a  woman.  In  each  class  there  were 
from  two  to  six  women  suj)erior  to  any  of  the 
men.  In  exhibiting  the  graduating  classes  from 
year  to  year  in  Tremont  Temple  women  were  uni- 
formly placed  in  the  more  conspicuous  situations, 
not  because  they  were  women,  but  because  they 
were  the  finer  performers.  Dr.  Walter  Channing, 
one  of  the  professors  in  this  institute,  often  spoke 
with  great  enthusiasm  of  the  superiority  of  the 

THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF    DIO    LEWIS.  91 

Careful  observation  of  many  of  tlie  public 
schools,  and  especially  of  the  seminaries  in  which 
girls  were  trained,  left  the  physical  degeneracy  of 
the  pupils  who  came  to  the  Normal  Institute  no 
matter  of  surprise  to  Dr.  Lewis. 

In  the  book  called  "  Our  Girls  "  he  says: 

"  I  was  asked  to  visit  a  female  seminary  some 
miles  out  of  Boston,  on  the  occasion  of  its  annual 
commencement.  Sitting  on  the  platform  with  the 
principal,  she  whispered  to  me:  'That  class  of 
young  ladies  seated  by  the  organ  is  the  graduat- 
ing class.'  '  And  they  have  finished  their  educa- 
tion? '  I  asked.  She  nodded  assent.  I  gave  them 
a  good  long  look  and  could  not  resist  the  thought, 
If  you  had  said  the  girls  themselves  were  finished 
I  should  have  understood  you;  but  instead  of 
thinking  their  education  finished,  I  should  con- 
sider that  they  have  not  laid  the  corner-stone  in 
the  foundation  of  a  true  womanhood." 

Dr.  Lewis  was  still  more  painfully  impressed 
with  the  fact  that  in  many  seminaries  while  the 
pupils  are  learning  some  music,  a  little  French, 
and  less  of  the  solid  branches  of  an  English  educa- 
tion, they  are,  through  narrow  and  rigid  over- 
sight, gradually  losing  what  power  of  self-control 
they  have  brought  to  the  school,  and  too  often 
are  acquiring  a  habit  of  dissimulation  which 
marks  all  their  subsequent  career.  He  wrote  with 
intense  earnestness :  "  The  worst  class  of  our  citi- 

92  THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF    DIO    LEWIS. 

zens  are  more  wortliy  of  trust  tlian  some  man- 
agers of  ladies'  seminaries  consider  their  pupils  to 
be.  The  general  policy  is  to  have  an  almost  end- 
less series  of  rules  and  then  police  the  school  and 
watch  for  violations.  My  own  horror  of  these 
methods,  which  lead  girls  to  study  every  species 
of  deception  and  trick  in  order  to  evade  the  rules 
and  to  thwart  the  teachers,  is  such  that  T  should 
prefer  that  my  daughter  should  never  learn  to 
read  the  name  of  the  God  who  made  her  rather 
than  acquire  all  learning  and  accomplishments 
under  so  demoralizing  mfluencesP 

As  a  result  of  much  experience  and  study, 
Dr.  Lewis  toas  confirmed  in  these  cardinal  be- 

That  the  graduate  of  a  young  lady^s  seminary 
should,  like  the  graduate  of  a  German  univer- 
sity, he  as  much  improved  in  body  as  in  mind 
hy  student-life  ;  that  she  should  he  fitted  for  the 
active  duties  of  life,  the  performance  of  which 
requires,  primarily,  a  healthy  and  vigorous 
body  ;  that  girls  who  leave  school  pale,  thin,  and 
bent,  no  matter  what  their  knowledge  of  mathe- 
matics, languages,  or  music,  have  been  outrage- 
ously humbugged ;  that  the  demoralizing  hab- 
its of  concealment  and  pretence  so  common  in 
schools  can  be  prevented  by  throwing  pupils  on 
their  own  responsibility. 

fits  theory,  stated   in  brief .^  was:  "  Put  th^ 


whole  girl  to  school  and  she  need  not  hreak 

Profoundly  impressed  tliat  the  future  of  the 
race  hinges  mainly  upon  the  girls  of  to-day,  Dr. 
Lewis,  eager  to  help  on  in  the  best  way,  resolved 
to  put  his  theories  to  the  test  of  practice. 

He  therefore  decided  to  establish  a  school  for 
young  ladies,  or  "  our  girls,"  as  he  preferred  to 
call  them,  in  which  he  could  embody  his  beliefs 
as  to  the  best  conditions  for  the  development  of  a 
true  w^omanhood.  In  this  he  wished  to  give  to 
its  members  the  liberties  and  jDleasures  of  a  true 
and  refined  home ;  by  the  abolition  of  distrustful 
espionage  to  develop  the  sense  and  habit  of  per- 
sonal responsibility;  by  employment  of  the  best 
teachers,  and  by  familiar  association  between 
them  and  the  X3ux)ils,  to  furnish  both  conscious 
and  unconscious  intellectual  and  spiritual  train- 
ing; and  by  complete  physical  training  under 
hygienic  conditions  to  insure,  as  indispensable  to 
all  the  rest,  a  sound  body. 

The  following  account  of  the  school  is  taken, 
substantially,  from  a  volume  published  later  by 
Dr.  Lewis,  entitled  "  Our  Girls :  " 

He  bought  a  large  summer  hotel  in  the  healthy 
and  historic  town  of  Lexington,  Mass.,  eleven 
miles  from  Boston.  This  he  adapted,  at  large  out- 
lay of  time,  thought,  and  money,  to  the  use  and 
comfort  of  young  women.     Desiring  to  convince 

94  "I^itE   BIOGHAPHY   OF   1)10   LEWlg. 

educators  and  physicians  of  tlie  soundness  of  his 
principles,  he  advertised  especially  for  pupils  who 
had  broken  down  at  other  schools.  This  brought 
many  girls  so  out  of  health  that  for  a  time  it  was 
necessary  to  treat  them  as  patients.  Some  were 
cared  for,  for  months,  as  invalids.  Then  they 
were  permitted  to  attend  the  classes  as  listeners, 
but  were  not  allowed  to  study  books.  When 
well  enough  they  became  ]3upils  in  full. 

Having  too  often  seen  coarse  and  unmannerly 
teachers  made  instructors  of  girls,  as  if  the  knowl- 
edge of  books  were  the  one  test  of  their  fitness  as 
guides,  regardless  of  the  fine  graces,  the  conversa- 
tional powers,  and  the  subtle  influences  of  charac- 
ter which  furnish  the  true,  though  often  uncon- 
scious education,  Dr.  Lewis  was  at  much  pains  to 
secure  a  corps  of  teachers  whose  character  and 
refinement  should  be  at  least  equal  to  their  in- 
tellectual attainment,  which  he  required  to  be 
adequate  to  the  work  of  instruction  without  the 
aid,  in  the  class-room,  of  text-books. 

In  religious  matters  he  wished  the  school  to 
be  altogether  unsectarian.  From  his  youth,  Dr. 
Lewis  had  been  a  member  of  the  "  Church  of  the 
Disciples,"  but  as  he  did  not  find  this  denomina- 
tion represented  in  the  vicinity  of  Boston,  he 
united  with  the  Episcopal  church,  of  which  Mrs. 
Lewis  was  a  member.  The  several  professors  in 
the  school  rej)resented  the  Avidest  diversity  of  re- 


ligious  views,  and  this  Dr.  Lewis  preferred,  as 
thus,  while  the  highest  principles  of  religion  were 
inculcated  and  became  the  very  atmosphere  of 
the  school,  the  pupils  came  under  no  one  denomi- 
national influence  with  respect  to  creeds  at  this 
formative  periods  of  their  lives. 

The  leading  professor  in  the  department  of 
mental  and  moral  science,  and  critical  reading  of 
the  English  classics,  was  Theodore  D.  Weld,  pre- 
viously head  of  the  noted  Eagle  wood  school,  N.  J., 
and  distinguished  as  a  Shakespearian  scholar  and 
interpreter  and  as  a  lecturer  on  mental  and  moral 

In  early  life  Mr.  Weld  studied  for  the  minis- 
try at  Lane  Seminary,  Ohio,  under  Dr.  Lyman 
Beecher,  but  he  abandoned  the  plan  and  gave 
himself  to  the  anti-slavery  work,  speaking  from 
the  platform  and  writing.  Referring  to  him 
Wendell  Phillips  said:  "His  are  the  most  elo^ 
quent  lips  that  ever  addressed  an  audience  on  the 
subject  of  slavery." 

Mr.  Weld  married  Miss  Angelina  Grimke,  a 
Southern  lady  whose  self-sacriflcing  devotion  to 
her  anti-slavery  principles  led  her  to  part  with 
her  inheritance  by  freeing  her  slaves,  and  to  con^ 
quer  her  timid  reserve  and  address  audiences  at  a 
time  when  for  a  woman  to  speak  in  public  was  to 
incur  the  opprobrium  of  the  world  and  to  brave 
the  alienation  of  friends. 

96  THE   BIOGRAPnY    OF   1)10   LEWIS. 

That  Miss  Grimke's  magnetic  eloquence  won 
all  wlio  listened  to  her  and  drew  from  Wendell 
Phillips  the  remark,  "  She  swept  the  cords  of  the 
human  heart  with  a  power  that  has  never  been 
surpassed  and  rarely  equalled,"  Avas  the  gift  that 
was  added  to  that  which,  in  the  humblest  spirit 
of  self-sacrifice,  she  sought  and  Avon — the  power  to 
helj)  those  Avho  were  in  bonds. 

Loss  of  voice  early  compelled  Mr.  Weld  to 
abandon  public  speaking,  and  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Weld 
established,  in  1854,  a  school  at  Eagle  wood,  N.  J., 
which  won  high  esteem  from  the  most  cultivated 
and  thoughtful  people.  Dr.  Lewis,  in  his  estimate 
of  its  character,  expressed  the  feeling-  of  many. 
He  wrote:  "  I  had  the  pleasure  to  visit  this  school. 
Its  organization  and  management  evinced  an  orig- 
inality so  remarkable,  a  comprehension  so  com- 
plete, and  a  moral  power  so  intense  that  whenever 
since  I  have  thought  of  a  school  in  the  best  sense, 
that  remarkable  company  of  young  men  and  wo- 
men gathered  about  their  idolized  teacher  has 
risen  up  before  me. 

"I  visited  Mr.  Weld's  school  more  than  once, 
and  never  Avithout  a  yearning  to  see  an  educa- 
tional institution  in  which  this  grand  man,  freed 
from  business  responsibilities,  might,  with  all  his 
magnetism  and  noble  thought,  be  brought  face 
to  face  Avith  a  great  company  of  young  people. 
The  happiest  day  during  the  months  of  prejDara- 


tion  for  the  Lexington  school  was  that  on  which 
Mr.  Weld  consented  to  join  me  in  its  manage- 

Mrs.  Weld  assumed  the  dei^artment  of  history, 
and  both  remained  members  of  the  faculty  as 
long  as  the  school  continued.  The  esteem  which 
Dr.  Lewis  felt  for  Mr.  Weld  when  they  began  to 
work  together  grew  with  association,  and  w^hen, 
at  a  dinner-party,  the  question  was  asked  of  each 
in  turn,  "  Who  among  all  the  men  you  have  met 
impresses  you  as  the  greatest  ? "  and  one  answered, 
"Why,  Webster,  of  course,"  and  another  said, 
"Archbishop  Manning,"  and  another,  "Kossuth," 
Dr.  Lewis  said:  "  Of  all  the  hundred  persons,  more 
or  less,  that  I  have  met  v/ho  were  esteemed  great, 
I  consider  Theodore  D.  Weld  the  greatest.  I 
think  his  mind  the  most  philosophical  and  w^ell- 
balanced,  and  his  moral  development  the  most 

In  the  department  of  music  was  Zerdahelyi,  a 
pupil  of  Liszt  who  played  with  the  maestro  in 
the  capitals  of  EuroxDe,  and  whom  Liszt,  when  en- 
cored, would  sometimes  push  through  the  curtain, 
saying  to  the  audience,  "  He  can  play  as  w^ell  as 
I  can."  In  the  Hungarian  insurrection  against 
Austria  Zerdahelyi  joined  the  army  and  became  a 
member  of  the  staff  of  Kossuth,  with  whom  he 
was  at  length  banished.  He  was  shot  in  the 
hand  during  his  time  of  service,  but  was  still  an 


accomplislied  player  and  became  a  remarkable 

For  a  time  there  was  among  the  lecturers  Miss 
Catherine  Beecher,  widely  known  as  an  instructor 
of  young  ladies  at  Hartford,  Conn.,  and  as  a  writer 
and  speaker  on  educational  topics.  Mrs.  Caroline 
M.  Severance,  who  was  the  first  president  of  the 
"  New  England  Woman's  Club,"  was  also  a  lec- 
turer. Miss  Virginia  F.  Townsend,  the  esteemed 
author,  was  one  of  the  teachers. 

Tn^   BlOGHAPfiY   OF   DiO   LEWIS.  99 


DuEiNa  the  four  years  of  tlie  continuance  of 
the  Lexington  school,  nearly  three  hundred  young 
women  were  there  trained  under  the  personal 
management  of  its  founder,  in  accordance  with  a 
new  and  peculiar  regimen,  one  especial  aim  of 
which  was  to  demonstrate  the  possibility  of  im- 
proving their  bodies  during  their  school-life,  as 
the  bodies  of  young  men  are  improved  in  German 
universities.  An  exceptionally  full  curriculum  of 
study  was  adopted,  and  pupils  were  pushed 
harder,  perhaps,  than  in  almost  any  other  school 
in  New  England. 

The  girls  averaged  about  seventeen  years  of  age, 
and  came  from  all  parts  of  the  country,  including 
California,  Central  America,  and  the  West  Indies. 
They  came  largely  from  wealthy  families  and 
were  delicate  girls,  unable  to  bear  the  artificial 
life  of  fashionable  seminaries  or  even  of  fashiona- 
ble homes.  As  simple,  and  healthful,  and  cheerful 
a  life  as  could  well  be  attained  was  here  offered 

The  pupils  retired  at  half -past  eight,  wore  no 
corsets  nor  close    dress,  kept  their  extremities 

100  THE    BIOGRAPHY   OF   DlO   LEWIS* 

warm  with,  flannels  and  strong  shoes,  ate  plain 
food,  and  enjoyed  many  games  and  much  hearty 

Dr.  Lewis  regarded  two  meals  a  day  as  better 
for  the  human  system  than  three,  and  adopted 
that  plan  in  the  school.  It  of  course  met  oppo- 
sition from  the  parents,  and,  at  first,  from  the 
pupils,  though  most  of  the  latter  soon  came  to 
prefer  it.  At  the  beginning  of  each  new  school- 
year,  however,  the  difference  of  opinion  had  to  be 
adjusted  anew,  and,  weary  with  the  effort,  after 
two  years  the  'doctor  resumed  the  customary 
number  of  meals. 

The  table,  while  simple  and  limited  in  number 
of  courses,  furnished  an  abundance  of  the  best 
meats,  grains  well  cooked,  and  fruits.  Soups  were 
not  in  favor,  as  the  doctor  regarded  them  as  re- 
tarding digestion.  He  was  rigid  in  the  exclusion 
of  pastry. 

The  customary  dress  of  the  pupils  was  the  gym- 
nastic costume  worn  by  Dr.  Lewis's  classes  every- 
where. It  was  made  short  on  the  shoulders,  and 
so  long  in  the  waist  that,  unless  the  arms  were 
lifted,  it  fell  over  the  loose  belt.  The  skirt  came 
half-way  from  knee  to  ankle.  While  the  young 
ladies  walked,  on  week-days,  in  this  dress,  with- 
out attracting  especial  attention,  being  simply 
recognized  by  it  anywhere  within  a  radius  of  Hve 
miles  as  Dr.  Lewis's  pui)ils,  they  at  first  wore  the 

THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF   DIO    LEWIS.  101 

ordinary  street  costume  to  cliurcli  on  Sundays. 
At  the  reqaest,  however,  of  the  venerable  pastor 
of  the  Presbyterian  church,  they  were  permitted, 
to  their  great  relief  and  delight,  to  wear  the  short 
dress  on  Sundays  as  on  other  days,  making  it  as 
beaatif  al  and  becoming  as  their  several  tastes  dic- 
tated. Many  of  the  school-girls  and  some  of  the 
young  ladies  of  Lexington  not  connected  with  the 
institution  adopted  the  same  style  of  dress. 

Especial  effort  was  made  that  physical  training 
should  be  complete;  nothing  was  left  to  chance 
or  to  individual  proclivity.  "In  most  semina- 
ries," wrote  Dr.  Lewis,  "  physical  exercise  is  op- 
tional with  the  pux)ils.  If  arithmetic  were  treated 
in  the  same  way,  necessary  as  it  is  to  civilized  life, 
I  fear  but  little  progress  would  be  made." 

Every  member  of  the  school  practised  the  light 
gymnastics  daily,  for  from  an  hour  to  an  hour 
and  a  half,  there  was  dancing  on  three  or  four 
evenings  of  each  week,  and  there  were  many 
amusing  games. 

So  popular  were  gymnastics  among  the  pupils 
that  when  asked  whether  they  preferred  to  spend 
the  hour  of  recreation  which  preceded  bed-time 
in  dancing  or  in  competitive  gymnastics,  they  al- 
most invariably  chose  the  latter. 

But  their  exercise  was  not  all  in-doors.  A  fine 
bowling  alley  belonged  to  the  school.  On  all  the 
roads  leading  out  of  the  village,  to  Woburn,  to 

102  THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF   DIO    LEWIS. 

Arlington,  to  Waltliam,  to  Bedford,  each  five 
miles  distant,  and  to  Concord,  seven  miles  away, 
Dr.  Lewis  had  quarter-mile  distances  painted  on 
post  or  tree  or  stone  wall,  and,  whatever  the 
weather,  the  passer-by  was  likely  to  meet  a  bevy 
of  merry  girls,  with  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Lewis,  Mr.  and 
Mrs.  Weld,  or  other  of  the  equally  happy  teachers, 
with  flower-box  or  geologist's  hammer  in  hand, 
or  a  tin  cup  for  drinking  at  the  wayside  fountains, 
as  they  to(5'k  their  steadily  lengthening  walks, 
which  often  reached  from  two  to  five  miles.  So 
safe  was  the  old  town,  lying  beyond  the  stir  of 
manufactures  and  active  business,  that  the  young 
ladies  could  freely  ramble  in  the  beautiful  groves 
and  woods  with  which  it  abounded. 

On  entering  the  school  pupils  were  measured 
about  the  chest,  under  the  arms,  about  the  waist, 
and  around  the  arm  and  the  fore-arm.  The  aver- 
age gain  for  eight  months  was  in  chest  measure, 
two  and  a  half  inches ;  waist  measure,  five  inches ; 
size  of  arm,  one  and  a  half  inches;  of  fore-arm, 
about  one  inch.  The  work  was  so  hard  that  with 
all  this  remarkable  development  the  weight  of  the 
pupils  was  often  lessened. 

Of  course  girls  came  to  the  school  with  injunc- 
tions from  mothers  not  to  climb  stairs,  and  with 
letters  from  family  physicians  urging  moderation 
in  gymnastics,  a  caution  not  unwise  with  the  cor- 
§etj  long  skirts,  an^  sjiug  dresses  tg  wJllQll  they 

THE    BIOaRAPHY   OF   DIG    LEWIS.  103 

were  accustomed.  Indeed,  the  mothers  who  came 
with  their  daughters  were  often  so  appalled  by 
the  amount  of  gymnastic  exercise  which  they  saw 
the  pupils  taking,  that  before  venturing  to  leave 
their  delicate  daughters  they  took  counsel  with 
Mr.  Weld,  his  department  being  aside  from  that 
of  physical  culture,  to  learn  whether  Dr.  Lewis's 
enthusiasm  in  this  direction  did  not  carry  him 
too  far  for  the  safety  of  young  girls.  "  This,"  said 
Mr.  Weld,  in  1887,  "led  me  to  very  careful  obser- 
vation, which  enabled  me  to  reassure  them,  and  I 
can  say  that  although  I  was  a  teacher  in  the 
school  from  its  establishment  till  its  close,  I  never 
knew  a  case  in  which  gymnastic  exercise  was  over- 
done or  harmful." 

In  the  judgment  of  Dr.  Lewis,  "  in  no  instance 
did  a  pupil  fail  to  improve  in  health."  He  wrote: 
"  Pupils  came  with  dread  of  stairs,  from  back-ache 
or  palpitation,  and  nearly  all  with  some  form  of 
special  weakness.  In  a  few  months  they  could 
do  the  full  and  hard  gymnastic  work  of  the  school, 
dance  three  evening  a  week,  go  up-stairs  without 
symptoms^  and  walk  from  five  to  ten  miles  on 
Saturday  without  inconvenience.  After  the  first 
month  of  the  school-year  even  headaches  were  al- 
most unknown  among  them.  A  common  excla- 
mation from  pupils  was,  '  What  a  slave  I  have 
been !  Everything  used  to  seem  a  burden.  I  have 
Just  begun  to  live !  "• 

104  THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF    DIO    LEWIS. 

^'From  accumulated  experience  such  as  few 
men  have  had  the  privilege  of  enjoying,"  says  the 
doctor,  "  it  is  my  deliberate  conviction  that  ninety- 
nine  out  of  every  hundred  girls  may  be  so  devel- 
oped, physically,  in  two  years  of  school-life,  that 
they  can  walk  ten  miles  without  fatigue,  be  free 
from  aches  and  weaknesses,  and  nobly  fitted  for 
the  grave  responsibilities  of  citizenship  and 

In  so  large  a  company  definite  system  was  in- 
dispensable to  concert  of  action.  There  were, 
perhaps,  as  many  regulations  here  as  in  other 
schools,  but  the  spirit  in  which  they  were  ob- 
served was  the  distinctive  feature.  The  discipline 
of  coercion  and  restriction  was  utterly  abandoned, 
and  the  girls  were  treated  as  reasonable  and  in- 
telligent beings,  who  would  naturally  choose  the 
right  and  accept  the  opportunities  of  mental  and 
physical  culture  afforded  them.  The  teachers 
mingled  freely  with  the  pupils  in  all  their  many 
amusements,  from  ball-games  and  dancing  to  slid- 
ing down  hill. 

In  this  way  a  vigilant  and  earnest  public  senti- 
ment was  developed,  which  made  the  trammels 
and  friction  of  school  government  quite  unneces- 
sary. The  girls  bore  themselves  precisely  as  they 
would  do  in  a  drawing-room,  in  the  presence  of 
men  and  women  of  dignified  manners  and  fine 
culture.     Indeed,   such  were    the   persons   with 

THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF    DIO    LEWIS.  105 

whom  they  constantly  associated.  There  was, 
moreover,  so  large  an  element  of  trust  in  the  rela- 
tion between  the  teachers  and  the  pupils  that  the 
latter  could  not  escape  the  feeling  that  they  were 
X)laced  on  their  honor. 

During  the  lirst  winter  of  the  school  Mr.  Weld 
was  so  imjDressed  by  the  mental  and  moral  qual- 
ity of  the  pupils  that  he  said :  ''Dr.  Lewis,  how 
did  you  get  so  superior  a  class  of  girls  together  ? " 
"  I  don't  know,"  was  the  reply.  "  I  only  adver- 
tised our  aim  and  x^urpose."  ''  I  can  ansAver  that 
question,  Mr.  Weld,"  exclaimed  Mrs.  LeAvis. 
''  These  girls  are  largely  the  daughters  of  the 
thinking  mothers  of  New  England,  many  of  whom 
are  earnest  anti-slavery  workers,  and  they  have 
seriously  felt  the  need  of  more  sim]3le  and  sensi- 
ble training  than  the  boarding-schools  have  been 
in  the  habit  of  famishing." 

Years  later  Dr.  Lewis  wrote:  "  The  secret  of  the 
X)opularity  of  that  school  and  of  the  most  remark- 
able intellectual  jjrogress  I  have  ever  known  w^as 
the  absence  of  what  is  called '  government.'  Every 
pupil  was  expected  to  do  her  best,  and  I  believe 
she  did  it.  Neither  merit  nor  demerit  in  respect 
to  character  or  recitations  was  made  a  matter  of 
record.  The  result  was  all  that  the  most  critical 
could  ask,  and  would  have  satisfied  the  most  ex- 
acting. The  school  was  a  marvellous  success,  and 
is  referred  to^  to  this  day,  by  some  of  the  puj)ils, 

106  THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF    DIO    LEWIS. 

as  the  commencement  of  a  new  life,  as  tlie  place 
where  they  began  consciously  to  cultivate  a  true 

The  experiences  of  some  of  the  girls  who,  for 
the  first  time  in  their  lives,  were  not  told,  but 
were  expected,  to  do  their  best  were  very  touch- 

During  the  sessions  it  was  customary  to  give 
four  or  five  receptions,  one  on  Christmas,  one  on 
Washington's  Birthday,  one  on  May  Day,  and 
others  on  exceptional  occasions.  These  began  at 
seven  o'clock  a.m.,  and  a  special  ten-o'clock  train  to 
Boston  took  the  guests  away.  Invitations  to  these 
were  always  given  by  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Lewis,  the  name 
of  the  young  lady  at  whose  request  it  was  extended 
apj)earing  also  on  the  card.  Among  the  guests 
were  included  the  friends  and  relatives  of  the 
pupils  in  the  vicinity  and  many  of  the  students  of 
Harvard  College. 

The  only  request  Avhich  Dr.  Lewis  was  in  the 
habit  of  making  of  the  pupils  before  these  recep- 
tions, was  that  they  receive  their  friends  and  bid 
them  good-night  without  leaving  the  ball-room. 
For  the  rest  he  expressed  confidence  in  their  sense 
of  propriety.  While  there  was  no  system  of  espi- 
onage in  the  school,  the  public  sentiment  was  suffi- 
cient to  hold,  with  hardly  an  exception,  each 
pupil  to  her  best.  When  some  lapse  from  correct 
deportment  had  occurred,  it  was  not  iincojnnion  for 


the  knowledge  to  reach  the  principal  first  from 
the  contrition  and  confession  of  the  offender. 

Said  one  such,  in  her  outburst  of  confidence: 

"  If  you  knew  how  much  better  I  have  done 
here  than  at  any  other  school,  I  am  sure  you 
would  excuse  me  for  this  fault.  AVhen  I  was  at 
the  G.  Seminary  I  used  to  say  that  if  we  were 
half  as  much  interested  in  our  studies  as  we  were 
in  cheating  our  teachers  we  should  become  as 
Avise  as  Solomon.  But  here — why,  doctor,  during 
all  these  months  that  I  have  been  here  I  have 
never  heard  a  word  from  any  girl  which  looked 
like  decei)tion.  You  trust  us  so  com23letely,  and 
treat  us  with  such  respect,  that  I  don't  see  how 
the  worst  girl  that  ever  lived  could  mean  to  do 

A  single  incident  will,  perhaps,  best  illustrate 
the  spirit  of  the  pupils. 

Nannette,  a  young  girl  whose  home-life  had 
been  spent  in  a  'New  York  hotel,  and  who  had 
been  much  indulged  in  following  her  own  Avay- 
ward  impulses,  became  one  of  the  Lexington 
pupils.  One  evening  she  had  planned  a  drive 
with  an  outside  admirer,  but  the  doors  were  locked 
and  a  night-watchman  patrolled  the  halls,  not  to 
guard  the  pupils  but  the  building.  IN'annette 
could  only  escape  by  being  let  doAvn  from  the 
window.  A  stout  servant-girl  was  enlisted  for 
the  undertaking,  and  Nannette  was  lowered  to 

108  THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF    DIO    LEWIS. 

tlie  ground,  and  when  the  drive  was  over  was  care- 
fully drawn  up  again. 

Some  of  the  pupils  discovered  the  escapade,  but 
the  first  knowledge  of  it  that  came  to  the  faculty 
was  brought  to  Dr.  Lewis  by  Nannette  herself. 
She  came  to  him  and  said :  "  Doctor,  I  have  to 
leave  the  school."  "  Leave  the  school?  Why  so, 
Nannette?"  "I  must;  I  cannot  stay."  Again 
the  hesitating  girl  was  pressed  for  a  reason,  till, 
at  last,  she  said:  "The  girls  will  not  let  me  stay. 
At  least,"  she  hesitatingly  added,  "unless  I  con- 
fess to  you  what  I  have  done.  They  say  so,  and 
the  praying  girls  are  all  joraying  for  me." 

Gently  urged  to  say  what  the  offence  had  been, 
she  told  her  story,  expressed  penitence,  and,  duly 
admonished,  remained  in  school,  proving  herself 
thenceforth  trustworthy. 

THE   BlOGHAPHY    OF   I>iO   LEWIS.  109 


Although  the  pupils  of  the  school  were  mostly 
from  aristocratic  families,  the  spirit  inculcated 
was  thoroughly  democratic.  The  head  of  the 
school  and  the  leading  professors  knew  no  dis- 
crimination, even  in  thought,  on  the  adventitious 
basis  of  fortune,  family,  sex,  or  race.  It  should 
be  stated  here  that  a  few  boys  were  admitted  for 
a  time,  as  Dr.  Lewis  believed  in  co-education,  and 
limited  the  school  to  girls  only  because  their  need 
of  its  training  was,  for  the  time,  most  jDressing, 
and  the  accommodations  were  not  suificient  for 
both  sexes. 

In  I860  or  1866  application  was  made  for  the  ad- 
mission of  a  pupil  of  the  negro  race,  but  with  the 
exjDress  statement  that  it  was  only  in  case  it  would 
cause  no  injury  to  the  school. 

Dr.  Lewis,  talking  with  Mr.  N.  T.  Allen,  of  the 
West  jSTewton  school,  said :  "  Mr.  Allen,  what 
would  you  do  if  you  were  applied  to  for  admis- 
sion of  a  colored  girl  to  your  school? " 

"  Take  her,"  said  Mr.  Allen.     "  I  have  done  so." 

"  Mr. has  applied  to  me  in  behalf  of  such 

a  girl,"  said  the  doctor,  "  but  insists  upon  know- 
ing if  her  coming  would  interfere  with  the  good 


feeling  or  prosperity  of  my  school.  I  presented 
the  matter  at  once  to  the  pupils,  and  they  agreed 
to  receive  her  cordially."  It  may  have  been  some 
privately  expressed  reluctance  which  made  one 
noble  girl,  who  has  since  made  her  mark  in  litera- 
ture, say,  "  Let  her  come,  and  if  necessary  I  will 
share  my  room  with  her." 

But  the  parents  of  some  ten  or  twelve  girls  from 
Connecticut  immediately  protested,  adding  that 
they  should  take  away  their  daughters  if  the  girl 
were  admitted. 

The  following  letters  on  the  subject  bear  wit- 
ness to  a  spirit  loyal  to  humanity  at  a  time  when 
it  cost  public  opprobrium : 

"Boston,  Friday,  Sept.  15th. 

"  Dear  Br.  Lewis  : — I  thank  you  for  your  kind 
and  noble  letter.  Of  course,  neither  Mr.  Whittier 
nor  myself  would  feel  justihed  in  allowing  you 
to  jeojjardize  your  school,  already  such  an  impor- 
tant feature  in  the  education  of  our  country. 

"Mr.  Whittier  asks  me  to  thank  you  for  his 
letter,  while  I  do  so  for  my  own  from  you.  The 
revolution  is  not  yet  finished;  indeed,  who  shall 
tell  us  when  the  end  shall  be  ?  But  when  that  end 
does  arrive,  I  think  our  schools  will  be  no  longer 
disturbed  by  the  entrance  of  a  cultivated  colored 
person,  either  man  or  woman. 

"  With  respect  and  sincere  regard, 

"Annie  Fields." 


"  Amesburt,  16th,  9th  Mo. 

"  My  Deae  Doctor: — I  thank  tliee  for  thy  no- 
ble letter  and  the  generous  and  heroic  spirit  it 
manifests.  Under  the  circumstances  I  should  not 
feel  like  accejDting  thy  olfer  in  Miss  F.'s  behalf, 
and  I  know  she  would  be  unwilling  to  risk  the 
consequences  of  it.  I  am  not  sure  but  it  would 
be  better  for  her  to  remain  in  Philadelphia  this 
winter,  at  least. 

"  Wishing  thee  all  the  success  which  I  am  sure 
thy  enterprise  deserves,  and  with  assurances  of 
my  high  esteem  and  respect, 

"  I  am  truly  thy  friend, 

''John  G.  Whittiee." 

In  the  spring  of  1865  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Lewis  be- 
came interested  in  three  sisters,  mulatto  girls,  who 
were  born  in  Virginia,  the  slaves  of  their  white 
father.  It  had  not  been  the  father's  intention  that 
the  children  should  follow  the  destiny  of  their 
mother.  They  had  been  brought  u]3  in  his  house- 
hold, of  which,  under  his  own  mother  residing 
there,  their  mother  had  charge.  The  children 
were  taught  to  call  him  "  father  "  and  his  mother 
"grandma,"  as  if  they  had  been  altogether  of  his 
race.  He  had  instructed  them,  and  proposed  to 
send  the  oldest  North  for  further  education,  her 
wardrobe  being  already  prepared,  when  the  father 

112  THE   BiOGRAPtiY   OF   1)10   LEWIS. 

was  warned  by  the  town  authorities  that  this  must 
not  be  done. 

Early  in  the  war  the  father  was  accidental! 3^ 
shot  while  standing  at  his  own  door.  Althouoh 
he  left  a  will  which  gave  his  children  their  free- 
dom and  made  them  heirs  to  property,  there  was 
no  one  to  see  that  so  obnoxious  features  of  it  were 

These  three  girls,  however,  escaped  with  some 
other  slaves,  and  found  refuge  within  the  Union 
lines  at  Fairfax  Court-House.  A  woman  who  was 
an  army-nurse  brought  them  North.  Many  will 
recall  the  impressive  words  of  Henry  Ward 
Beecher  when  he  baptized  the  youngest,  a  pretty 
child  of  six  years,  an  alien  on  her  native  soil. 

The  second  daughter  was  brought  to  Dr.  and 
Mrs.  Lewis  for  employment.  They  knew  what 
trouble  would  follow  the  introduction  of  one  col- 
ored girl  among  thirty  white  servants  of  various 
nationalities,  and  she  was  therefore  kept  as  a 
maid,  in  personal  attendance,  during  the  hours 
when  she  was  not  in  the  public  school  at  Lexing- 
ton, to  which  she  Avas  at  once  sent.  Annie  proved 
to  be  a  girl  of  great  worth  in  every  respect.  Her 
lady-like  manners  and  her  pleasant  disposition 
won  the  esteem  of  all  who  knew  her.  But  she  had 
the  frail  temperament  common  to  those  of  mixed 
blood,  and  tw^o  years  later  died  of  consumption. 

The  oldest  of  the  three  sisters  was  living  in  the 


State  of  New  York,  and  before  lier  deatli  Annie 
asked  if  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Lewis  woukl  not  take  this 
sister  to  fill  lier  place,  to  wliicli  they  consented. 
She  was  of  dignified  and  attractive  manners,  and 
had  much  strength  of  character  united  with  great 
amiability.  Both  the  girls  were  quick  and  am- 
bitious students,  and  Mary  was  gifted  with  a  voice 
of  unusual  sweetness.  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Lewis  soon 
came  to  feel  so  great  regard  for  her  that  they  gave 
her  the  position  of  a  daughter  in  the  house. 

Dr.  Lewis  presented  the  question  to  his  jDupils 
whether  his  colored  daughter  would  be  welcome 
as  a  school-mate,  and  again  had  reason  to  feel 
deei^ly  grateful  that  in  those  under  his  charge 
principle  conquered  the  prejudice  in  which,  of 
course,  most  of  them  had  been  reared. 

Though  Mary  was  of  most  delicate  and  sensitive 
nature,  no  lack  of  consideration  or  friendliness 
marred  her  happiness  during  the  year  in  which 
she  was  a  x)ux)il  in  the  school.  But  she,  too,  was 
the  victim  of  her  inheritance.  She  lost  her  voice 
in  the  trying  New  England  climate,  and  was  sent, 
for  better  conditions,  to  Mrs.  Lewis,  mother  of  the 
doctor  who  lived  in  Auburn,  IST.  Y.  She  remained 
for  two  years  in  this  peaceful  home,  treated  as  a 
granddaughter,  receiving  and  conferring  happi- 
ness, when  she,  too,  died  of  consumption,  and  was 
buried  in  the  family  lot  of  one  not  of  her  subject- 
race,  who  claimed  this  because  of  their  mutual  love. 

114  THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF   DIG    LEWIS. 

During  this  period,  tliongli  so  engrossed  with 
many  absorbing  interests,  Dr.  Lewis  found  time 
to  ally  himself  with  the  anti-slav^ery  work,  at  least 
to  the  extent  of  standing  by  its  leaders  in  their 
hours  of  danger. 

"  Dr.  Lewis  was  a  true,  courageous,  and  enthusi- 
astic reformer,"  says  Mr.  N.  T.  Allen,  of  West 
NeAvton.  "  He  was  present  when,  in  1862,  Wen- 
dell Phillips  was  in  peril  from  the  mobs  in 
Tremont  Temple  and  in  Music  Hall,  and  sat  on 
the  front  of  the  platform  between  Mr.  Phillips 
and  myself,  with  jDistols  in  his  pockets.  I  re- 
call the  impression  made  by  his  erect,  and  stal- 
wart, and  noble  presence.  His  bearing  was  al- 
ways commanding,  but  never  more  so  than  then. 
He  was  also  one  of  the  escorts  which  conducted 
Mr.  Phillips  through  the  middle  of  the  street,  fol- 
lowed by  a  howling  mob,  to  his  home,  which  a 
dozen  men  guarded  day  and  night." 

At  this  period  Dr.  Lewis  occupied  as  a  gymna- 
sium, on  Essex  Street,  the  second  house  from  that 
of  Mr.  Phillips. 

Mrs.  Lewis  vividly  recalls  looking  from  the 
windows  many  times  upon  a  mob  surrounding  Mr. 
Phillips  on  his  way  to  his  house;  a  mob  which 
surged  through  the  streets,  not  from  curb-stone  to 
curb-stone,  but  from  wall  to  wall  of  the  buildings, 
sometimes  putting  their  fists  or  elbows  through  the 
plate-glass  windows,  the  sound  of  whose  crashing 

TSii   BlOGHAPSY   01^   DiO   LEWIS.  llo 

was  added  to  the  shouts  and  groans  of  the  excited 
populace.  The  strain  of  anxiety  lest,  at  any  mo- 
ment, a  bullet  from  some  dastardly  hand  might 
be  sent  to  the  noble  heart  of  the  great  leader, 
found  relief  only  when  they  saw  the  door  of  his 
house  close  between  him  and  the  riotous  throng, 
and  "  Thank  God,  he  is  safe !  "  broke  from  their 
blanched  lips.  More  than  once  between  the  mob 
and  Mr.  Phillips  moved  a  band  of  loyal  women, 
to  serve  as  a  body-guard. 

The  victim  of  these  demonstrations  bore  him- 
self Avith  a  dignity  and  apparent  composure  which 
the  lookers-on  could  not  command.  "What," 
thought  Mrs.  Lewis,  "must  be  the  agony  of  the 
invalid  wife  in  that  imperilled  home ! "  An  an- 
swer came  unexpectedly.  A  friend  called  one  day 
on  Mrs.  Lewis,  at  a  time  when  Mr.  Phillips  was 
on  a  lecture  tour  in  the  West,  where  he  was  incur- 
ring much  public  odium.  She  said :  "  I  have  just 
called  to  ask  about  Mrs.  Phillips.  I  said  to  the 
adopted  daughter,  ^I  hope  your  aunt  does  not 
read  these  painful  newspaper  reports?'  'Yes, 
every  one  of  them,'  she  replied, '  and  only  says,  "  I 
am  not  anxious ;  no  harm  will  come  to  Wendell." ' " 

To  one  who  remarked,  "  I  have  never  seen  so 
great  an  invalid  as  Mrs.  Phillips,  so  full  of  cheer 
and  spirit,"  Mr.  Phillips  promptly  replied:  "I 
get  my  best  inspirations  at  her  bedside." 

During  the  war  a  regiment  of  soldiers  from  some 


New  England  State  was  one  day  passing  through 
the  city,  and  took  its  way  to  the  point  of  depart- 
ure, the  Boston  and  Albany  Station,  through  Essex 

The  sound  of  the  steady  tramp  of  a  thousand 
men,  and  the  inspiring  strains  of  martial  music, 
preceded  the  coming  of  the  phalanx  of  soldiers, 
but  when  it  aj^proached  the  house  of  Mr.  Phillips, 
"  John  Brown's  body  lies  a-mouldering  in  the 
ground"  rose  from  a  thousand  voices.  Seeing 
Mr.  Phillips  bring  out  a  bust  of  John  Brown  and 
place  it  on  the  balcony,  that  all  the  soldiers  might 
look  upon  it,  and  where,  as  happened,  all  could 
lift  their  caps  in  recognition  of  the  two  heroes, 
Mrs.  Lewis  sent  to  ask  Mr.  Phillips  if  he  would 
like  to  use  her  United  States  flag  to  drape  the 
bust.  He  sent  the  following  characteristic  reply, 
which,  like  all  his  utterances,  is  a  testimony  to 
the  depth  of  his  convictions,  and  which  also  bears 
witness  to  his  tender  trust  in  a  glorious  future  for 
his  redeemed  country: 

"Deak  Madam: — Many  thanks  for  the  offer  of 
a  flag.  I  decline  it  because  while  it  covers  a  mil- 
lion of  slaves  I  cannot  take  pride  in  it.  John 
Brown's  bust  is  still  my  best  emblem ;  but  I  hope 
soon  to  wreathe  it  in  the  Federal  flag,  which,  I 
trust,  will,  in  a  little  while,  secure  liberty  to  all 
under  its  folds.  Kindly  yours, 

"  AVendell  Phillips." 



The  interesting  and  successful  experiment  in  a 
many-sided  education  for  girls  wliicli  was  inau- 
gurated at  Lexington  came  to  an  untimely  end 
through  the  burning  of  the  beautiful  building  in 
which  it  was  carried  on. 

On  the  morning  of  September  7th,  1867,  three 
years  after  the  establishment  of  the  school,  the 
imposing  structure,  containing  one  hundred  and 
ten  rooms,  including  a  spacious  ball-room  used  for 
lectures,  receptions,  and  gymnastics,  as  well  as 
for  dancing,  was  discovered  to  be  on  fire,  and  in 
a  few  hours  was  burned  to  the  ground  with  almost 
all  its  contents,  even  to  family  wardrobes.  The 
shade-trees  which  were  scattered  through  the  at- 
tractive grounds  jjr evented  the  fire  from  spread- 
ing farther.  Unfortunately  the  substitution  of 
steam  for  other  modes  of  heating  had  just  been 
completed  throughout  the  house,  even  to  the 
rooms  of  servants,  at  heavy  cost,  the  fires  not  hav- 
ing been  yet  lighted  beneath  the  last  new  boiler, 
and  seventeen  hundred  dollars'  worth  of  coal  had 
been  placed  in  the  cellar. 

The  buildings  destroyed  were  insured  at  about 


two-thirds  tlieir  assessed  value.  Only  the  previ- 
ous week  it  had  been  urged  upon  Dr.  Lewis  by  a 
gentleman  experienced  in  business,  that  in  case 
of  fire  the  sum  for  which  he  was  insured  woidd 
fall  very  far  short  of  the  cost  of  rebuilding  at  cur- 
rent prices,  then  greatly  enhanced  by  the  war,  and 
he  suggested  an  increase  of  twenty  thousand  dol- 
lars. The  doctor  was  inclined  to  trust  to  the  great 
care  taken,  including  the  employment  of  a  night 
watchman,  but  finally  decided  to  add  ten  thousand 
dollars.  He  attended  to  the  matter  at  once,  but 
he  directed  that  the  new  policy  should  not  be  is- 
sued until  September  20th,  when  the  pupils  would 
begin  to  return.  On  September  7th  the  fire  oc- 
curred. But  the  loss,  which  in  every  respect  was 
so  serious,  seemed  light  when  it  Avas  considered 
that  twenty  days  later  the  building  would  have 
contained  one  hundred  and  fifty  young  ladies  Avho 
had  been  engaged  as  pupils  and  the  corps  of 

The  best  substitute  that  could  be  found  for  the 
school  building,  in  the  emergency,  was  a  summer 
hotel  at  Spy  Pond,  five  miles  from  Boston.  In 
this  the  school  opened,  twenty  days  after  the  fire, 
in  pretty  fair  order.  The  accommodations  were 
so  limited,  however,  that  it  was  necessary  to  issue 
circulars  to  the  patrons  saying  that  no  invalid 
pupils  could  be  received.  Under  these  disadvan- 
tages the  school  continued  only  one  year. 


It  was  Dr.  Lewis's  purjjose  to  rebuild  at  once, 
and  to  establish  an  institution  which  should  illus- 
trate still  more  comx^letely  his  ideal  condition  for 
broad  culture  for  girls,  but  his  heavy  losses  and 
other  circumstances  obliged  him  to  abandon  the 
project.     This  he  did  most  reluctantly. 

As  the  years  went  on  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Lewis  had 
abundant  cause  to  feel  satisfaction  and  pride  in 
the  large  number  of  their  pupils  who  not  only 
hlled  with  success  the  usual  sphere  of  woman  in 
the  home,  but  who,  in  less  accustomed  ways,  be- 
came the  world's  helpers.  The  names  of  many  of 
them  are  widely  known  as  teachers,  as  physicians, 
and  as  artists,  while  others  have  been  permanently 
identified  w^ith  the  organization  of  charities  and 
the  noble  reform  movements  of  the  time. 

Looking  back  uj^on  the  work  which  he  had  re- 
garded as  so  full  of  promise  for  young  women,  Dr. 
Lewis  wrote: 

"  I  think  the  school  at  Lexington  was  the  truest 
exponent  of  education  for  girls  which,  up  to  that 
time,  had  been  in  our  country. 

''And  yet,  as  has  been  showm  in  other  writings, 
the  curriculum  at  Lexington  was  far  from  philo- 
sophical or  wise.  The  waste  of  time  and  money 
on  music  and  the  languages  was  immense.  The 
thought  of  it  even  now  awakens  in  my  mind  the 
keenest  regret. 

"  I  believe  that  the  true  school  will  make  con- 

120  THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF    DIO    LEAVIS. 

spicuoiis  in  its  programme  the  natural  sciences, 
will  push  very  far  the  rudimentary  English  train- 
ing, will  give  the  most  emphatic  attention  to  com- 
position and  conversation,  and  will,  above  all, 
watch  over  the  health,  manners,  and  morals  of 
the  pupils  with  a  truly  paternal  interest." 

It  was  Dr.  Lewis's  belief  that  the  exceeding 
quiet  which  teachers  strive  to  enforce  in  schools 
is  not,  on  the  whole,  advantageous  to  the  pupils, 
who  must  do  their  life-work  in  the  midst  of  more 
or  less  noise,  and  should,  therefore,  learn  to  hx  the 
mind  in  spite  of  such  as  is  incident  to  the  work 
on  hand. 

His  views  of  industrial  education  as  part  of  the 
public-school  system,  expressed  in  1873,  may 
perhaps  be  properly  introduced  here.     He  said: 

"Almost  every  young  American  who  has  such 
an  education  as  our  public  school  furnishes  is 
ambitious  of  professional  life.  When  our  schools 
shall  be  so  modified  as  to  give  industrial  training, 
so  as  to  teach  the  elements  of  one  or  two  hundred 
different  trades  or  occupations,  in  which  hand 
labor  is  a  j)rincipal  feature,  they  will  do  much  to 
remove  these  morbid  aspirations  after  the  learned 
professions.  A  successful  blacksmith  or  cai^en- 
ter  is  a  king  in  independence  as  compared  with 
the  mass  of  doctors,  lawyers,  and  ministers.  In- 
stead of  teaching  so  much  Latin  and  Greek,  our 
public  schools  should  give  instruction  in  the  scien- 

THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF   DJO    LEWIS.  121 

tific  elements  of  a  great  number  of  important  in- 

That  the  interest  in  young  women  with  which 
Dr.  Lewis  commenced  his  work  had  not  abated 
will  appear  by  a  quotation  from  the  introduction 
to  the  volume  "  Our  Girls,"  published  two  years 
after  the  school  was  given  up: 

"My  Dear  Public: — I  write  about  the  girls 
because  I  wish  to,  and  because,  after  a  good  deal 
of  self-examination,  I  candidly  believe  I  have 
something  to  say  about  them. 

"  I  have  always  been  deeply  interested  in  the 
girls.  When  a  youngster  nothing  so  fascinated  me, 
and,  as  I  turn  the  corner,  to  go  with  the  old  folks, 
I  can't  see  that  my  interest  in  them  is  a  whit  less 

"  When  I  was  occupied  with  the  practice  of  my 
profession  my  interest  in  the  girls  was  so  well 
known  that  I  had  an  unusual  number  among  my 
patients.  During  the  years  of  my  j)ublic  lectur- 
ing my  audiences  were  more  than  half  made  up 
of  girls  and  women.  When  I  established  the 
school  at  Lexington  it  was  a  school  for  girls,  and 
during  four  years  I  lived  in  the  midst  of  a  large 
family  of  fine  girls.  It  was  a  sweet,  a  delightful 

"  My  hopes  of  the  future  rest  upon  the  girls. 
My  patriotism  clings  to  the  girls,    I  believe  Ani^?- 

122  THE   BIOGRAPHY    OF   3)10    LEWIS. 

ica's  future  pivots  on  this  great  woman  revolu- 

Dr.  Lewis's  opinions  on  co-education — botli  as 
to  the  practicability  and  the  philosox)hy  of  it — are 
summed  up  in  the  following  narrative  of  personal 
experience : 

"  When  I  was  a  youngster  I  attended  a  prepar- 
atory academy  where  girls  were  admissible  to  a 

part  of  the  recitations.     Miss  F ,   a  very 

charming  lady,  appeared  one  morning  and  mod- 
estly took  her  place  at  the  foot  of  our  class.     It 

w^as  a  class  in  Playfair's  Euclid.     Miss  F 

was  a  beautiful  brunette,  with  a  mouth  full  of 
pearls  and  a  sweet  voice.  The  new-comer  charmed 
the  boys  and  awakened  in  them  the  usual  inter- 
est. On  the  first  day  she  asked  to  be  excused  from 
the  blackboard.  On  the  second  day  a  certain 
proposition  was  to  be  demonstrated  which  came 
first  to  me.  The  teacher  said  that  my  demonstra- 
tion was  a  muddle.  There  were  two  boys  below 
me.  One  of  them  tried  the  problem,  and  when  he 
came  to  'therefore,'  etc.,  the  master  said  that 
'  therefore '  had  nothing  to  do  with  such  a  demon- 
stration as  that.     The  other  ]:)egged  to  be  excused, 

and  Miss  F tried  the  same  plea,  but  the 

master  informed  her  that  it  was  against  one  of 
the  rules  to  excuse  any  pupil  from  recitations  two 
days  in  succession.  So,  with  many  blushes,  she 
went  timidly  to  the  blackboard  and  gave  the  dem- 

THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF   DIO    LEWIS.  123 

onstration  jjerfectly,  and  without  hesitating  upon 
a  single  w^ord.  The  next  recitation  in  that  class 
was  the  best  I  had  heard  up  to  that  time,  and  from 
that  time  on  there  was  fair  play  for  Playfair's 
Euclid  among  us. 

"  Good  Mr.  Hull,  the  teacher,  declared  that  not 
only  had  the  advent  of  Miss  F made  gen- 
tlemen of  the  fourteen  young  men  in  the  class, 
but  that  our  progress  had  been  greatly  increased. 

"  What  I  wished  particularly  to  pronounce  was 
the  fact  that  the  manner  of  the  boys  toward  Miss 

F instantly  changed.     No  actor  could  have 

changed  his  face  quicker  than  the  young  man 
who  sat  next  to  me.  When  she  had  finished  and 
had  quietly  taken  her  seat,  Andrew  remarked 
'thunder!'  and  his  face  was  full  of  admiration. 
From  that  time  I  doubt  if  anything  but  admira- 
tion and  fraternal  affection  found  a  place  among 
us  toward  this  very  hue,  bright  young  woman. 

'•  In  a  school  of  both  sexes  under  my  supervi- 
sion, I  cured  all  cases  of  '  love '  by  putting  each 
'  love-couple '  together  at  the  same  desk,  with  per- 
mission to  help  each  other  in  their  studies. 

"As  soon  as  a  young  man  is  brought  into  con- 
tact with  a  young  woman  in  a  way  which  makes 
them,  in  a  sort,  competitors,  and  an  honorable 
emulation  grows  up  between  them,  in  short, 
when  other  portions  of  the  brain  are  brought  into 
intense  action,  the  organ  of  amativeness  must  give 
way  and  take  its  natural  and  reasonable  place." 



In  1868  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Lewis  desired  to  establish 
tlieir  home  in  Boston.  With  this  in  view  they 
bought  the  property  on  Beacon  Street,  opposite 
the  Boston  Athenjeum,  designing  it  for  a  private 
residence.  At  this  time,  however,  the  inheritance 
of  Mrs.  Lewis  and  her  sister  becoming  available 
for  investment,  and  in  obedience  to  a  natural  in- 
stinct which  impelled  Dr.  Lewis  always  to  X3lan 
for  the  general,  not  merely  for  individual  good, 
the  project  of  a  ])rivate  hotel  was  substitued.  The 
house  was  extended  and  made  eight  stories  in 
height,  and  many  new  ideas  were  incorporated. 
The  second  passenger  elevator  built  in  Boston 
was  introduced,  and  Dr.  Lewis  invented  an  annun- 
ciator, which  was  of  great  service  in  connection 
with  speaking  tubes  communicating  with  all  the 
rooms.  In  the  basement  Avere  the  finest  Turkish 
baths  in  the  country.  Because  of  its  beauty  of 
situation  the  house  was  named  "  The  Bellevue." 

The  upper  story  was  selected  by  Dr.  and  Mrs. 
Lewis  for  their  home.  From  this  an  outlook  was 
obtained  almost  unrivalled  in  the  city.  The  win- 
dows on  the  three  sides  of  the  drawing-room,  look- 

THE    BIOGRAPHY   OF    DIO    LEWIS.  126 

ing  west,  sontli,  and  east,  commanded  respectively 
a  view  of  the  State-house  grounds  near  at  hand, 
of  the  city  and  surrounding  country  spread  be- 
neath like  a  map,  and  of  Boston  harbor,  with  its 
ever-shifting  jDanorama  of  shipping.  The  morn- 
ing sun  seemed  to  rise  from  its  waters  curtained 
in  glory,  and  the  moon  flooded  the  broad  expanse 
with  silver.  In  the  very  midst  of  the  city's  life, 
with  all  its  rich  resources  at  command,  the  home- 
life  was  lifted  into  the  sphere  of  nature. 

While  Dr.  Lewis  prized  for  himself  and  rejoiced 
that  he  could  offer  to  others  so  great  advantages, 
he  considered  that  his  best  service  was  in  making 
a  flrst-class  family  hotel  without  the  sale  or  use 
of  liquor  even  for  cooking  purposes. 

When  he  leased  the  house  it  was  to  an  avowed 
temperance  man,  and  the  terms  were  twelve  thou- 
sand dollars  per  year,  repairs  and  taxes,  with  the 
understanding  that  intoxicating  liquors  should 
be  excluded. 

As  soon  as  Dr.  Lewis  was  relieved  of  the  care 
of  the  building  he  resumed  the  work  of  lecturing 
on  physical  education  and  on  temperance.  He 
spoke  in  Massachusetts  and  New  Hampshire,  and 
never  failed  to  express  to  his  audiences  his  con- 
viction that  "  the  only  effectual  means  of  suppress- 
ing the  traffic  is  outside  of  and  above  statutory 
regulations,  whether  in  the  form  of  license  or 
total  prohibition,  and  has  its  root  neither  in  pub- 

126  THE   BtOGliAl»Hr   01^^   1)10   LEWIS. 

lie  demonstrations  nor  in  excitement."  He  said: 
"  That  glorious  time  when  there  will  be  no  more 


Referring  to  the  work  of  this  period,  Dr.  Lewis 
wrote : 

"  During  the  ten  years  from  1860  to  1870  I  made 
an  occasional  attempt  to  start  the  movement  to 
which  later  in  Ohio  the  press  gave  the  name  of 
'The  AYoman's  Crusade.'  In  1868  a  movement 
was  made  in  Natick,  Mass.,  and  the  winter  and 
sping  of  1869  a  very  promising  one  was  started  in 
Manchester,  ^.  H. 

"I  was  possessed  by  an  ever-increasing  sense 
of  the  importance  of  the  w^ork.  Some  time  was 
spent  in  preparing  for  the  undertaking  in  Man- 
chester. The  Hon.  Luther  Clark,  United  States 
Senator,  presided  at  a  meeting  in  the  city  hall. 
All  the  prominent  clergymen  of  the  city  were  on 
the  platform,  and  many  other  influential  gentle- 
men with  whom  I  had  conversed  previously  were 
present,  |)repared  to  give  their  aid  and  co-opera- 
tion. The  meeting  was  a  grand  success.  The 
next  morning,  by  invitation  of  the  mayor,  the 


committee  elected  at  the  mass-meeting  assembled 
in  tlie  Common  Council  chamber  and  at  once  made 
preparations  to  begin  the  work. 

"  I  proposed  that  several  committees  of  one  hun- 
dred each  should  be  selected,  that  dealers  in  in- 
toxicants should  be  visited,  and  that  the  work 
should  begin  the  next  morning.  It  was  soon  ap- 
parent that  I  had  miscalculated  the  temperament 
of  New  England,  for  after  much  discussion  it  was 
voted  that,  instead  of  the  movement  that  I  pro- 
posed, a  large  number  of  small  committees  should 
be  appointed  to  circulate,  among  all  the  women 
of  the  city,  a  petition  to  rum-sellers. 

"  I  was  called  back  to  Boston  that  day  by  a 
misfortune  in  my  private  business  affairs,  and 
was  compelled  to  remain  at  home  for  some  time. 
I  will  not  say  that  my  presence  at  Manchester 
would  have  prevented  all  mistakes,  but  certainly 
the  friends  of  the  cause  made  a  serious  one  during 
my  absence.  Instead  of  going  out  and  beginning 
their  visits  to  the  dram-shops  immediately,  they 
concentrated  all  their  energies  on  securing  signers 
to  their  petitions.  They  went  at  this  with  great 
energy,  and  within  a  week  had  the  names  of  nearly 
all  the  women  in  the  city,  and  then  they  gave 
another  week  or  ten  days  to  printing  these  in  a 
pamphlet.  It  made  a  volume.  This  cost  much 
money ;  but  worse  than  this,  the  enthusiasm  which 
had  been  kindled  at  the  great  meeting  died  away, 

128  THE  BIOGRAPHY    OF   J)lO   LEWIS. 

and  when  tlieir  volume  of  names  was  ready  they 
were  not  borne  on  by  a  grand  passion,  as  commit- 
tees must  be  in  all  great  moral  revolutions." 

The  private  business  referred  to  Dr.  Lewis  ex- 
plained as  follows: 

"  While  engaged  in  a  series  of  meetings  in  New 
Hampshire  I  learned  that  the  lessee  of  the  Belle- 
vue  was  supplying  liquors  to  the  guests  of  the 
house,  freely  advertising  them  on  the  bills  of  fare. 
I  returned  to  Boston  immediately.  The  lessee 
declared  it  impossible  to  make  his  business  suc- 
cessful otherwise.  I  cancelled  the  lease,  surren- 
dering the  ample  security  which  I  held,  and  offered 
it  again  for  lease.  A  popular  hotel  keeper  im- 
mediatley  offered  me  $12,000  rental  if  I  would 
consent  that  a  room  in  the  basement  should  be 
used  as  a  lunch  and  wine  room.  This  and  two 
similar  offers  were  refused,  and  on  the  succeeding 
July  I  reluctantly  resumed  charge  of  the  hotel. 
I  owned  the  Bellevue  seven  years  and  sacrificed 
more  than  $40,000  to  keep  out  drink. 

"  This  is  but  one  of  many  pecuniary  and  per- 
sonal sacrifices  to  which  I  have  submitted  in  be- 
half of  temperance.  Words  are  cheap,  but  God 
knows  that  I  would  place  my  life  on  this  sacred 
altar  if  the  sacrifice  could  help." 

In  1871-72  Dr.  Lewis  was  employed  as  editor  of 
a  weekly  paper  called  To-day^  which  was  pub- 
lished, for  a  time,  in  Philadelphia.     Li  1872  the 


Bellevue  was  again  leased,  a  large  reduction  from 
a  fair  rental  being  made  to  secure  tlie  condition 
that  no  intoxicating  liquors  should  be  sold  there. 
For  the  purpose  of  studying  the  subject  of  lon- 
gevity in  the  library  of  the  British  Museum,  Dr. 
and  Mrs.  Lewis  went  at  once  to  Europe.  It  was 
their  purpose  to  be  absent  three  years,  but  the 
lease  proving  unfortunate  again,  they  returned  in 
a  few  months  to  resume  charge  of  the  hotel. 

During  these  years  of  large  undertakings,  in- 
volving heavy  business  cares.  Dr.  Lewis  had  also 
done  an  amount  of  lecturing  and  writing,  either 
of  which  might  well  have  taxed  a  man's  resources  ' 
of  body  and  mind. 

While  at  Lexington  he  prepared  for  the  press 
and  published,  in  eight  successive  editions,  "  The 
New  Gymnastics,"  "  Our  Digestion  or  My  Jolly 
Friend's  Secret,"  and  "  Weak  Lungs  and  How  to 
Make  Them  Strong." 

While  living  in  Boston  he  wrote  and  published 
"  Our  Girls,"  "  Chastity,"  and  "  Chats  with  Young 
Women,"  and  revised  a  previous  volume.  He 
also  wrote  a  book  entitled  "  Longevity,"  and  two 
novels  illustrating  his  health  views,  neither  of 
which  has  been  published. 

The  reception  of  all  his  books  by  the  public 
was  most  cordial,  and  the  sales  have  been  very 
large  and  wide-spread. 

Letters  from  distinguished  persons,  from  Mrs. 

130  THE   BlOGHAPHr   OF   DlO   LEWIS. 

L.  Maria  Child,  from  Wm.  Lloyd  Garrison,  from 
Andrew  D.  White,  president  of  Cornell  Univer- 
sity, from  the  venerable  Mark  Hopkins,  president 
of  Williams  College,  from  Theodore  D.  Weld,  and 
scores  of  others  gave  grateful  testimony  of  the 
value  of  those  works,  both  in  respect  of  matter  and 
of  style,  which  must  have  gratified  their  author. 

We  have  room  but  for  the  general  testimony  as 
embodied  in  the  Massachusetts  Teacher  of  1862, 
and  from  one  which  doubtless  Dr.  Lewis  prized 
above  any  other. 

Says  the  former:  "The  noble  work  which  Dr. 
Lewis  has  done  in  behalf  of  physical  education  is 
well  known  to  American  educators.  It  is  not  too 
much  to  say  that  to  him  more  than  to  any  other 
man  must  be  attributed  the  deej)  practical  interest 
now  manifested  by  educators  throughout  the  coun- 
try, in  reference  to  the  proper  culture  of  the  human 
body.  For  many  years  distinguished  professional 
gentlemen  had  discoursed  on  the  imj)ortance  of 
physical  training,  but  when  teachers  said, '  Tell  us 
just  what  we  can  do  in  the  school-room  toward  ac- 
complishing the  desired  end,'  no  one  was  able 
to  give  a  distinct  and  satisfactory  answer.  Two 
years  ago,  at  the  meeting  of  the  American  Insti- 
tute of  Instruction,  in  Boston,  Dr.  Dio  Lewis  de- 
scribed and  practically  illustrated  his  methods  of 
physical  culture.  We  need  not  refer  to  the  enthu- 
siasm with  which  these  methods  were  received. 


All  present  seemed  to  unite  in  exclaiming,  '  Here, 
at  last,  is  something  practicable.  These  things 
we  can  learn  to  do  and  teach  our  children  to  do.' 
The  influence  of  Dr.  Lewis's  arguments  and  visible 
proofs  was  soon  felt  far  and  wide.  Prominent  ed- 
ucators at  once  began  to  put  into  practice  what 
they  had  learned.  The  doctor's  book  on  gymnas- 
tics is  a  capital  one  and  ought  to  find  its  way  into 
every  house  in  the  whole  country." 
The  other  is  as  follows : 

"Auburn,  N.  Y.,  April  16th,  1875. 

"  My  Dear  So?^  : — Your  Avork  '  Chastity'  is  the 
most  important  of  all  your  writings.  But  you 
must  not  expect  for  it  a  large  circulation.  Civil- 
ization has  not  advanced  far  enough  to  warrant 
this.    Vicious  men  will  oppose  it. 

"  It  is  most  happily  calculated  to  elevate  woman, 
and  I  rejoice  in  every  means  that  has  this  ten- 

''  This  work  ought  to  be  in  every  house.     Chil- 
dren should  read  it.    As  far  as  the  evil  exists,  so 
far  should  the  warning  extend.     It  is  a  mock  mod- 
esty which  keeps  people  in  ignorance. 
"  Lovingly  your  mother, 

"Delecta  Lewis.'' 

132  Tttii   BIOGilAPHY    OF   1)10    LEWIS. 



Dk.  Lewis's  desire  to  put  before  the  people 
his  views  on  health  and  education  was  so  earnest 
that  he  never  entirely  gave  up  lecturing,  however 
heavily  his  local  enterprises  taxed  him.  While 
conducting  the  large  school  at  Lexington,  Mass., 
his  public  speaking  was  necessarily  limited  to 
localities  which  could  be  easily  reached.  After 
the  surrender  of  that  work  he  was  able  to  extend 
his  field.  Amid  the  varied  interests  of  the  suc- 
ceeding years  he  used  all  the  time  he  could  com- 
mand for  this  work. 

For  the  winter  of  187.S-74,  under  the  auspices  of 
a  lecture  bureau  he  was  engaged  for  an  extensive 
course  of  lyceum  lectures  in  the  West.  During 
these  he  continued,  as  had  long  been  his  custom, 
to  devote  Sundays,  without  charge,  to  the  work 
of  temperance,  always  keeping  in  mind  what  he 
had  for  twenty  years  desired  to  see  inaugurated, 
a  practical  movement  on  the  part  of  women  to 
close  the  saloons. 

Brief  summaries  taken  from  newspaper  reports 
of  his  lectures  on  temperance  will  best  illustrate 
his  spirit  and  the  method  proposed. 

THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF    DIO    LEWIS.  133 

When  invited  by  pastors  to  substitute  his  tem- 
perance lecture  for  the  usual  sermon,  Dr.  Lewis 
often  used  as  a  text  the  first  and  ninth  verses  of 
the  eighth  chapter  of  Paul's  Epistle  to  the  Cor- 
inthians : 

"  Brethren,  if  a  man  be  overtaken  in  a  fault,  ye 
which  are  spiritual  restore  such  an  one  in  the 
spirit  of  meekness;  considering  thyself,  lest  thou 
also  be  tempted." 

''And  let  us  not  be  weary  in  well-doing ;  for  in 
due  season  we  shall  reap  if  we  faint  not." 

"  I  read  these  verses,"  said  the  doctor,  "  because 
their  loving,  sympathetic  spirit  may  help  us  to  a 
proper  consideration  of  the  subject  before  us. 

"There  are  in  man  five  natures,  the  physical, 
intellectual,  social,  moral,  and  religious. 

"The  physical  is  the  body;  the  intellectual  in- 
cludes the  perceiving  and  reflecting  faculties, — the 
mind;  the  social  embraces  those  feelings  or  sen- 
timents experienced  in  our  social  intercourse  with 
each  other ;  the  moral  our  benevolence  and  justice ; 
the  religious  is  the  worshipping  sentiment.  Each 
of  these  is  essential. 

"  Eighteen  hundred  years  ago  Jesus  Christ  came 
into  the  world  to  save  man,  the  whole  of  man,  the 
body  as  well  as  the  soul.  This  it  was  that  Paul 
meant  when  he  wrote  to  the  Romans :  '  I  beseech 
you  therefore,  brethren,  by  the  mercies  of  God 
that  you  present  your  bodies  a  living  sacrifice, 

134  THE    BIOGRAPHY   OF    DIO    LEWIS. 

wholly  acceptable  unto  God,  which  is  your  rea- 
sonable service.' 

"  It  is  commonly  considered  that  when  a  man 
gives  up  swearing  for  praying,  and  leaves  drink- 
ing-places  for  prayer-meetings,  he  is  converted, 
but  four-fifths  of  him  are  not  converted  unless  his 
benevolence,  and  his  social  qualities,  and  his  intel- 
lectual gifts,  and  his  body  itself  are  used  in  God's 

"  The  deist  supposes  that  if  he  is  only  benevo- 
lent and  just  he  has  true  religion,  seeming  to  for- 
get that  within  man  there  is  a  religious  sentiment, 
which  must  be  brought  into  exercise  if  he  would 
be  a  true  servant  of  heaven. 

"Every  form  of  j)aganism  brings  into  action 
only  the  religious  sentiment,  and  the  Cliristian 
religion,  in  too  many  cases,  has  only  the  same  par- 
tial interest  for  its  votaries. 

"  Many  persons  have  made  the  great  error  of 
thinking  that  learning  to  pray  or  to  exercise  the 
religious  nature  is  conversion  to  Christianity.  It 
is  only  one-fifth  of  a  real  conversion,  because  it 
only  exercises  one  of  the  five  natures  which  enter 
into  the  composition  of  humanity. 

"  The  Christian  religion  is  designed  to  convert 
and  develop  the  whole  human  being.  Wlien  a 
man  is  fully  and  really  converted  to  Christianity 
he  is  purified  and  elevated  in  all  these  five  natures 
which  make  up  the  man.    When  he  who  formerly 


cnrsed  God  conies  to  worship  Him  he  is  converted 
as  to  his  religious  nature.  If  he  formerly  looked 
with  indifference  on  the  sufferings  of  God's  poor 
and  wronged  his  fellows  in  business  transactions 
and  has  become  alive  to  the  claims  of  misery  and 
woe,  two  of  his  natures  are  converted.  If  he  for- 
merly sought  only  evil  companions  and  prostituted 
his  nature  by  idle  and  vulgar  anecdote,  but  now 
turns  to  men  and  women  of  intelligence  and  vir- 
tue, and  takes  upon  his  lips  nothing  but  that  chaste 
and  refined  conversation  which  his  wife  and  daugh- 
ters would  not  blush  to  hear,  his  social  nature  is 
converted  to  Christ.  If  he  formerly  loved  the  idle 
nonsense  of  political  quarrels,  the  daily  report  of 
j)olice  trials,  and  is  now  absorbed  in  God  as  seen 
in  recorded  revelation  and  in  the  sublime  works  of 
nature,  he  illustrates  the  conversion  of  his  intel- 
lectual nature. 

"  If  he  formerly  cared  nothing  for  his  body's 
cleanliness  and  health,  but  now  looks  upon  that 
body  as  a  temple  for  the  residence  of  the  Holy 
Spirit,  as  an  instrument  lent  his  soul  to  perform 
its  mission  here  upon  earth,  we  perceive  the  con- 
version of  the  physical  man. 

"  We  thus  get  a  complete  conversion. 

"  This,"  continued  the  doctor,  "  is  a  broad  kind 
of  temperance,  but  it  is  a  kind  I  love  to  talk  about, 
for  it  is  the  kind  we  need  to  make  the  progress 
that  we  cannot  lose." 


From  the  newspaper  report  of  another  lecture 
we  quote  the  following: 

"  Who  is  responsible  for  the  hold  which  drink- 
ing usages  have  on  our  community  to-day  ?  Clearly 
not  the  drunkards ;  they  win  no  one,  but,  on  the 
contrary,  by  their  loathsome  and  pitiful  state  help 
the  temperance  people;  not  those  who  drink  reg- 
ularly and  at  times  get  drunk,  for  fathers  warn 
their  sons  of  their  inevitable  fate.  But  it  is  the 
men  who  lead  social  opinion,  and  who  drink  now 
and  then  in  a  respectable  and  gentlemanly  man- 
ner without  exposing  themselves  to  reproach; 
these  are  the  ones  who  are,  before  God  and  man, 
responsible  for  the  drunkenness  of  to-day.  They 
are  the  recruiting  officers  in  the  devil's  army,  and 
upon  them  is  the  guilt  of  the  degradation  that 
shall  come  to  young  men  who  are  now  pure. 

"  What  shall  be  done?  The  temperance  reform 
has  gone  back  for  the  last  twenty  years.  The 
world  tried  cursing  drunkards  and  liquor-sellers 
for  hundreds  of  years  and  it  did  no  good.  At 
last  six  poor  drunkards  in  Baltimore  made  a  great 
discovery,  that  cursing  the  driinJcard  is  useless; 
that  loe  must  go  down  to  him  and  lead  him  up. 
This  was  in  harmony  with  what  Jesus  taught,  but 
Christians  left  it  for  drunkards  to  apply  the  prin- 
ciple. As  a  result  of  this  effort  thirty  years  ago 
the  arm  of  love  Avas  around  the  drunkard;  now 
it  is  only  the  arm  of  the  rum -seller, 

THE    BIOGRAPHY   OF    DIO    LEWIS.  137 

"  The  WasMngtonian  movement,  as  it  was  called, 
owed  its  success  to  its  acknowledgment  that  the 
drunkard  Avas  a  brother;  but  it  tailed  in  that  it 
still  cursed  the  rum -seller.  The  liquor-dealer  is 
no  more  guilty  than  the  drinker. 

u  Tiiere  is  a  wide  distinction  between  vice  and 
crime :  crime  is  amenable  to  human  law ;  vice  only 
to  the  divine  law.  Vice  may  do  vastly  more  harm 
than  crime,  but  the  distinction  must  be  made. 
The  trouble  is  that  nineteen  men  in  twenty  believe 
only  in  the  doubled-up  fist. 

''  The  right  to  personal  liberty  is  the  greatest 
prize  of  the  last  centuries.  To  advocate  force  in 
regard  to  personal  habits  is  dangerous  ground. 

"The  temx)erance  work  should  be  treated  in 
connection  with  the  religious  sentiment.  The 
movement  should  be  considered  as  earnestly  as  a 
revival  of  religion,  having  for  its  objective  point 
the  sux)pression  of  a  terrible  and  wide-spread  vice. 
The  evil  to  be  attacked  can  only  be  successfully 
approached  by  strictly  religious  and  spiritual  in- 

"  The  first  practical  step  recommended  is  for  all 
who  feel  it  their  duty  to  opxjose  intemperance  to 
pray  in  secret  and  also  in  their  families  for  the 
cause  they  have  at  heart.  Thus  they  enter  into 
sympathy  with  the  divine  element  in  the  move- 
ment, and  put  themselves  in  spiritual  harmony 
with  the  providential  awakenings  and  tendencies 


of  the  times.  Thus  prepared,  let  them  meet  for 
conference  and  social  prayer.  The  result  is  that 
the  spirit  of  love,  patience,  and  faith  is  cherished 
and  diffused,  the  Christ  spirit^  wliicli  should  he 
recognized  as  the  complete  and  only  panoply 
of  the  holy  war.  None  should  go  into  the  loorli 
until  he  can  lay  aside  all  combative  or  threaten- 
ing tendencies.  The  movement  is  purely  philan- 
thropic, and  only  that  spirit  which  comes  from 
God  and  goes  out  to  man  should  pervade  its 

*'  Need  I  say  that  for  a  Avork  which  demands 
this  love,  this  faith,  this  unwavering  trust  in  God, 
this  power  when  reviled  to  revile  not  again,  the 
hope  of  the  nation  is  in  the  women  and  in  them 

"As  I  have  often  said,  as  I  repeated  the  story 
of  my  venerated  mother  and  her  neighbors  in 
their  wonderful  work  in  the  little  drink-cursed 
village  in  New  York,  I  believe  that  woman's 
prayer  and  patience  and  love  are  more  potent  in 
the  cure  of  intemperance  than  all  other  agencies 

"Every  healthy  soul  believes  in  prayer.  In 
certain  circumstances  it  is  as  instinctive  as  breath- 
ing, but  it  must  be  of  a  certain  sort.  There  are 
two  kinds  of  prayer  for  temperance,  that  which 
hurts  the  cause  and  that  which  helps  it.  The 
former  is  addressed  under  false  pretences  to  the 


rum-seller,  the  latter  to  God.  I  heard  the  first  in 
front  of  a  saloon  when  a  minister  with  clenched 
fists  and  a  loud,  harsh  voice  closed  with  these 
words :  'And  now.  Almighty  God,  wilt  Thou  soften 
his  hard  heart?  Wilt  Thou,  with  Thy  strong 
right  arm,  break  down  his  obdurate  will? '  But  I 
heard  the  prayer  to  God  from  an  ignorant  girl,  who 
said:  'And  now,  dear  Father,  we  thank  Thee,  even 
though  Thou  mayest  not  answer  us,  because  we 
feel  that  we  are  getting  so  close  to  Thee.  The 
difference  between  the  best  of  us  and  Thee  is  so 
great,  and  between  the  best  and  the  worst  of  us 
so  small!  And  if  Thou  hast  patience  with  us, 
should  we  not  have  i^atience  with  each  other? ' 

"Nor  is  there  any  use  for  temperance  people 
meeting  at  one  end  of  a  town  to  try  to  pray  into 
conversion  intemperate  men  gathered  in  grog- 
shops at  the  other  end  of  the  town.  It  can't  be 

"  For  the  women  who  prayerfully  and  deliber- 
ately enter  into .  this  movement  I  would  suggest 
that  committees  be  formed;  one  of  these  should 
prepare  temperance  pledges  to  which  signatures 
should  be  invited. 

"  Let  these  pledges  include,  first,  the  old  Wash- 
ingtonian  pledge  of  total  abstinence ;  second,  the 
dealer's  pledge  to  give  up  the  traffic ;  third,  the 
doctor's  pledge  not  to  prescribe  strong  drink  if 
anything  else  will  do;    fourth,  the    druggist's 

140  THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF    DIO    LEWIS. 

pledge  not  to  sell  except  on  the  presentation  of  tlie 
doctor's  prescription;  fifth,  tlie  property -holder's 
pledge  not  to  allow  his  property  to  be  used  in  the 
traffic;  and  sixth,  the  lawyer's  pledge  not  to  de- 
fend any  man  who  may  be  known  to  be  guilty  of 
general  liquor-selling. 

"  In  the  circulation  of  these  pledges  towns  are 
to  be  districted,  and  all  places  where  liquors  are 
sold  are  to  be  visited,  the  appropriate  jjledge  is  to 
be  offered,  and  the  keepers  are  to  be  conversed 
Avith  in  a  kind  and  neighborly  way.  If  the  ladies 
are  addressed  roughly,  only  kind  and  x)atient  an- 
swers are  to  be  given  in  reply.  If  allowed  to  do 
so,  a  hymn  or  two  may  be  sung  and  prayers  offered 
in  the  saloons.  Then  the  visitors  are  to  quietly 
depart,  to  call  again  in  a  day  or  two,  which,  I  be- 
lieve, they  will  generally  be  asked  or  permitted 
to  do. 

"Approached  in  this  spirit  the  rum-seller  will 
seem  something  different  from  the  moral  monster 
temperance  people  have  been  accustomed  to  con- 
sider him.  He  will  become  the  subject  of  loving 
and  prayerful  solicitude,  that  he  may  be  saved 
from  his  reckless  and  inordinate  desire  for  gain. 

"Men  must  not  feel  that  they  have  nothing  to 
^  o  in  this  work  except  to  say  '  God  bless  the 
.\''>men.'  Let  committees  of  men  organize  to  stand 
behind  the  women,  supporting  them  by  sympa- 
thy, by  prayers,  and  by  the  necessary  material 

THE   BlOGHAPHY   Oi"   DIO   LEWIS.  141 

aid.  They  should  also  form  committees  of  two 
who  will  seek  out  the  drunkards  and  talk  kindly 
witJi  them,  not  to  them.  But  let  them  be  careful 
to  leave  to  the  women  the  management  of  the 
campaign.  They  have  an  instinct,  as  men  have 
not,  of  the  best  way  to  do  things,  and  when  they 
fail  we  need  not  hope  to  succeed. 

''  Thus  it  will  be  seen  that  the  agencies  jjroposed 
are  not  legal,  not  threatening,  but  in  the  form 
of  tender,  resj)ectful,  and  earnest  appeal  to  the 
moral  nature  of  those  whom  they  address. 

"  I  admit  that  this  new  doctrine  may  be  un- 
popular, but  I  claim  that  it  is  reasonable  and 
consistent  with  Christianity,  and  that  the  temper- 
ance movement  of  the  future  must"  of  necessity 
come  to  this  standard." 

Later,  as  the  work  progressed.  Dr.  Lewis  urged 
the  women  to  establish  reading-rooms  and  amuse- 
ment halls  for  the  benefit  of  those  who  had  here- 
tofore given  their  spare  hours  to  the  dram-shops, 
and  also  favored  the  organization  of  committees 
of  business  men  to  lielj^,  by  their  counsel  and  in 
other  ways,  those  who  had  thrown  themselves  out 
of  employment  by  giving  up  their  traffic  in  liquor. 
Simple  as  was  the  method  adopted,  "it  was," 
said  Dr.  Lewis,  "  the  outcome  of  long  and  anxious 
thought,  commencing  when  the  Washingtonian 
movement  was  crowded  out  of  the  field  by  our 
American  mania  for  regulating  the  world  by 



On  December  13tli,  1873,  Dr.  Lewis  came,  in  tlie 
course  of  his  regular  lecture  tour,  to  Fredonia, 
JN".  Y.,  and.  spoke  in  the  lyceum  course  on  "  The 
Higher  Education  of  Girls." 

At  the  request  of  prominent  citizens  he  also 
lectured  on  Sunday  evening,  in  the  Presbyterian 
church,  on  "The  Duty  of  Christian  Women  in 
the  Cause  of  Temperance,"  and  presented  his 
views  of  the  way  of  removing  intemperance. 

Referring  to  the  occasion  afterward,  Dr.  Lewis 

"  The  circumstances  were  not  peculiar  and  I  had 
no  unusual  expectations;  but  before  the  lecture 
was  done  it  was  evident  that  there  was  a  deep, 
strong  passion  pervading  the  audience,  and  when 
I  asked  if  the  women  were  inclined  to  organize 
more  than  a  hundred  rose  to  their  feet.  I  pro- 
posed that  a  committee  to  carry  out  the  method 
suggested  be  organized  at  once;  but  the  clergy 
present  objected  to  organizing  as  not  suitable  to 
the  Sabbath,  so  a  meeting  v/as  called  for  the  next 
morning,  when  a  committee  of  one  hundred  women 
was  chosen  who  began  their  work  immediately. 


"  The  marvellous  promptness  of  their  action  is 
shown  by  the  fact  that  when,  at  12:30  o'clock  on 
that  day,  I  left  to  go  to  Jamestown,  where  I  had 
to  lecture  that  evening,  the  hotel  where  I  was 
stopping  was  filled  with  women  who  were  plead- 
ing with  the  landlord  to  give  up  the  sale  of  liquor. 
The  latter  came  to  me  in  great  trepidation,  and 
asked  what  I  had  seen  in  the  management  of  his 
house  which  required  prayers,  that  I  had  set  a 
thousand  women  upon  him." 

From  the  local  press  of  the  time  we  copy,  in 
part,  the  account  of  this  first  uprising  in  what 
proved  to  be  the  movement  for  temperance  for 
which  Dr.  Lewis  had  been  looking  for  more  than 
twenty  years. 

The  Fredonia  Censor  pf  December  17th,  1873, 
said : 

"  When  it  was  announced  Sunday  morning  in 
the  pulpits  that  Dr.  Dio  Lewis  would  address  the 
people  on  temperance  that  evening,  there  was  no 
indication  of  an  unusual  meeting,  and  though  the 
churches  omitted  their  services,  and  the  house 
was  packed,  nothing  practical  was  exj)ected.  .  .  . 

''  Dr.  Lewis  told  of  early  experience  in  his  native 
town,  in  which,  through  women's  efforts,  the  sale 
of  liquor  was  speedily  abolished,  and  poverty  gave 
place  to  thrift,  vice  to  virtue,  and  misery  to  hap- 
piness. He  had  seen  this  same  work  wrought  by 
women  fifteen  years  since  in  Dixon,  ILL.,  and  in 

144  'THE   BiOGRAPtlY   OF    DIO    LEWIS. 

Battle  Creek,  Midi.     He  believed  it  could  be  done 
in  any  town.  .  .  . 

"At  the  conclusion  of  the  lecture  it  was  evident 
that  something  was  going  to  be  done.  There  was 
not  a  loosely  strung  neri^e  in  that  audience  of 
nearly  a  thousand  people. 

"  Hon.  Orson  Stiles  said  that  his  wife  and  others 
mentioned  would  join  in  the  work,  and  if  they 
did,  they  would  succeed.  The  women  of  this 
town  had  the  question  in  their  own  hands. 

"  L.  A.  Barmore  said  his  wife  and  mother  would 
go  in  this  army.  They  don't  propose  violence, 
force,  or  arms.  They  simply  invoke  God's  bless- 
ing on  their  prayers,  and  ask  these  men  to  desist 
from  their  traffic.  He  would  like  to  see  the  man 
who  could  resist  an  appeal  from  fifty  such  women, 
and  he  would  not  give  a  cent  for  the  piety  of  any 
man  who  would  not  stand  by  them  and  say  '  God 
speed  you.' 

"  Rev.  Lester  Williams  believed  in  striking  while 
the  iron  was  hot,  and  asked  all  the  ladies  Avho  sym- 
pathized with  the  cause  to  stand  up.  It  seemed 
as  if  every  woman  in  the  house  rose  to  her  feet. 

"  Rev.  A.  L.  Benton  rejoiced  in  his  whole  heart 
in  this  movement.  Dr.  Lewis  indorsed  Mr.  Wil- 
liams's proposition,  and  there  was  not  much  delay 
before  the  meeting  was  organized  with  Dr.  Lewis 
as  chairman  and  a  committee  appointed  to  name 
fifty  women  for  the  service  proposed.    While  the 

^SE   BIOGEAPHY   OP  DlO   LE^VIS.  145 

eaMmittee  was  engaged  Mr.  Stiles  was  called  on. 
He  thought  the  great  trouble  of  our  business  men 
was  fear  of  loss  of  trade.  If  the  women  could 
vote  this  work  would  have  been  done  long  ago. 
Mnety-nine  women  out  of  a  hundred  feel  more 
intelligently  on  this  subject  than  the  men  do.  He 
didn't  know  about  the  lecturer's  talk  about  the 
men  having  the  largest  brain.  It  wasn't  so  at  his 

"  The  chairman  asked  every  man  who  would  sus- 
tain these  women  by  giving  moral  support  and 
money,  if  necessary,  to  stand  up,  and  nearly  every 
man  in  the  house  arose. 

"  Dr.  Lewis  said  he  should  leave  town  on  Mon- 
day,  and  should  bid  good-by  to  his  landlord  of  the 
Hanson  House  without  the  slightest  expectation 
that  he  should  ever  see  him  at  the  head  of  the 
bar  again. 

"A  committee  of  ladies  was  appointed  to  draft 
an  appeal,  and  a  meeting  was  called  for  ten  o'clock 
the  next  morning.  After  more  speeches,  prayer 
and  benediction,  the  meeting  adjourned  at  a  late 
hour,  but  wide  awake. 

"There  were  at  least  three  hundred  men  and 
women  on  hand  at  the  hour  appointed,  and  after 
prayer,  singing,  and  exhortation  by  speakers  of 
both  sexes,  the  ladies  withdrew  to  arrange  the  de- 
tails of  their  march.  The  men  present  continued 
in  prayer  and  consultation,  when  it  was  suggested 



that  those  present  pledge  their  support  in  dollars 
and  cents.     This  was  done  without  stint. 

*'  Temperance  meetings  were  arranged  for  every 
Sunday  night  and  prayer-meetings  for  every  night 
till  the  work  should  be  accomplished. 

^'The  women  were  reported  to  have  adopted 
their  appeal  and  to  be  terribly  in  earnest. 

"  It  was  about  half -jDast  twelve  when  the  proces- 
sion of  ladies  came  forth  from  the  basement  of 
the  Baptist  church,  and  a  fine-looking  procession 
it  was,  as  they  quietly  walked  across  the  park  with 
the  wife  of  Jugde  Barker  and  the  wife  of  Rev.  L. 
Williams  at  the  head.  There  were  over  one  hun- 
dred in  the  line,  comprising  wives  of  our  most  re- 
spected citizens,  venerable  and  revered  matrons 
as  well  as  many  young  ladies. 

"Down  the  steps  of  the  Taylor  House  saloon 
filed  the  determined  band  and  nearly  filled  the 
room.  The  proprietors,  Messrs.  M.  H.,  W.  W.,  and 
D.  Taylor,  were  all  present,  and  Mrs.  Barker  imme- 
diately informed  the  head  of  the  firm  of  the  ob- 
ject of  their  visit,  namely,  to  appeal  to  them,  per- 
sonally, to  cease  the  sale  of  intoxicating  liquors. 

"  Mrs.  Williams  then  read  the  appeal  from  the 
ladies.  A  hymn  was  sung  to  Pleyel's  sweet  air, 
then  all  joined  in  the  Lord's  Prayer.  Mrs.  Tre- 
maine,  a  venerable  and  gifted  woman,  followed 
with  a  prayer  which,  in  its  impressive  earnestness 
and  Christian  tenderness  seemed  inspired. 


"  Mrs.  Barker  then  asked  Mr.  Taylor  if  lie  would 
not  accede  to  their  appeal.  He  said  he  was  not 
prepared  to  answer.  He  believed  in  temperance, 
did  not  drink  himself,  but  felt  obliged  to  keep 
liquor  in  his  hotel.  If  he  were  not  keeping  a 
hotel  he  would  be  as  strong  as  they.  The  ladies 
said  they  did  not  come  for  argument,  but  urged 
him  by  the  promises  of  God  to  heed  their  pledge. 
Mr.  Taylor  finally  said :  '  If  the  rest  will  close 
their  places,  I'll  close  mine;'  at  which  he  was 
heartily  cheered.  '  I  mean  the  drug  stores,  too,' 
he  added,  which  amendment  was  accepted.  W. 
W.  Taylor  here  spoke  up  and  said  he  didn't  as- 
sent to  that.  All  business  in  town  must  shut  up 
before  he  would,  so  the  ladies  said  they  hoped  he 
would  consider  the  matter  and  they  would  call 
again  the  next  day.  He  gallantly  responded  that 
they  should  be  pleased  to  see  the  ladies  every  day, 
and  the  proprietors  were  bidden  a  polite  good- 
afternoon  with  thanks  for  the  courtesy  shown. 

"At  Smeizer  &  Hewes  the  programme  was  re- 
peated for  the  benefit  of  Mr.  Hewes,  who  said  that 
he  had  a  license  and  should  continue  to  sell  ac- 
cording to  its  provisions.  Mrs.  Barker  said  she 
hoped  he  would  consider  it  and  they  would  call 
again  to  hear  his  decision.  Mr.  Hewes  said  he 
should  be  happy  to  see  them.  So  they  filed  on 
to  the  sidewalk  and  into  the  next  door. 

'*  Willard  Lewis,  proprietor,  was  waiting  to  re- 


ceive  them  at  tlie  bar,  and  listened  to  the  appeal, 
the  hynin  and  the  prayers.  Then  he  began  to  tell 
them  how  harmless  his  beer  was,  but  finally  said 
if  the  rest  would  shut  up  he  would,  or  words  to 
that  effect. 

"J.  D.  Maynard's  drug  store  was  next  visited, 
and  the  proprietor  received  them  very  cordially, 
listened  respectfully  to  the  appeal  and  subsequent 
exercises,  and  said  he  agreed  with  them  exactly ; 
was  always  opposed  to  intemperance,  but  he  could 
not  run  a  drug  store  without  selling  liquor.  He 
would  promise  not  to  sell  to  drunkards.  This 
was  satisfactory,  but  he  promised  to  consider  the 
matter  farther.  Another  prayer  was  offered,  and 
with  a  cordial  invitation  to  call  again  the  ladies 
were  escorted  out. 

"  Our  space  will  not  permit  us  to  detail  the 
subsequent  visits. 

"  Before  the  evening  prayer-meeting  Mr.  May- 
nard  decided  to  accede  to  their  prox)osition  not  to 
sell  any  more  liquor  to  be  used  as  a  beverage,  and 
two  or  three  ladies  went  to  his  store  and  received 
his  pledge.  There  was  much  rejoicing.  Whether 
this  movement  succeeds  in  the  immediate  object 
sought  or  not,  it  has  evidently  raised  a  i:)ublic  sen- 
timent here  which,  if  not  abated,  will  sooner  or 
later  end  the  liquor  traffic  in  our  midst.  Men 
cannot  stand  back  and  see  their  wives  and  mothers 
make  these  sacrifices  for  a  cause  and  remain  in- 


different.  We  venture  to  suggest  also  that  this 
movement  will  be  a  great  educator  of  the  women. 
By  the  time  that  band  has  tramped  a  week  there 
will  not  be  many  women  in  it  who  will  say,  'I 
have  all  the  rights  I  want.  Don't  ask  me  to  vote.' 
We  wouldn't  be  surprised  if  every  one  of  them 
should  be  on  hand  at  the  next  charter  election. 
They  can  put  votes  into  the  hands  of  husbands, 
sons,  and  acquaintances,  though  the  law  may  pre- 
vent them  from  droi3j)ing  the  ballots  into  the  box. 
And  if  those  women  are  on  hand  at  the  polls  all 
day  they  can  turn  the  election  which  way  they 

"  There  is  X3ower  in  such  an  organization  as  these 
women  have  formed  and  the  families  they  repre- 
sent. The  men  on  whom  they  called  Monday  sjooke 
of  their  coming  with  jokes  and  jeers,  but  did  not 
laugh  when  they  came  away;  the  'good-after- 
noon' was  often  spoken  from  pallid  lips.  The 
boys  and  larger  loafers  who  followed  '  to  see  the 
fun'  found  nothing  to  laugh  at  in  the  sad  but 
awfully  earnest  countenances  of  the  apjoealing 
hundred.  There  was  nothing  ridiculous  about  it ; 
nothing  undignified;  it  soon  became  strangely 
quiet  in  the  pauses.  This  was  not  entirely  due  to 
the  rules  of  etiquette.  These  women  were  plead- 
ing from  the  love  they  bear  for  others,  not  for 
themselves.  Then  there  were  furrowed  counte- 
nances in  that  procession  which  the  observers 


knew  had  been  made  wan  and  tearful  by  lives  of 
misery  produced  by  intemperance,  lives  of  blasted 
hopes  of  mourning  and  even  of  tragedy.  It  was 
like  passing  along  the  shelves  of  a  library  and 
reading  the  titles  of  the  books,  every  volume  of 
which  was  filled  with  heart-rending  tales.  Is  it  a 
wonder  that  such  a  scene  compelled  decorum? 
One  who  could  look  on  it  with  indifference  must 
have  a  heart  of  iron. 

"  Tuesday,  p.m. — The  women  are  marching  one 
hundred  and  twenty-seven  strong.  Sparing  the 
reader  further  detail,  suffice  it  to  say  that  before 
the  sun  set  more  than  half  of  the  rum-sellers  had 
solemnly  pledged  themselves  to  quit  the  nefarious 
traffic.  Within  forty-eight  hours  every  seller  of 
drink  in  Fredonia  had  signed  a  pledge  never  to 
sell  any  more." 

In  a  paper  read  before  the  Woman's  Christian 
Temperance  Union  and  Reform  Club  of  Fredonia, 
fourteen  years  later,  February  9th,  1887,  by  Mrs. 
S.  McNeil,  after  quoting  from  the  Fredonia  Censor 
above  mentioned,  she  added: 

"  The  next  day  we  met  and  organized  a  work 
that  spread  like  wild-lire.  The  papers  called  it 
the  woman's  movement.  Well,  they  were  moved, 
they  did  move,  and  are  still  moving,  but  the  power 
that  started  and  still  impels  them  was  and  is  of 

"  The  Woman's  Christian  Temperance  Union  of 


Freclonia  had  its  birth  at  this  date,  nnder  these 
circumstances,  and  it  continues  unto  this  day. 
True,  we  have  had  some  trials,  but  these  have 
only  made  us  stronger.  In  1878  we  had  a  moral 
earthquake  which  engulfed  thirty-two  of  our 
members,  but  that  number  was  added  within  three 
weeks  and  the  new  material  was  of  stronger  metal. 
I  believe  they  now  could  face  a  mob  undaunted, 
even  though  it  were  composed  of  our  worthy 
citizens  of  Fredonia.  We  number  between  fifty 
and  sixty,  hold  a  meeting  every  week,  and  on  a 
well-systematized  plan  work  in  harmony  with 
two  hundred  and  fifty  thousand  God-fearing 
women  of  our  land." 

Mrs.  Barker,  under  date  of  December  4th,  1887, 
writes,  in  reply  to  inquiry  of  Mrs.  Lewis  as  to  the 
effect,  in  the  long  run,  of  the  crusade  movement 
in  Fredonia: 

"  I  find  that  since  that  time  [1873]  licenses  were 
granted  for  a  year  or  two,  but  of  late  years  we 
have  had  no  liquor-sellmg  in  the  town,  and  I  am 
glad  to  say  the  good  effects  resulting  therefrom 
are  admitted  by  all  good  citizens." 

We  again  quote  from  Dr.  Lewis: 

"  The  news  of  the  wonderful  awakening  in  Fre- 
donia reached  Jamestown  during  my  lyceum  lec- 
ture that  evening,  and  at  its  close  a  clergyman 
rose  and  asked  if  I  could  not  stay  till  the  follow- 
ing evening  and  hold  a  temperance  meeting.     Thi§ 


was  impossible,  as  I  must  lecture  in  Pennsylvania 
Tuesday  evening.  So  w^e  held  a  meeting  the  next 
morning.  The  good  work  was  begun  at  once,  a 
band  of  fifty  ladies  going  forth  to  the  saloons,  and 
in  three  weeks  the  village  was  freed  from  the 
liquor  curse." 



HiLLSBORO,  the  seat  of  justice  of  Highland 
County,  Southern  Ohio,  was  by  no  means  the 
place  where  a  radical  movement  was  likely  to  find 
favor.  It  contained  about  5,000  inhabitants  and 
was  beautifully  situated.  It  afforded  unusual 
educational  advantages,  having  two  institutions 
for  young  ladies,  and  its  society  was  noted  for  its 
culture  and  refinement.  Its  inhabitants  were 
mostly  from  Virginia  and  were  noted  for  a  sort 
of  aristocratic  conservatism.  The  old  style  of  liv- 
ing, with  the  ancient  customs  of  the  State  from 
whence  they  came,  including  the  side-board  and 
decanters,  were  still  retained  among  the  wealthy 
gentlemen  of  Hillsboro. 

The  use  of  liquor,  therefore,  had  for  generations 
been  held  altogether  respectable.  True,  a  few 
earnest  temperance  men,  including  Gov.  Allen 
Trimble,  initiated  a  total-abstinence  movement 
about  the  year  1830,  but  the  pulpit  took  up 
arms  against  it  and  a  condemnatory  sermon  was 
preached  in  one  of  the  churches. 

Here,  following  a  lyceum  and  temperance  lec- 
ture by  Dr.  Lewis  on  December  24th,  1873^  a  pro- 


gramme  similar  to  that  of  Fredonia  and  James- 
town was  followed  with  like  enthusiasm,  and 
again  the  women  were  organized  into  a  marching, 
praying,  and  singing  army. 

An  external  view  of  the  work  as  it  apx)eared 
in  progress,  is  given  in  the  Boston  organ  of  the 
Baptist  denomination,  The  Watchman  and  Re- 
flector. The  editor  j^refaces  the  narrative  by 

''  If  any  think  this  is  a  work  to  be  sneered  at, 
let  them  read  the  following  report  of  the  efforts 
in  Hillsboro,  where  the  work  began  with  a  lecture 
by  Dr.  Lewis  on  December  23d,  1873.  We  con- 
fess we  did  not  read  it  with  dry  eyes : 

"*  Turning  the  corner  on  last  Saturday  after- 
noon I  came  unexpectedly  u]3on  some  fifty  women 
kneeling  on  the  pavement  and  stone  steps  before 
a  store.  A  daughter  of  a  former  governor  of  Ohio 
was  leading  in  j)rayer.  Surrounding  her  were  the 
mothers,  wives,  and  daughters  of  former  Congress- 
men and  legislators,  of  our  lawyers,  physicians, 
bankers,  ministers,  leading  men  of  all  kinds.  In- 
deed, there  were  gathered  there  representatives 
from  nearly  every  household  of  the  town.  Tlie 
day  was  bitterly  cold.  A  cutting  north  wind 
swex)t  the  streets,  piercing  us  all  to  the  bone. 
The  plaintive,  tender,  earnest  tones  of  that  plead- 
ing wife  and  mother  arose  on  the  blast  and  were 
carried  to  every  heart  within  their  reach,     Passers- 

THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF    DIO    LEWIS.  155 

by  uncovered  their  heads,  for  the  place  Avhereon 
they  trod  was  holy  ground.  The  eyes  of  hard- 
ened men  filled  wdth  tears,  and  many  turned  away, 
saying  that  they  could  not  bear  to  look  on  such 
a  sight.  Then  the  voice  of  prayer  was  hushed, 
the  women  arose  and  began  to  sing  softly  a  sweet 
hymn  w^ith  some  old,  familiar  words  and  tune 
such  as  our  mothers  sang  to  us  in  childhood's 
days.  We  thought,  can  mortal  man  resist  such 

" '  Then  they  knelt,  and  once  more  the  earnest 
tones  of  prayer  were  borne  upon  the  breeze.  So, 
from  ten  o'clock  in  the  morning  to  four  in  the 
afternoon  the  work  went  on,  the  ladies  relieving 
each  other  by  relays.  Close  by  was  the  residence 
of  Hon.  John  A.  Smith,  oar  former  M.  C,  and 
now  delegate  to  the  Congressional  Convention. 
His  noble,  warm-hearted  wife  provided  a  boun- 
teous lunch,  to  which  the  workers  resorted  to 
strengthen  the  inner  woman,  then  returned  to 
kneel  and  pray.  The  effect  upon  the  spectators 
was  indescribable.  'No  sneer  was  heard,  scarcely 
a  light  word  was  spoken.  The  sx)irit  of  devotion 
was  abroad,  and  those  who  would  scorn  to  pray 
themselves,  yet  felt  that  here  was  something  which 
they  must  at  least  resjject.  Many  a  "  God  bless 
them !  "  fell  from  lips  accustomed  to  use  the  name 
of  deity  only  in  blasphemy.  There  was  not  a  man 
who  saw  them  kneeling  there  but  felt  that  if  he 


were  entering  heaven's  gate  and  one  of  these 
women  were  to  approacli,  lie  would  stand  aside 
and  let  lier  enter  first. 

" '  Tlie  end  is  not  yet ;  the  hearts  of  these  women 
daily  grow  stouter,  their  faith  brighter,  and  their 
prayers  more  earnest.  A  thoroughly  Christian 
spirit  pervades  the  community,  and  the  feeling  is 
one  of  yearning  love  and  pity  for  those  who  stand 
out  against  their  duty  to  their  fellow-men.'  " 

A  visit  of  aid  and  encouragement  was  made  to 
Hillsboro  by  the  leading  temperance  ladies  of 
Washington  Court-IIouse  accomi3anied  by  Mr. 
Morehouse,  the  superintendent  of  schools,  and 
Mr.  Dean,  teacher  of  the  high  school,  both  of 
whom  made  stirring  and  eloquent  addresses. 

An  eminent  private  citizen  of  Hillsboro,  writ- 
ing to  Dr.  Lewis  January  3d,  1874,  reports  the 
work  in  hand : 

"The  women  and  men  of  Washington  Court- 
House  achieved  a  complete  triumph  in  a  week. 
The  women  and  men  of  this  town  have  worked  as 
intelligently,  as  earnestly,  and  as  uninterruptedly 
eleven  days  and  three  nights,  and  the  victory  is 
not  achieved.     Why  this  difference?  " 

Counting  the  special  obstacles,  he  says : 

"  In  Hillsboro  the  trafiTic  is  in  the  hands  of  a 
comparatively  plausible  and  so-called  'respecta- 
ble '  class  of  men,  and  many  prominent  citizens  are 
jn  the  habit  of  using  liquors,  so  that  they  have 


hitherto,  been  able  successfully  to  resist  all  tem- 
perance efforts,  and  imagined  their  position  im- 
pregnable, and  not  until  to-day  was  there  any  sign 
of  yielding.  ... 

*'  One  of  the  obstacles  here  met  with  was  from 
a  druggist  and  liquor-dealer  named  Dunn,  who 
brought  action  for  tres]3ass,  claiming  to  have  been 
damaged  by  i^rayer  to  the  extent  of  $10,000." 
(It  would  seem  that  he  should  have  taken  such  a 
case  into  a  higher  court.)  ''  The  people  of  Hills- 
boro  promx)tly  made  a  subscription  with  which 
the  women  could  meet  the  issue." 

The  Cincinnati  Gazette  reports : 

"  The  guarantee  fund  to  assist  this  movement 
now  amounts  to  §13,000  and  can  easily  be  raised 
to  $100,000.  A  little  opposition  will  run  the 
figures  up  indefinitely." 

Later:  "A  dispatch  has  just  been  received  from 
Cincinnati  that  $16,000  have  been  raised  there  to 
'  back '  the  whiskey  men.  Send  it  along,  gentle- 
men ;  currency  is  scarce  up  here,  but  we  will  see 
you  and  go  you  double.  Cincinnati  cannot  force 
a  thing  on  this  community  which  we  will  not  have." 

At  the  trial  able  counsel  was  employed  on  both 
sides  and  the  court-room  was  crowded  to  over- 
fiowing  for  seventeen  days.  The  jury  were  com- 
pelled by  the  ruling  of  the  court  to  bring  a  verdict 
against  the  defendants,  and  laid  the  cost  on  them, 
with  $5  damages. 


Said  the  correspondent  of  the  New  York  Tri- 
bune : 

"  Dr.  Lewis  thinks  little  of  the  legal  obstacle  in 
the  form  of  an  injunction  against  prayer  which 
the  ladies  of  Hillsboro  and  Washington  have  en- 
countered. He  says  this  phase  of  the  situation 
presents  a  golden  opportunity  for  a  new  and  more 
glorious  victory.  Instead  of  regarding  the  in- 
junction, which  was  secured  on  a  technical  con- 
struction, of  law,  he  advises  them  to  go  before  the 
door  of  Dr.  Dunn  in  greater  numbers  than  ever, 
and  sing  and  pray  there,  unmoved  by  threats  of 
violence.  He  thinks  no  judge  in  Ohio  would  dare 
order  the  arrest  and  imprisonment  of  two  hun- 
dred praying  women,  that  no  constable  could  be 
found  to  carry  out  such  a  judicial  decree,  and 
that,  if  arrested,  no  county  jail  could  hold  two 
hundred  female  martyrs." 

Counsel  for  the  defence  carried  the  case  to  the 
Supreme  Court  on  a  bill  of  exceptions  to  the  rul- 
ings of  the  judge.  Though  money  had  been  fur- 
nished him  for  the  contest  by  the  whiskey  ring, 
Dr.  Dunn  was  by  this  time  bankrupt  and  his  as- 
signee declined  to  defend  the  suit  in  the  Supreme 

The  report  of  a  Cincinnati  paper  of  January 
15th  says: 

"  The  excitement  pervading  the  entire  commu- 
nity  over   the    woman's    temperance  movement 


exceeds  anything  we  have  witnessed  in  Hillsboro 
during  a  residence  of  twenty  years,  excepting 
only  that  occasioned  by  the  news  of  the  liring  on 
Sumter  at  the  outbreak  of  the  rebellion." 

We  are  fortunate  in  being  able  to  give  one  per- 
sonal experience  from  the  standpoint  of  a  worker 
in  the  temperance  army,  and  are  indebted  for  the 
account  from  which  we  are  permitted  to  condense 
the  following  sketch  of  a  gifted  leader  to  the  pages 
of  "  Woman  and  Temperance,"  by  Miss  Frances 
E.  Willard.  It  is  believed  that  it  fairly  illustrates 
the  spirit  of  devotion  and  consecration  in  which 
the  work  was  undertaken. 

Miss  Willard  refers  to  "  the  eddy  at  Hillsboro, 
of  that  whirlwind  of  the  Lord  which  had  in  a  few 
weeks  swept  over  the  great  State  of  Ohio,  and  had 
grown  to  the  proportions  of  the  woman's  tem- 
perance crusade."     She  continues: 

"  By  common  consent  Mrs.  Eliza  J.  Thompson, 
a  gentle -mannered  lady  of  sixty  years,  from  youth 
an  earnest  Christian  and  always  prominent  in 
charitable  works,  was  selected  to  lead  the  chosen 
band  on  its  first  visit  to  the  saloons.  She  was  a 
wife,  mother,  and  grandmother,  loving  and  be- 
loved, with  marks  uj)on  her  face  of  the  grief 
which  renders  sacred,  which  disarms  criticism, 
and,  in  this  instance,  has  a  significance  too  deep 
for  tears.  She  was  the  only  daughter  of  Governor 
Trimble,  than  whom  Ohio  never  had  a  chief  mag- 

160  T^ME    BIOGRAPHY   OF   DlO   LEWJg. 

istrate  more  true.  When  in  1836,  nearly  forty  year^ 
before,  she  had  accompanied  her  father  to  Philadel- 
X)hia  to  attend  the  national  temperance  convention, 
she  had  shrunk  from  entering  the  dignified  assem- 
bly, composed  of  men  alone,  whispering  timidly, 
'O  papa,  I'm  afraid  to  enter.  The  gentlemen 
may  think  it  an  intrusion.  I  should  be  the  only 
lady,  don't  you  see?'  the  governor  replied:  'My 
daughter  should  never  be  afraid,  even  if  she  is 
alone,  in  a  good  cause.'  With  that  he  led  her  to 
a  seat,  and  Eliza  Trimble  was  the  first  woman  ever 
admitted  to  a  national  temperance  convention." 

The  account  of  the  strange  call  which  came  to 
Mrs.  Thompson  in  1873  she  wrote  out  for  a  near 
friend  in  the  following  words : 

"  On  December  22d,  1873,  Dio  Lewis,  a  Boston 
physician  and  lecturer,  delivered  in  Music  Hall, 
Hillsboro,  a  lecture  on  '  Our  Girls,'  and  on  the 
next  evening  he  gave  a  free  lecture  on  temx3erance. 

"  I  did  not  hear  Dio  Lewis  lecture  (although  he 
was  our  guest)  because  of  home  cares  that  re- 
quired my  presence,  but  my  son^  a  youth  of  six- 
teen, was  there,  and  he  came  to  me  upon  his  re- 
turn home,  and,  in  a  most  excited  manner,  related 
the  thrilling  incidents  of  the  evening;  that  Dr. 
Lewis  told  of  his  mother  and  several  of  her  good 
Christian  friends  uniting  in  prayer  with  and  for 
the  liquor-sellers  of  his  native  town,  until  they 
gave  uj)  their  soul-destroying  business,  and  then 


said :  '  Ladies,  you  might  do  tlie  same  thing  in 
Hillsboro  if  you  had  the  same  faith ; '  and,  turn- 
ing to  the  ministers  and  temperance  men  who 
were  on  the  platform,  added :  '  Supi^ose  I  ask  the 
ladies  of  this  audience  to  signify  their  opinions 
upon  the  subject? '  They  all  bowed  their  consent, 
and  fifty  or  more  women  stood  up  in  token  of  aj)- 
proval.  He  then  asked  the  gentlemen  how  many 
of  them  would  stand  as  '  backers '  should  the 
ladies  undertake  the  work ;  and  sixty  or  seventy 
arose.  'And  now,  mother,'  said  my  boy,  'they 
have  got  you  into  business,  for  you  are  on  a  com- 
mittee to  do  some  work  at  the  Presbyterian  church 
in  the  morning  at  nine  o'clock,  and  then  the  ladies 
want  you  to  go  with  them  to  the  saloons.' 

"  My  husband,  who  had  returned  from  Adams 
County  court  that  evening  and  was  feeling  very 
tired,  seemed  asleep  as  he  rested  upon  the  couch, 
while  my  son,  in  an  undertone,  had  given  all  the 
above  facts;  but  as  the  last  sentence  was  uttered, 
he  raised  himself  upon  his  elbow  and  said :  '  What 
tomfoolery  is  all  that?'  My  son  slix)ped  out  of 
the  room  quietly,  and  I  betook  myself  to  the  task 
of  consoling  my  husband  with  the  promise  that  I 
should  not  be  led  into  any  foolish  act  by  Dio 
Lewis  or  any  association  of  human  beings.  But 
after  he  had  relaxed  into  a  milder  mood,  continu- 
ing to  call  the  plan,  as  he  understood  it,  '  tom- 
foolery,' I  ventured  to  remind  him  that  the  men 

162  THE   BIOGRAPHY   OF   1)10    LEWIS. 

had  been  in  the  'tomfoolery'  business  a  long 
time,  and  suggested  that  it  might  be  God's  will 
that  the  women  should  now  take  their  part. 
After  this  he  fell  asleep  quietly,  and  I  resumed 
my  Bible-reading.  Notliing  further  was  said  upon 
the  subject  that  had  created  such  interest  the  night 
before  until  after  breakfast,  when  Ave  were  gath- 
ered in  the  family  room.  First  my  son  ax3proached 
me,  and  gently  placing  his  hand  upon  my  shoul- 
der said,  in  a  very  subdued  tone :  '  Mother,  are 
you  not  going  over  to  the  church  this  morning? ' 
As  I  hesitated,  and  doubtless  showed  in  my  coun 
tenance  the  burden  upon  my  spirit,  he  emphati- 
cally said:  'But,  my  dear  mother,  you  know  you 
have  to  go.'  Then  my  daughter,  who  w^as  sitting 
on  a  stool  by  my  side,  leaning  over  in  a  most  ten- 
der manner  and  looking  up  in  my  face,  said; 
'Don't  you  think  you  wdll  go?'  All  this  time 
my  husband  had  been  walking  the  floor,  uttering 
not  a  word.  He  stopped,  and  i)lacing  his  hand 
upon  the  family  Bible  that  lay  upon  my  work- 
table,  he  said  emphatically,  '  Children,  you  know 
where  your  mother  goes  to  settle  all  vexed  ques- 
tions ;  let  us  leave  her  alone ; '  withdrawing  as 
he  spoke,  and  the  dear  children  following  him. 
I  turned  the  key  and  was  in  the  act  of  kneeling 
before  God  and  His  holy  word  to  see  what  would 
be  sent  me,  when  I  heard  a  gentle  tap  at  my  door. 
Upon  opening  it  I  saw  my  dear  daughter  with 


Iter  little  Bible  open  and  the  tears  coursing  down 
her  young  cheeks,  as  she  said,  '  I  opened  to  this, 
mother.  It  must  be  for  you.'  She  immediately 
left  the  room,  and  I  sat  down  to  read  the  wonder- 
ful message  contained  in  the  146th  Psalm. 

"  ISTo  longer  doubting,  I  at  once  repaired  to  the 
Presbyterian  church,  where  quite  a  large  assem- 
bly of  earnest  people  had  gathered. 

"  I  was  at  once  unanimously  chosen  as  the  presi- 
dent (or  leader);  Mrs.  General  McDowell,  vice- 
president;  and  Mrs.  D.  K.  Finner  secretary  of 
the  strange  work  that  was  to  follow. 

"Appeals  were  drawn  up  to  druggists,  saloon- 
keepers, and  hotel  jDroprietors.  Then  the  Presby- 
terian minister  (Dr.  McSurely),  who  had  up  to  this 
time  occupied  the  chair,  called  upon  the  chair- 
man-elect to  come  forward  to  the  post  of  honor, 
but  your  humble  servant  could  not ;  her  limbs  re- 
fused to  bear  her.  So  Dr.  McSurely  remarked, 
as  he  looked  around  upon  the  gentlemen :  '  Breth- 
ren, I  see  that  the  ladies  will  do  nothing  while 
we  remain;  let  us  adjourn,  leaving  this  work  with 
God  and  the  women.' 

"As  the  last  man  closed  the  door  after  him, 
strength  before  unknown  came  to  me,  and  with- 
out any  hesitation  or  consultation  I  walked  to  the 
minister's  table,  took  the  large  Bible,  and,  open- 
ing it,  explained  the  incidents  of  the  morning; 
then  read,  and  (as  tears  would  allow)  briefly  com- 

164  THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF    DIO    LEWIS. 

merited  upon  its  new  meaning  to  me.  I  tlieii 
called  iix)on  Mrs.  McDowell  to  lead  in  prayer ;  and 
sucli  a  prayer !  It  seemed  as  tliougli  tlie  angel  had 
brouglit  down  '  live  coals  from  off  the  altar '  and 
touched  her  lips.  She  had  never  before  heard 
her  own  voice  in  prayer ! 

"As  we  rose  from  our  knees  I  asked  Mrs.  Cow- 
den,  our  Methodist  minister's  wife,  to  start  the 
good  old  li}'mn,  '  Give  to  the  winds  thy  fears,'  to 
a  familiar  tune,  and  turning  to  the  dear  women, 
I  said:  'As  we  all  join  in  singing  this  hymn,  let 
us  form  in  line,  two  and  two,  the  small  women  in 
front,  leaving  the  tall  ones  to  bring  up  the  rear, 
and  let  us  at  once  proceed  to  our  sacred  mission, 
trusting  alone  in  the  God  of  Jacob.'  It  was  all 
done  in  less  time  than  it  takes  to  write  it;  every 
heart  was  throbbing,  and  every  woman's  counte- 
nance betrayed  her  solemn  realization  of  the  fact 
that  she  was  'going  about  her  Father's  busi- 

"As  this  band  of  mysterious  beings  first  encoun- 
tered the  outside  gaze,  and  as  they  passed  from 
the  door  of  the  church  and  reached  the  street  be- 
yond the  large  churchyard,  they  were  singing 
these  i)rophetic  words : 

"  '  Far,  far  above  thy  thought, 
His  counsel  shall  appear, 
When  fully  He  the  Avork  hath  wrought 
That  caused  thv  needless  fear.' 


"  On  tliey  mar  died  in  solemn  silence  np  Main 
Street,  first  to  Dr.  Wm.  Smith's  drug  store.  After 
calling  at  all  tlie  drug  stores,  four  in  number, 
their  pledge  being  signed  by  all  save  one,  they 
encountered  saloons  and  hotels  with  varied  suc- 
cess, until  by  continuous  daily  visitations,  with 
persuasion,  jjrayer,  song,  and  Scripture-readings, 
the  drinking-places  of  the  town  were  reduced 
from  thirteen  to  one  drug  store,  one  hotel,  and  two 
saloons,  and  they  sold  '  very  cautiously.'  Prayer- 
meetings  were  held  during  the  entire  winter  and 
spring  every  morning  except  Sunday,  and  mass- 
meetings  in  the  evenings,  at  the  M.  E.  church  one 
week  and  at  the  Presbyterian  the  next. 

"  After  visiting  the  drug  stores  on  the  24th  of 
December,  1873,  our  band  slowly  and  timidly  ap- 
proached the  first-class  saloon  of  Robert  Ward,  on 
High  Street,  a  resort  made  famous  by  deeds  the 
memory  of  which  nerved  the  heart  and  paled  the 
cheeks  of  some  among  the  seventy  as  they  entered 
the  open  door  of  '  the  witty  Englishman,'  as  his 
patrons  were  wont  to  call  the  jjopular  Ward. 
Doubtless  he  had  learned  of  our  approach,  as  he 
not  only  propped  the  door  open,  but,  mth  the 
most  perfect  suavity  of  manner,  held  it  till  all  the 
ladies  passed  in;  then  closing  it,  walked  to  his 
accustomed  stand  behind  the  bar.  Seizing  the 
opportunity  the  leader  addressed  him  as  follows : 
^Well,  Mr.    Ward,   this    must  seem  to    you   a 


strange  audience.  I  suppose,  however,  that  you 
understand  the  object  of  this  visit.'  Robert  by 
this  time  began  to  perspire  freely,  and  remarked 
that  he  would  like  to  have  a  talk  with  Dio  Lewis. 
Mrs.  T.  said :  '  Dr.  Lewis  has  nothing  to  do  with 
the  subject  of  our  mission.  As  you  look  upon 
some  of  the  faces  before  you  and  observe  the  fur- 
rows of  sorrow,  made  deep  by  the  unholy  business 
that  you  j)ly,  you  will  find  that  it  is  no  wonder 
we  are  here.  We  have  come,  not  to  threaten,  not 
even  to  upbraid ;  but  in  the  name  of  our  Heavenly 
Friend  and  Saviour,  and  in  His  spirit  to  forgive 
and  to  commend  you  to  His  pardon,  if  you  will 
abandon  a  business  that  is  so  damaging  to  our 
hearts  and  homes ! ' 

"Advantage  was  at  once  taken  of  the  embar- 
rassment and  hesitation  of  the  saloon-keeper.  The ' 
leader  said,  softly,  as  she  looked  around  upon 
those  earnest  faces,  ^Let  us  pray.'  Instantly  all, 
even  the  liquor-seller  himself,  were  ujion  their 

"  Prayer  and  hymn  followed  and  the  Spirit  came 
down  and  touched  all  hearts. 

"  The  scene  was  one  for  a  painter  or  a  poet," 



After  Dr.  Lewis's  lecture  of  December  23d, 
whicli  gave  impetus  to  the  movement  in  Hillsboro, 
already  described,  lie  went  at  once  to  Washington 
Court-House,  a  town  of  about  three  thousand 
people  and  much  given  to  dissipation.  Again, 
after  the  lyceum  lecture  one  on  temperance  was 
called  for,  and  on  Christmas  Day,  in  the  Presby- 
terian church,  Dr.  Lewis  explained  his  plan  of 
campaign.  An  organization  of  forces  was  effected 
and  supported  by  a  ''  committee  of  responsibility  " 
composed  of  thirty-seven  men,  who  agreed  to  fur- 
nish the  necessary  pecuniary  means  to  carry  on 
the  work.  An  appeal  was  adopted,  printed,  and 
circulated  through  the  community. 

The  errand  of  mercy  on  which  they  were  to  go 
forth  was  under  the  charge  of  Mrs.  J.  L.  Bandeman 
and  Mrs.  Judge  McLean.  Mrs.  George  Carpenter, 
wife  of  the  Presbyterian  minister,  was  reader  of 
the  appeal. 

The  secretary  of  the  organization,  Mrs.  M.  Y. 
Ustic,  furnishes  the  following  official  report: 

"On    Friday  morning,  December    26th,  1873, 


after  an  hour  of  prayer  in  the  M.  E.  cliurch,  forty- 
four  women  filed  slowly  and  solemnly  down  the 
aisle,  and  started  forth  upon  their  strange  mission 
with  fear  and  trembling,  while  the  male  portion 
of  the  audience  remained  at  the  church  to  pray 
for  the  success  of  their  new  undertaking,  the  toll- 
ing of  the  churcli-bell  keeping  time  to  the  solemn 
march  of  the  women  as  they  wended  their  way 
to  the  first  drug  store  on  the  list.  The  number  of 
places  within  the  city  limits  where  intoxicating 
drinks  Avere  sold  was  fourteen — eleven  saloons  and 
three  drug  stores.  Here,  as  in  every  ]3lace,  they 
entered  singing,  every  woman  taking  up  the  sacred 
strain  as  she  crossed  the  threshold.  This  was  fol- 
lowed by  the  reading  of  the  appeal  and  prayer; 
then  earnest  pleading  to  the  dealers  to  desist  from 
their  soul-destroying  traffic  and  sign  the  dealers' 

"Thus  all  day  long  they  went  from  place  to 
place,  without  stox)ping  even  for  lunch  till  five 
o'clock,  meeting  with  no  marked  success,  though 
invariable  courtesy  was  extended  them.  'Not  even 
their  reiterated  promise,  '  We  will  call  again,' 
seemed  to  ofi'end. 

"  No  woman  who  has  ever  entered  one  of  these 
dens  of  inquity  on  such  an  errand  needs  to  be 
told  of  the  heart  sickness  that  almost  overcame 
them  as,  for  the  first  time,  they  saw  behind  those 
painted  Avindows  or  green  blinds,  and  entered  the 

THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF   DIO    LEWIS.  169 

little  back  room  or  found  tlieir  way  down  winding 
steps  into  the  damp,  dark  cellars,  and  realized 
that  into  such  places  many  of  those  they  loved 
best  were  slowly  descending,  through  the  allure- 
ments of  the  brilliantly-lighted  drug  store,  the 
fascinating  billiard-table,  or  the  enticing  beer-gar- 
dens with  their  siren  attractions. 

"  A  crowded  house  which  gathered  at  night  to 
hear  the  report  of  the  day's  work  betrayed  the 
rapidly-increasing  interest  in  this  mission. 

"  Saturday  morning,  December  27th,  after  an 
hour  of  prayer,  an  increased  number  of  women 
Avent  forth  again,  leaving  a  number  of  men  in  the 
church  who  continued  in  prayer  all  day  long. 
Every  few  moments  the  tolling  bell  cheered  the 
hearts  of  the  crusaders  by  pealing  forth  the 
knowledge  that  another  supplication  had  ascended 
for  their  success;  meanwhile  notes  of  progress 
were  sent  by  the  secretary  to  the  church  from 
every  place  visited. 

"  On  this  day  the  contest  began,  and  at  the  first 
place  the  doors  were  found  locked.  With  hearts 
full  of  compassion  the  women  knelt  in  the  snow 
upon  the  pavement,  to  plead  for  the  divine  influ- 
ence upon  the  heart  of  the  liquor-dealer,  and  there 
was  held  their  first  street  prayer-meeting. 

"At  night  the  weary  but  zealous  workers  re- 
ported at  the  mass-meeting,  the  various  rebuffs  re- 
ceived, and  their  success  in  inducing  two  druggists 


to  sign  tlie  pledge  not  to  sell  except  upon  the 
written  prescription  of  a  physician. 

"  The  Sabbath  was  devoted  to  union  mass-meet- 
ings, with  direct  reference  to  the  work  in  hand, 
and  on  Monday  the  number  of  ladies  had  increased 
to  nearly  one  hundred.  That  day,  December  29th, 
is  one  long  to  be  remembered  in  Washington  as 
that  upon  which  occurred  the  first  surrender  made 
by  a  liquor-dealer  of  his  stock  of  liquors  in  an- 
swer to  the  prayers  of  women,  to  be  poured  by 
them  into  the  street.  Nearly  a  thousand  men, 
women,  and  children  witnessed  the  mingling  of 
beer,  ale,  wine,  and  whiskey,  as  they  filled  the  gut- 
ters and  were  drank  up  by  the  earth,  while 
bells  were  ringing,  men  and  boys  shouting,  and 
women  singing  and  praying  to  God  who  had  given 
the  victory. 

"  On  the  fourth  day  the  campaign  reached  its 
height,  the  town  being  filled  with  visitors  from 
all  parts  of  the  country  and  adjoining  villages. 
There  was  another  public  surrender  and  another 
pouring  into  the  street  of  a  larger  stock  of  liquors 
than  on  the  previous  day,  and  more  intense  ex- 
citement and  enthusiasm. 

"  Mass-meetin.o^s  were  held  nightly  and  victories 
repeated  constantly,  until,  on  Friday,  January  2d, 
1874,  one  week  from  the  beginning  of  tlie  work,  at 
the  public  meeting  held  in  the  evening,  the  secre- 
tary's report  announced  the  unconditional  sur- 


render  of  every  liquor-dealer,  some  having  sliij)ped 
tlieir  liquors  back  to  wholesale  dealers,  others  hav- 
ing poured  them  into  the  gutter,  and  all  the  drug- 
gists having  signed  the  pledge. 

"By  this  time  the  new  method  of  fighting 
whiskey  began  to  attract  the  attention  of  the  press 
and  of  people  in  surrounding  ]3laces,  and  meetings 
were  announced  to  be  held  in  every  village  and 
school  district  in  the  county.  Committees  of 
ladies  and  gentlemen  were  sent  out  from  Wash- 
ington Court-House  to  assist  in  these  meetings,  and 
also,  by  request,  into  all  the  adjoining  counties. 
Meantime  the  meetings  were  constantly  kept  up  at 
home,  and  all  the  while  gained  in  interest.  Early 
in  the  third  week  the  discouraging  intelligence 
came  that  a  new  man  had  taken  out  a  license  to 
sell  liquor  in  one  of  the  deserted  saloons,  and  that 
he  was  backed  by  a  whiskey  house  in  Cincinnati 
to  the  amount  of  $5,000  to  break  down  the  move- 
ment. On  "Wednesday,  the  14th,  the  whiskey  was 
unloaded  at  his  room.  About  forty  women  were 
on  the  ground,  and  followed  the  liquor  in  and  re- 
mained, holding  an  uninterrupted  prayer-meeting 
all  day  and  until  eleven  o'clock  at  night. 

"The  next  day,  which  was  bitterly  cold,  was 
spent  in  the  same  place  and  manner,  without  fire 
or  chairs,  two  hours  of  that  time  the  women  being 
locked  in,  while  the  proprietor  was  off  attending 
a  trial.    On  the  following  day,  the  coldest  of  all 


the  Avinter  of  1874,  the  women  were  locked  out, 
and  stood  on  the  street  holding  religious  services 
all  day  long. 

"  Next  morning  a  rude  frame  building,  which 
they  called  '  a  tabernacle,'  was  built  in  the  street, 
just  in  front  of  the  house,  and  was  occupied  for 
the  double  purpose  of  watching  and  prayer 
through  the  day,  but  before  night  the  sheriff 
closed  the  saloon  and  the  proj)rietor  surrendered. 
Thus  ended  the  third  week. 

"  A  short  time  after,  on  a  dying  bed,  this  four- 
days'  liquor  dealer  sent  for  some  of  the  women, 
telling  them  that  their  songs  and  prayers  had 
never  ceased  to  ring  in  his  ears,  and  urging  them 
to  pray  again  in  his  behalf;  so  he  passed  away." 

Dr.  Lewis  gave  the  following  added  description 
of  the  work  at  Washington  Court- House: 

".  .  .  After  repeated  visits  to  the  saloons,  the 
prox)rietor  of  one  of  the  largest  asked  the  ladies,  one 
morning,  to  please  not  return;  said  that  he  had 
stood  the  visitation  well  enough,  because  they  were 
ladies,  but  it  had  become  a  bore  and  he  hoped 
they  would  not  come  again.  To  this  Mrs.  Car- 
penter said :  '  Oh,  yes,  but  we  must.  Why,  do  you 
know,  Mr.  Smith,  what  we  did  in  the  church  that 
first  morning,  before  we  started  down  here  ?  There 
were  just  enough  of  us  to  reach  around  the  room, 
taking  hold  of  hands  and  making  a  large  circle. 
We  knelt  down  where  we  stood,  and  with  hands 

THE   B10GRAt»HY   oF  t)IO  LEWIS.  173 

still  clasx)ed  we  raised  them  up  and  vowed  to 
Heaven  tliat,  if  we  lived,  we  wonld  not  cease  tiU 
tlie  selling  of  liquor  was  stopped  in  this  place.' 

'' '  And  do  you  mean  to  come  here  every  day  and 
pray  till  I  stop?'  asked  Mr.  Smith. 

" '  We  do,'  said  the  ladies.  '  You  see,  we  have  to 
if  we  live.' 

"  Smith  yielded  and  signed  the  pledge.  He  had 
just  supplied  himself  with  a  large  quantity  of 
liquor,  and  finally  he  agreed  that  if  the  women 
would  bring  it  up  out  of  the  cellar  themselves, 
without  helj)  of  any  man,  they  might  have  it  to 
do  what  they  pleased  with.  Immediately  hats, 
furs  and  cloaks  were  laid  aside,  and  in  a  short 
time  the  women  had  eighteen  barrels  of  liquor 
rolled  upon  the  pavement,  while  they  all  stood 
round  and  sang  '  All  Hail  the  Power  of  Jesus ' 
Name '  with  the  greatest  enthusiasm. 

"There  was  now  some  hesitancy  about  who 
should  open  the  barrels  and  destroy  the  liquor. 
There  were  two  whose  lives  had  been  made  miser- 
able by  it,  and  to  them  was  given  the  privilege 
and  duty  of  knocking  in  the  barrel  heads. 

"  Axes  were  brought,  and  these  women  wielded 
them  with  dexterity  and  effect,  and  soon  the 
liquor  was  flowing  in  the  street. 

"  At  the  end  of  eleven  days  every  one  of  the 
thirteen  saloons  had  yielded,  but  outside  the  town 
limits  there  still  remained  one  place  where  liquor 


was  sold — a  beer-garden  kept  by  Charley  Beck. 
A  judge  had  granted  '  Charley'  an  injunction  for- 
bidding the  women  to  come  on  his  premises,  and 
the  Cincinnati  brewers  had  sent  sympathizers  up 
to  him  xDromising  him  all  the  profits  of  his  busi- 
ness and  $2,000  besides  if  he  would  keep  open  a 

"Judge  McClure  owned  the  land  adjoining 
Charley  Beck's,  and  he  told  the  women  to  come 
there  and  pray.  They  brought  '  the  tabernacle,' 
which  they  had  used  elsewhere.  A  stove  was 
put  in  it,  and  the  boys,  always  full  of  fun,  got  a 
head-light  of  a  locomotive  with  strong  reflectors 
and  threw  the  light  into  Beck's  door — so  strong  a 
light,  they  said,  that  you  could  see  a  man's  con- 
science^ if  he  had  any,  as  he  went  in  and  out  the 

"  For  two  weeks  religious  services  were  held  in 
the  tabernacle,  day  and  night,  and  the  women 
were  constantly  on  duty." 



A  GEAPHic  account  of  the  contest  with  Mr. 
Beck  was  published  in  the  Cincinnati  Commercial 
from  its  own  correspondent,  Mr.  J.  H.  Beadle: 

"  Washhstgtox,  Fayette  Co.,  Ohio, 
"  January  21st,  1874 

".  .  .  When  we  changed  to  the  Muskingum  Val- 
ley line,  half  a  dozen  groups  began  simultaneously 
to  talk  about  the  war  on  whiskey  shops  so  heroi- 
cally inaugurated  by  the  women  of  this  part  of 
Ohio.  Reports  were  conflicting  as  to  whether  the 
enemy  was  only  scotched  or  really  killed,  and  for 
information  I  concluded  to  pass  a  day  in  the 
redeemed  town. 

"When,  after  dinner,  I  inquired  what  was  in 
progress  that  would  be  likely  to  interest  a 
stranger,  the  landlord  of  the  Shaw  House 
promptly  made  reply:  '  There  ain't  a  saloon  open 
in  the  whole  place.  Mighty  dry  here  for  a  Cin- 
cinnati man !  But  there's  a  woman's  prayer-meet- 
ing at  a  saloon  just  out  of  the  corporation,  over 
the  creek.     Maybe  you  never  attended  one.' 

"Without  deigning  a  reply  to  his  sarcasm  I 


struck  out  on  the  Leesburg  pike,  and  half  a  mile 
or  so  from  the  centre  of  the  town  found  the  only 
surviving  saloon,  kept  by  one  Carl  Beck — an  ex- 
ile from  fatherland — familiarly  known  as  '  Charlie.' 
But  I  should  never  have  taken  it  for  a  saloon. 
It  was  after  the  pattern  of  a  country  school-house, 
in  the  same  inclosure  with  Beck's  residence,  with 
well-arranged  grounds  and  in  the  centre  of  a  fine, 
suburban  neighborhood.  The  place  was  evidently 
in  a  state  of  siege,  prepared  for  the  enemy  at  a 
moment's  notice.  No  ladies  were  in  sight.  The 
door  was  locked,  and  my  knock  brought  no  re- 
sponse, though  a  confused  murmur  inside  indi- 
cated the  presence  of  customers. 

'"Hello,  mine  friend,  vat  you  vant — eh?'  was 
suddenly  asked  from  the  residence,  only  a  few  rods 

"Explaining  my  errand  to  Mr.  Beck— for  he  it 
was — he  broke  into  a  voluminous  complaint  in  old 
Dutch  and  English: 

"'I  got  no  vitnesses.  Dem  vimins  dey  set 
oop  a  shob,  on  me.  But  you  don't  been  a  "  'bitual 
troonkard,  eh?  No,  you  don't  look  like  him. 
Veil,  goom  in,  goom  in!  Yat  you  vant,  beer  or 
vine?  I  dells  you  dem  vimins  is  shoost  awfuL 
Py  shinks,  dey  build  a  house  in  de  street  and  stay 
mit  a  man  all  day,  a-singing  and  oder  foolishness. 
But  dey  don't  get  in  here  once  agin,  already.' 

"  In  obedience  to  this  invitation  I  had  entered 

I'HE   BlOd-RAPHY   OF  DlO   LEWIS.  177 

by  the  side  door  (the  front  was  locked  and 
barred),  to  find  four  customers  indulging  in 
liquor^  beer,  and  pig's  feet.  One  announced  him- 
self as  an  '  original  granger/  a  second  as  a  '  retired 
sailor,'  while  others  were  non-committal.  They 
stated  that  two  spies  had  jast  applied  for  admis- 
sion, men  who  would  come  in  and  drinkj  then  go 
and  swear  they  were  '  habitual  drunkards '  under 
the  '  Adair  law,'  and  that  accounted  for  Mr.  Beckys 
suspicions  of  me. 

"The  landlord  broke  in:  'You  bin  a  reborter? 
Yell,  I  shoost  like  to  see  a  goot  man  here  von  der 
Engwirer  von  Cincinnati.  Anoder  man  yester- 
day goom  mit  dem  vimins :  I  tells  zem  all :  '  You 
shoost  go  out;  you  got  no  peesness  here.'  And 
den  he  puts  his  hand  so,  in  his  poosom,  for  a  pees- 
tol,  und  say,  '  You  touch  dem  vimins,  I  put  you 
vare  you  don't  zell  beer  any  more,  already.'  All 
the  time  he  was  talking  Mr.  Beck  was  running 
first  to  one  window  and  then  another,  looking  to- 
ward town,  in  a  state  of  nervous  excitement,  which 
showed  that  he  was  in  constant  dread  of  another 
invasion.  He  complained  bitterly  that '  dem  vel- 
lers  in  town,  dey  skoolked  and  left  me  to  fight 
alone,  but  I  shtop  for  dem  vimins,  once,  two  weeks 
already.  I  keep  a  decent  house.  I  sells  vine,  beer, 
und  cigars,  und  I  don't  got  no  trunken  mens  in 
my  house.' 

"After  remaining  two  hours  I  concluded  the 



ladies  were  not  coming  that  day,  and  returned  to 
town.  I  found  opinions  divided.  A  majority  of 
the  citizens  were  enthusiastic  over  the  movement 
and  its  success,  but  there  was  an  undercurrent  of 
doubt.  The  remarks  of  one  prominent  merchant 
struck  me  as  very  sensible :  '  I  tell  you,  my  young 
friend,  the  women  have  more  power  in  favor  of 
temperance,  ten  times  over,  than  the  men.  They 
are  free  from  political  entanglements ;  they  work 
for  the  pure  love  of  humanity.  A  hundred  women 
can  do  more  for  a  moral  reform  than  ten  thousand 
voters.  We  can  only  make  laws,  but  they  can 
touch  the  heart.  It  must  be  a  hard-hearted  man 
who  can  stand  in  his  saloon  and  resist  the  plead- 
ings of  a  good  mother  whose  son  has  been  ruined 
by  liquor,  when  she  comes  with  tears  in  her  eyes 
and  prayer  on  her  lips.  Yes,  sir,  if  the  women  in 
each  town  would  take  hold  as  they  do  here,  Ohio 
could  be  made  a  temperance  State  in  six  months.' 

"  At  night  there  was  a  mass  temperance  meeting 
in  the  principal  church,  and  various  committees 
reported  progress. 

"  One  lady  had  brought  suit  against  Mr.  Flinn 
for  selling  liquor  to  her  husband,  and  as  there  was 
no  doubt,  from  the  evidence,  that  she  Avould  get 
heavy  damages,  he  had  preferred  a  request  for  the 
ladies  to  intercede  for  him,  adding:  ^A  heavy 
judgment  will  sweep  away  every  dollar  of  my 


''An  editorial  disparaging  the  movement  was 
read  from  a  prominent  Democratic  paper  of  Cin- 
cinnati. The  spirit  in  which  this  was  discussed, 
and,  indeed,  the  spirit  of  the  entire  meeting,  was 
in  the  highest  degree  temperate  and  conciliatory. 
Whenever  there  were  any  indications  of  anger  or 
impatience  they  were  promptly  checked,  and  by 
occasional  prayer  and  singing  the  large  assembly 
were  enabled  to  maintain  a  most  Christian  temper. 
The  harshest  thing  said  abont  the  editorial  was 
that '  the  editor  was  probably  misinformed  and  was 
acting  through  ignorance.' 

"  One  gentleman  stated  that  Carl  Beck  had  kept 
an  open  house  all  night ;  that  the  anti-temperance 
lawyer  was  there  and  they  made  it  one  of  the 
nights  of  the  season. 

"  Continued  singing  and  prayer,  with  an  inter- 
change of  views,  appeared  to  quicken  the  hearts 
of  the  working  committee,  and  they  announced 
their  intention  to  move  immediately  on  Mr.  Beck. 
At  this  I  started  ahead  to  make  a  reconnoisance, 
but  the  two  ladies  reached  the  saloon  just  before 

"  A  few  rods  from  his  house  I  met  Mr.  Beck, 
making  all  speed  toward  town,  rather  the  worst- 
scared  Dutchman  I  have  seen  for  some  time. 
'  Ach,  mein  Gott,'  he  shouted,  'dey  gooms;  I  tole 
you  dey  gooms  agin  to-day,  already.  I  shoost  go 
und  see  my  gounsel,  to  see  ven  I  no  got  a  right 


to  my  own  property.'  And  lie  struck  out  for 
to^vn  in  sucli  style  that  expert  boys  might  have 
l^layed  marbles  on  his  coat-tails. 

"  On  reconnoitring  the  premises  I  espied  some 
men  peeping  from  behind  an  out-house,  and,  at 
sight  of  me,  emerged,  one  by  one,  my  gay  acquaint- 
ances of  yesterday.  They  lamented  the  loss  of 
their  lager,  which  had  been  left  standing  in  their 
hurried  departure.  The  two  ladies  being  in  a 
carriage  were  not  suspected  until  almost  at  the 
door;  then  Beck  had  hurried  his  customers  out 
at  the  back  door,  and  fled  to  his  '  gounsel.'  The 
main  body  of  the  ladies  soon  arrived  and  took  up 
a  position  with  right  centre  on  the  door-step,  the 
wing  extending  each  way  beyond  the  corners  of 
the  house,  and  a  rearward  column  along  the  walk 
to  the  gate.  In  ludicrous  contrast,  the  routed  rev- 
ellers stood,  in  a  little  knot  fifty  feet  away,  still 
gnawing  at  the  pig's  feet  they  had  held  on  to  in 
their  humed  flight,  while  your  reporter  took  a 
convenient  seat  on  the  fence.    The  ladies  sang: 

*'  '  Oh,  do  not  be  discouraged,  for  Jesus  is  your  friend: 
He  will  give  you  grace  to  conquer  and  keep  you  to  the 

"As  the  twenty  or  more  clear,  sweet  voices 
mingled  in  the  enlivening  chorus — 

"  'I'm  glad  I'm  in  this  army,'  etc., 

the  effect  was  inspiring.     I  felt  all  the  enthusiasm 


of  the  occasion,  while  the  pig's-feet  party,  if  they 
did  not  feel  guilty,  certainly  looked  so.  The  sing- 
ing was  followed  by  a  prayer  from  Mrs.  Gardner, 
wife  of  Mills  Gardner,  Esq.,  of  the  Constitutional 
Convention.  She  prayed  for  the  blessing  of  God 
on  the  temperance  cause,  then  for  Mr.  Beck,  his 
family  and  friends,  his  house  and  all  that  loved 
him,  and  closed  with  an  eloquent  plea  for  guidance 
in  the  difficult  and  delicate  task  they  had  under- 
taken. As  the  concluding  sentences  were  being 
uttered,  Mr.  Beck  and  his  '  gounsel '  arrived.  As 
my  head  was  bowed  against  the  fence  I  did  not 
notice  the  lawyer  till  he  touched  me,  and  I  soon 
saw  that  he  was  '  case-hardened '  for  the  occasion. 
The  ladies  paid  no  attention  to  either,  but  broke 
forth  in  loud  strains : 

"  '  Must  Jesus  bear  the  cross  alone  ? 
No,  there's  a  cross  for  me.' 

" '  The  lawyer  borrowed  some  of  my  paper,  whis- 
pering at  the  same  time,  '  I  must  take  down  their 
names.  Guess  I  shall  have  to  prosecute  some  of 
them  before  we  stop  this  thing.' 

"I  should  need  the  pen  of  an  Irving  and  the 
pencil  of  a  Darley  to  give  any  adequate  idea  of 
the  scene.  On  one  side  was  a  score  of  elegant  ladies, 
singing  with  all  the  earnestness  of  impassioned 
natures;  a  few  rods  away  a  knot  of  disturbed  rev- 
ellers, uncertain  whether  to  stand  or  fly;  half-way 


between  the  nervous  Beck,  bobbing  around  like  a 
case  of  fiddle-strings  with  a  hundred  pounds  of 
larger-beer  fat  hung  on  them,  and  on  the  fence  by 
the  ladies  a  cold-blooded  lawyer  and  an  excited 
reporter  scribbling  away  as  if  their  lives  depended 
on  it.     It  was  painful  from  its  intensity. 

"The  song  ended,  the  presiding  lady  called 
upon  Mrs.  Wendel,  and  again  arose  the  voice  of 
prayer,  so  clear,  so  sweet,  so  full  of  pleading 
tenderness,  that  it  seemed  she  would,  by  the 
strength  of  womanly  love,  compel  the  very 
heavens  to  open  and  send  down  in  answer  a  spark 
of  Divine  grace  that  would  turn  the  saloon-keeper 
from  his  purpose. 

"  The  sky,  which  had  been  overcast  all  the  morn- 
ing, began  to  clear,  the  occasional  drops  ceased  to 
fall,  and  a  gentle  south  wind  made  the  air  soft  and 
balmy.  It  seemed  as  if  nature  had  joined  in  the 

"  Again  the  ladies  sang: 

* ' '  Are  there  no  foes  for  me  to  face  ? ' 

"As  the  song  concluded  the  lawyer  stepped 
forward  and  said :  '  Now,  ladies,  I  have  a  word  to 
say  before  this  performance  goes  any  further. 
Mr.  Beck  has  employed  me  as  his  attorney.  He 
cannot  speak  good  English,  and  I  speak  for  him 
here.  He  is  engaged  in  a  legitimate  business,  and 
you  are  trespassers  on  his  property  and  rights.    If 


this  thing  is  carried  any  further  you  will  be  called 
to  account  in  court,  and  I  can  assure  you  the 
court  will  sustain  the  man.  He  has  talked  with 
you  all  he  desires  to.  He  does  not  want  to  put 
you  out  forcibly.  That  would  be  unmanly,  and 
he  does  not  wish  to  act  rudely.  But  he  tells  you 
to  go.  As  his  attorney  I  now  warn  you  to  desist 
from  any  further  annoyance.' 
Again  the  ladies  sang : 

"  '  My  soul,  be  on  thy  guard ; 
Ten  thousand  foes  arise. 
The  hosts  of  sin  are  pressing  hard 
To  draw  thee  from  the  skies.' 

''  Mrs.  Carpenter  followed  with  a  fervent  prayer 
for  the  lawyer  and  his  client.  But  they  fled  the 
scene,  leaving  the  house  locked  up.  After  con- 
sultation the  ladies  decided  to  leave  Mr.  Beck's 
premises  and  take  a  position  on  the  adjoining  lot. 
They  therefore  sent  for  the  tabernacle.  Mean- 
while Beck  returned,  opened  the  back  door  and 
admitted  his  four  customers,  who  had  stood  by 
faithfully.  I  entered  the  house  while  the  ladies 
continued  to  sing.  It  would  be  painful  and  in- 
decent to  relate  the  remarks  made  by  the  besieged. 
They  seemed  to  think  it  quite  fitting  that  I  should 
come  and  go  between  the  parties,  talking  to  me 
freely  and  using  a  deal  of  wit  on  '  Charlie '  Beck, 
urging  him  to  '  go  out  and  return  thanks  for  the 
daylight  serenade,' 


"It  was  a  scene  I  never  expected  to  witness 
in  Ohio — four  roysterers  smoking,  drinking  and 
black-guarding  in  a  little  room,  wliile  through  the 
windows  could  be  seen  a  platoon  of  fair  women 
standing  guard,  while  with  occasional  intermission 
the  sweetest  songs  in  our  language  were  floating  in 
the  air.  The  revelry  inside  soon  broke  down,  an 
awkward  silence  followed,  and  the  half-ashamed 
fellows  shambled  out  into  the  road  and  homeward. 
Mr.  Beck  shut  up  shop  for  the  day  and  I  returned 
to  the  city. 

"  As  I  close,  at  dark  they  have  the  tabernacle 
well  arranged  with  seats  and  comfortably  warmed. 
It  stands  about  thirty  feet  from  Beck's  front  door^ 
a  little  to  the  left.  In  front  of  it  they  have  rigged 
up  a  powerful  reflector  which  shows  the  approach 
of  customers,  and  in  that  formidable  position  they 
propose  to  remain  till  midnight." 

The  following  we  copy  from  "  Women  and  Tem- 
perance," by  Miss  Frances  E.  AVillard: 

"  On  Friday,  February  6th,  another  man  opened 
a  beer  saloon  in  a  new  locality.  The  ladies  imme- 
diately visited  him  in  committees,  and  thus  spent 
the  day.  Next  day,  however,  they  took  up  their 
stand  in  front  of  his  door,  continuing  their  ser- 
vices into  the  evening,  at  which  time  their  force 
was  increased  by  the  entire  congregation  at  mass- 
meeting,  who  chose  to  conclude  their  services  in 
unison  with  the  watchers  before  the  saloons. 


"  Temperance  was  still  the  pulpit  ttieme  on  tlie 
Sabbatli,  and  on  Monday,  February  9tli,  all  the 
business  houses  were  closed  from  eight  to  nine,  to 
attend  the  business  men's  prayer-meeting.  Large 
delegations  were  present  from  adjoining  villages 
at  that  early  hour. 

"  At  the  meeting  there  came  a  messenger  from 
this  man  stating  that  he  would  give  up  his  busi- 
ness, which  announcement  was  received  with 

"  It.  was  decided  that  all  who  were  not  enjoined 
from  so  doing  should  march  out  to  Mr.  Beck's 
beer-garden,  where  the  proprietor  met  them  at  the 
gate,  and  after  a  brief  consultation  with  a  com- 
mittee apxjointed  for  that  purpose  he  publicly  an- 
nounced: 'You  comes  so  many  I  quits.  I  will 
never  sell  any  more  beer  or  whiskey.'  Again  the 
crowd  gave  vent  to  their  feelings  in  cheers.  Mes- 
sengers were  dispatched  to  the  women  who  re- 
mained praying  in  the  church  to  join  them.  All 
the  bells  commenced  ringing,  and  the  procession, 
numbering  two  hundred  strong,  started  out  to 
Sullivan's  beer -house,  now  the  only  remaining  sa- 
loon in  the  township.  Marching  up  Court  Street 
the  number  increased,  and,  amid  the  most  pro- 
found silence,  the  men  and  women  pursued  their 
journey.  About  half-way  there  the  man  in  ques- 
tion was  met  and  interviewed.  He  asked  two  days 
to  consider,  which  were  granted,     The  procession 


then  returned,  the  bells  all  the  time  ringing  out 
their  chimes  on  the  crisp  morning  air.  Meetings, 
morning  and  evening,  continued  with  unabated 
interest,  and  at  each  came  to  us  the  cry  from  other 
points:  'Come  and  help  us.' 

"  On  Wednesday  morning,  February  11th,  at 
mass-meeting  in  the  Presbyterian  church,  Mr.  Sul- 
livan came  and  j^ublicly  pledged  himself  '  to  quit 
forever  the  liquor  business.'  A  general  rejoicing 
and  thanksgiving  followed  this  surrender  of  the 
last  man. 

''  Thus,  through  most  of  the  winter  of  1874  no 
alcoholic  drinks  were  publicly  sold  as  a  beverage. 

*'  As  Dr.  Dio  Lewis  had  signified  his  intention 
of  again  visiting  our  village  on  Tuesday,  February 
17th,  that  day  was  appointed  as  one  of  general  re- 
joicing and  thanksgiving.  Accordingly  arrange- 
ments were  made  for  a  mass-meeting  to  be  held  in 
Music  Hall  at  two  o'clock  p.m.  At  half -past  one  a 
thousand  people  were  gathered  at  the  depot  await- 
ing the  arrival  of  the  train.  Promptly  at  the 
hour  Dr.  Lewis,  accompanied  by  quite  a  corps  of 
newspaper  men,  alighted  from  the  car,  and  was 
greeted  with  music  from  the  band  and  cheers  from 
the  vast  concourse  of  people,  who  immediately 
proceeded  to  the  hall,  where  the  following  brief 
words  of  welcome  were  addressed  to  him  by  Mrs. 
George  Carpenter: 

" '  Dr.  Lewis :  In  the  name  of  the  women  of  Wash- 


ington,  I  welcome  you.  Eight  weeks  ago,  when 
you  first  came  among  us,  you  found  us  a  people 
of  warm  hearts,  generous  impulses,  fully  alive  to 
the  evils  of  intemperance,  and  needing  only  the 
magnetism  of  a  master-mind  to  rouse  us  to  a  de- 
termined resistance  of  its  ravages.  Yours  Avas 
that  mind.  Dr.  Lewis,  your  hand  pointed  out  the 
way.  You  vitalized  our  latent  activities,  and 
roused  us  all,  men  and  women  together,  and  w^e 
have  gone  forth  to  the  battle  side  by  side,  as  God 
intended  we  should,  ourselves  perfect  weakness, 
but  God  mighty  in  strength.  He  sent  you  here. 
He  put  the  thought  into  your  heart.  He  prepared 
our  hearts  to  receive  it.  And  now  He  has  brought 
you  among  us  again  to  gladden  you  with  the 
fruition  of  hope  long  deferred, — to  see  the  seed 
sown  years  ago  by  your  mother  springing  up, 
budding,  and  bearing  fruit.  Dr.  Lewis,  I  wel- 
come you  to  the  hearts  and  homes  of  Washington.' 
"  Dr.  Lewis  replied  substantially  as  follows : 
" '  Madam  and  Friends :  I  cannot  make  a  speech 
on  this  occasion.  I  have  always  been  on  the  fron- 
tier, always  engaged  in  the  battle  of  reform.  And 
now  to  find  something  really  accomplished — to 
find  a  town  positively  free  from  the  curse  of 
liquor-selling — it  really  seems  as  if  there  is  noth- 
ing for  me  to  do.  I  feel  as  one  without  working 
harness.  But  I  will  say  this :  none  but  God  can 
ever  know  how  much  I  owe  to  this  town,  nor  how 


fortunate  it  Avas  for  me  and  for  others  that  I  came 
here.  I  will  not  say  that  this  is  the  only  com- 
munity in  which  the  work  could  be  begun.  The 
heroism  and  self-sacrifice  displayed  in  other  places 
Avould  make  such  a  remark  invidious.' 

"  After  the  response  by  Dr.  Lewis  the  remainder 
of  the  afternoon  was  spent  in  general  speech-mak- 
ing. The  evening  was  occupied  in  listening  to  a 
lecture  by  Dr.  Lewis,  and  the  day  fitly  closed  by 
an  informal  reception  given  to  the  orators  of  the 
occasion  at  the  home  of  one  of  ths  crusaders." 



Nowhere  else  liad  the  ladies  received  sucli 
indignities  as  met  tliem  at  Isew  Vienna,  where 
they  were  violently  resisted  by  a  man  named  Van 
Pelt,  who  kex-)t  the  saloon  known  as  "  The  Dead 
Fall "  and  who  had  won  the  title  of  the  wickedest 
man  in  Ohio.  He  was  described  by  the  corre- 
spondent of  the  Cincinnati  ComTnercial  as  "a 
burly  man,  with  a  round,  knobby  head  and  a 
bulbous  nose,  having  the  sort  of  physique  often 
seen  in  the  frequenters  of  the  pit  and  the  prize- 

All  went  smoothly  with  the  ladies  in  their  visits 
to  the  saloons  until  they  reached  this  place  of  evil 
name  and  repute.  Their  coming  seemed  to  drive 
Van  Pelt  to  fury,  and  wdien  a  second  visit  was 
paid  to  him  he  had  made  special  preparations  to 
receive  them.  In  one  of  his  show-windows  was  an 
unusually  fine  display  of  whisk ey -bottles ;  over 
the  door  jugs  and  bottles  were  hung,  and  a  black 
fiag  consiDicuously  surmounted  all,  while  within 
doors  Van  Pelt  could  be  seen  walking  the  floor 
and  flourishing  a  club  at  invisible  foes. 

The  Avomen  Avere  not  deterred  by  the  spectacle, 


but  to  tlie  number  of  forty  or  more  visited  his 
shop  twice  a  day. 

''During  a  prayer,"  as  told  by  the  New  Tork 
Tribune  correspondent,  who  witnessed  it,  "  when 
tlie  leader  uttered  the  words  '  May  the  Lord  bap- 
tize him  with  the  Holy  Spirit,'  the  enraged  Van 
Pelt  began  to  throw  dirty  water  and  then  beer 
upon  the  ladies,  saying,  'I'll  baptize  you,'  until 
they  were  finally  driven  from  his  den  thoroughly 
drenched.  They  finished  their  exercises  outside 
his  door,  while  he  stood  at  the  window  denounc- 
ing them  with  horrid  imprecations.  Public  in- 
dignation against  him  was  fully  aroused,  and  it  is 
probable  the  men  of  the  tow^n  wdll  finish  the  work 
by  the  destruction  of  his  place  of  business." 

The  method  adopted  by  the  men  "to  finish 
the  work"  was  to  have  Van  Pelt  arrested  and 
put  in  jail  for  a  week,  from  which  he  came  more 
furious  than  ever.  When  visited  by  the  ladies 
at  his  saloon  he  challenged  them  to  a  prayer- 
meeting  in  w^hich  he  should  make  every  alternate 
prayer,  and  three  times  he  followed  their  tender 
appeals  by  his  blasphemous  ones.  The  ladies, 
meantime,  liad  learned  that  the  land  adjacent  to 
Yan  Pelt's  belonged  to  the  railroad  company,  and 
they  gained  permission  to  occupy  it,  which  gave 
them  a  strong  position.  Then  with  unfailing 
patience  the  ladies  persevered  in  their  work  for 
his  conversion,  and  on  February  3d  the  corre- 

the:  biography  of  dio  lewis.  191 

spondent  of  tlie  ^N'ew  York  Tribune  telegraphed 
that  paper  the  following: 

"  To-day  the  people  of  New  Yienna  witnessed 
the  com]3lete  surrender  of  the  notorious  Yan 
Pelt,  after  three  weeks'  labor.  A  procession  of 
about  a  hundred  ladies  inarched  to  his  saloon  at 
two  o'clock  P.M.  Some  rumor  had  spread  which  led 
the  people  to  close  the  stores  and  workshops  and 
join  the  gathering  throng.  When  the  crowd  was 
assembled  at  the  '  Dead  Fall '  saloon,  Yan  Pelt 
appeared  and  announced  that  h6  was  ready  to  give 
up  his  entire  stock  for  the  good  of  the  temperance 
cause.  He  said  with  emotion  and  apparent  sin- 
cerity, '  I  make  a  comj^lete  surrender,  not  because 
of  law  or  force,  but  to  the  women  who  have 
labored  in  love.  It  has  reached  my  heart.'  Nar- 
rating the  circumstances  later,  he  said  '.  .  .  I 
then  asked  the  ministers  to  please  carry  out  the 
whiskey.  They  were  terribly  willing,  and  out  it 
went.  I  gathered  up  that  same  axe  that  I  had 
threatened  the  women  with,  and  drove  it  as  near 
through  those  barrels  as  I  could,  and  out  ran  the 
whiskey.  Such  a  shout  as  went  up  I  never  heard 
before,  and  never  will  again  till  I  stand  before 
God.  The  tears  ran  down  their  cheeks  like  a 
fountain  stream.' 

"  Devotional  exercises  closed  the  scene.  All  the 
bells  of  the  town  were  rung  in  honor  of  the  occa- 
sion.    To-night  an   earnest  temperance  meeting 

192  TilE   BIOGRAPHY   OP   t)iO   LEWIS. 

was  held,  and  Van  Pelt  made  a  brief  address,  con^ 
fessing  Ms  wickedness  and  admitting  tliat  he 
could  not  reconcile  himself  to  the  business.  He 
referred  to  his  saloon  as  a  low  groggery,  saying, 
'  Yes,  I'll  call  it  a  low  groggery,  for  no  man  can 
keep  a  high  one.'  At  the  close  of  the  meeting  a 
purse  of  SloO  was  presented  to  Van  Pelt  as  an 
exj)ression  of  the  feeling  of  the  community  to- 
ward him." 

The  correspondent  of  the  New  York  Tribune 
writing  from  Columbus,  Ohio,  February  8th,  1874, 

"...  Mr.  Van  Pelt  also  addressed  the  audi- 
ence in  a  rough,  uncultivated,  but  evidently  earn- 
est and  sincere  manner.  His  remarks  were  lis- 
tened to  attentively,  and  when  he  had  concluded 
the  audience  called  loudly  for  him  to  relate  his 
experience  as  a  whiskey-dealer.  He  hesitated  at 
this,  but  the  appeals  becoming  more  urgent  he 
spoke  briefly  of  his  past  life,  confessing  that  he 
was  ashamed  of  it,  and  preferred  silence  in  regard 
to  it.  He  said  :  '  I  have  been  urged  by  liquor- 
dealers  in  Cincinnati  to  resist  the  women's  jDlead- 
ings,  and  have  been  offered,  free  of  cost,  all  the 
liquor  I  could  sell  for  a  year  if  I  would  remain 
firm ;  but  no  man  who  wishes  to  be  a  man  among 
his  fellows  could  look  upon  the  pleading  faces  of 
those  wives  and  mothers,  and  listen  to  their  prayers 
day  after  day,  without  spurning  such  an  ofi^er.'  " 

THE    BIOGRAPHr   OF    DIO    LEWIS.  198 

A  week  later  the  corresx)Oiident  of  the  New 
York  Tribune  said  : 

"  To-night  Dr.  Lewis  is  liappy  in  the  society  of 
John  Calvin  Yan  Pelt,  the  hero  of  ]N'ew  Vienna. 
Van  Pelt  is  about  forty  years  of  age,  with  the  frame 
and  fist  of  a  prize-fighter.  He  is  now  fighting  as 
hard  for  total  abstinence  as  he  has  heretofore 
fought  for  his  rights  as  a  liquor-seller." 

Dr.  Lewis,  describing  this  man,  said  :  "  While 
Mr.  Yan  Pelt  is,  through  nature  or  association,  a 
coarse  man,  beside  whom  you  would  not  choose 
to  sit,  yet  when,  stirred  by  this  revival,  he  speaks 
of  his  experience,  you  cannot  restrain  your  tears." 

Correspondence  of  the  Cincinnati  Commercial^ 
February  13th: 

"  Yan  Pelt  continues  to  im^Drove.  His  grammar 
is  horrid,  but  his  words  are  terse  and  stocky,  reg- 
ular old  idiomatic  English." 

At  Morrovr,  a  town  in  Ohio  of  twelve  hundred 
inhabitants,  there  were  seventeen  saloons.  The 
proprietor  of  the  one  which  was  classed  as 
the  most  respectable,  a  young  man  of  some  culture 
and  well  connected,  petitioned  the  court  that  cer- 
tain persons,  naming  one  hundred  and  four  ladies 
and  gentlemen,  including  Dio  Lewis,  should  be 
restrained  from  disturbing  him  in  his  lawful  busi- 
ness, and  asking  judgment  against  said  defendants 
for  one  thousand  dollars. 

Judge  Eaton  decided  that  the  complainant's 


business  was  not  lawful;  that  lie  maintained  a 
nuisance  which  was  in  derogation  of  the  rights  of 
the  defendants ;  that  the  maintainer  of  a  nuisance 
can  have  no  standing  in  a  court  of  equity  when 
he  wishes  to  be  protected  in  his  unlaAvf  ul  business, 
and  the  injunction  was  dissolved  at  plaintiff's 
costs.  As  a  result  the  saloon  w^as  closed  and  the 
proprietor  left  town. 

Of  another  tyx)e  the  most  obstinate  liquor-dealer 
here  was  Max  Goepert,  a  brother  of  a  wealthy  Cin- 
cinnati brewer,  who  kept  a  low  place  near  the  rail- 
road station,  a  man  whom  the  brewers  patted  on 
the  back  and  said,  "  No  matter  who  gives  up.  Max 
Groepert  will  not."  The  men  Avho  sympathized  with 
the  women  thouglit  prayer  was  wasted  on  such  a 
wretch,  and  almost  Avished  to  take  him  and  lynch 
him,  but  the  women  never  lost  courage.  Passengers 
on  the  Little  Miami  trains  might  see  them  at  al- 
most any  hour  from  six  in  the  morning  until  ten  at 
night,  kneeling  on  steps  before  the  door,  with 
piteous  faces  upturned,  and  pleading  with  the  Al- 
mighty to  have  mercy  upon  that  saloon-keeper 
and  change  his  heart. 

The  correspondent  of  the  Cincinnati  Comoner- 
cial  wrote : 

"Again  I  passed  the  little  village  of  Morrow, 
and  again  saw  the  pitiful  sight  in  front  of  the  sa- 
loon of  Max  Goepert,  upon  whom  has  fallen  the 
mantle  of  Van  Pelt,  together    Avitli  the  title  of 


Hhe  wickedest  man  in  Ohio.'  When  the  cars 
stopped  the  ladies  were  singing  a  hymn  with  the 
familiar  chorus, 

*' '  Happy  day,  when  Jesus  washed  my  sins  away.' 

while  Goepert,  smoking  his  pipe,  stood  at  the 
window  smiling  npon  friends  whom  he  recognized 
on  the  passing  train.  His  case  seemed  hopeless. 
For  weeks  he  has  withstood  the  prayers  and  en- 
treaties of  the  entire  female  population  of  the  vil- 
lage, and  the  singing  seems  to  have  a  soothing 
eif ect  upon  him  rather  than  otherwise.  For  a  day 
or  two  he  displayed  in  his  window  a  card  on 
which  there  was  a  representation  of  a  corpse  being 
carried  off  on  a  bier  and  the  inscription,  'This 
man  was  talked  to  death.'  But  this  joke  was  not 
appreciated,  even  by  the  men,  and  it  was  with- 
drawn. If  the  crowd  at  Goepert's  door  had  been 
composed  of  men,  praying  would  long  since  have 
been  abandoned  as  a  forlorn  hope ;  but  from  sun- 
rise to  sunset  the  women  sustain  their  patient 
watch,  and  from  all  parts  of  the  State  ascend  the 
prayers  of  faith  for  their  success." 

One  day  later  the  same  correspondent  wrote: 
"  At  Morrow  we  found  the  ladies  in  much  larger 
force  than  when  we  saw  them  last  before  the  sa- 
loon of  Max  Goepert.  The  proprietor  still  smiled 
behind  his  glass  door,  but  such  a  smile !  It  was 
as  if  one  had  soaked  his  face  in  tan-bark  ooze  and 

196  tkE  BTOGiiAt'Hr  bi"  t)io  Lewis. 

the  contracting  power  thereof  had  drawn  his 
mouth  into  a  fixed,  mechanical  grin. 

''At  last,  on  a  morning  early  in  March,  the  ladies 
came  as  usu^l  and  found  only  the  empty  shell  of 
the  old  shanty. 

"  Goepert  and  his  effects  had  disappeared.  The 
bells  were  rung  loud  and  long,  and  the  patient  and 
persistent  workers  wept  for  joy." 

"  In  Clyde,  when  an  angry  saloon-keeper  called 
upon  his  rabble  to  hoot,  and  threw  a  pail  of  cold 
water  into  the  face  of  the  leader  of  the  band,  with- 
out stopping  for  an  instant  she  said :  '  O  Lord,  we 
are  now  baptized  for  the  work.'  The  effect  was 
magical.  All  were  quiet  and  the  victory  was 
complete.  The  saloon-keeper  went  with  them  to 
the  church,  where  the  most  earnest  prayers  were 
offered  for  him." 

Miamisburg,  Ohio,  January  29th,  communica- 
tion to  the  Yolksblatt: 

''  A  remarkable  fact  which  the  beer  brewers  of 
Cincinnati  who  purchase  their  malt  from  this  vi- 
cinity may  make  a  note  of  is  this.  The  wife  of  the 
owner  of  the  malt  house,  F.  Schenck,  of  Franklin, 
is  among  the  women  going  about  in  that  town. 
.  .  .  The  women  there  are  carrying  on  at  a  fear- 
ful rate." 

In  February  Dr.  Lewis  went  to  Delaware,  Ohio, 
to  fill  an  engagement  to  address  one  of  the  literary 
societies,  "  Chi  Phi,"  of  the  Ohio  Wesleyan  Univer- 


sity.  But  so  great  had  become  the  enthusiasm 
over  temperance,  both  on  the  part  of  audience  and 
lecturer,  that  a  vote  was  taken  on  a  motion  to  sub- 
stitute a  consideration  of  the  new  method  of  work 
for  the  tox)ic  announced.  As  a  result  Dr.  Lewis 
presented  the  absorbing  topic.  Speeches  were 
made  by  officers  of  the  university,  and,  leading 
citizens  indorsing  the  method,  the  ladies  organized, 
gentlemen  pledged  their  support,  and  the  next  day 
more  than  a  hundred  were  v^isiting  saloons. 

Dr.  Lewis  being  asked  about  the  work  in  Cin- 
cinnati, said  that  he  thought  they  were  laboring 
very  hard  there,  going  about  in  large  parties.  His 
theory  is  that  for  large  places  quite  small  com- 
panies do  better,  while  in  small  toAvns  the  Avhole 
community  can  rise  up  with  effect  and  sweep  away 
the  sale. 

**  Some  eighty  of  the  young  men  in  the  Wesley- 
an  University  having  refused  to  sign  the  pledge, 
the  young  ladies  in  the  to^vn  formed  a  league  of 
non-association  with  unpledged  young  men,  which 
soon  brought  nearly  all  to  terms." 

According  to  a  dispatch  from  Delaware,  dated 
February  24th, 

'^  The  excitement  was  so  intense  to-day  that  it 
was  found  almost  impossible  to  conduct  the  ex- 
ercises at  the  university,  and  throughout  the  place 
little  mercantile  business  was  transacted.  Every- 
thing gave  way  to  the  question  of  the  hour." 

The  saloon-keepers  tried  to  compromise  with 

198  THE   BIOGKAPHY   OF   ])lO    LEWIS. 

the  women,  offering  to  sell  nothing  but  beer  if  the 
women  would  withdraw  from  the  work.  This  the 
women  refused  to  do. 

Many  saloons  surrendered. 

In  the  midst  of  the  work  election  day  came  and 
the  voters  elected  the  entire  temperance  ticket. 
The  greatest  enthusiasm  i)revailed.  All  the  bells 
of  the  town  were  rung,  cannons  were  lired,  and  a 
praise -meeting  held  in  the  Opera  House,  which 
was  crowded  to  its  utmost  capacity. 

From  New  Lexington,  Ohio,  it  is  reported  that 
the  Roman  Catholics  there  have  entered  into  the 
movement.  Father  Mortier,  the  priest,  taking  the 
lead,  supported  by  Sisters  of  Charity.  In  this 
town  the  female  Catholic  academy  is  located,  and 
the  college  of  St.  Joseph.  This  is  the  oldest  Eng- 
lish Catholic  theological  college  west  of  the  Alle- 
ghanies.  In  the  place  there  have  been  fifteen 
liquor-saloons,  twelve  managed  by  Catholics.  All 
these  have  abandoned  the  trafliic. 

In  Greenfield  Ohio,  eleven  saloons  were  closed 
in  six  weeks  and  in  a  short  time  all  were. 

The  correspondent  of  the  Cincinnati  Gazette^ 
January  24th,  1874,  says: 

"The  tipplers  here  now  have  to  watch  their 
chance  and  slij)  in  when  the  crusaders  are  absent. 
One  who  was  in  advance  as  the  ladies  approached 
a  saloon  to-day  rather  unexpectedly,  said  he  never 
before  saw  such  a  scrambling  to  get  out  of  a  back 
door.    They  tied  like  a  flock  of  scared  sheep.    One 

THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF    DIO   LEWIS.  199 

fellow,  being  badly  frightened  and  more  unfortu- 
nate than  the  rest,  fell  down  three  or  four  times, 
losing  his  hat  each  time,  before  he  could  rightly 
get  the  use  of  his  legs,  and  fled  when  none  pursued 

In  this  town,  at  a  jubilee  following  the  crusade 
work,  $20,000  Vv^ere,  subscribed  toward  a  Christian 

"  The  only  place  where  there  appears  to  be  little 
progress  is  at  Pomeroy,  on  the  Ohio  River,  where 
coal  mines  and  blast  furnaces  are  plenty  and 
drinking-saloons  number  about  sixty.  The  drug- 
gists and  physicians,  however,  have  been  won 
over,  and  work  contiuues,  with  no  diminution  of 
ho23e  of  its  final  success." 

"At  Bucyrus,  Ohio,  in  defiance  of  the  resolu- 
tions of  the  Council  requiring  the  mayor  to  em- 
ploy special  police  to  keep  the  women  away  from 
the  saloons,  they  swarmed  out  in  still  greater  num- 
bers, even  sick  women  leaving  their  beds  to  show 
their  s]3irit.  The  mayor  is  said  to  have  found 
almost  insurmountable  difiiculty  in  getting  special 
police,  public  sentiment  being  so  determinedly 
hostile  to  interference  with  the  women." 

At  E,ij)ley  seventeen  out  of  twenty  saloons  were 
closed  in  nine  days. 

At  Waynesville  hand-bills  were  circulated  by 
one  of  the  saloon-keepers  warning  the  ladies  not 
to  visit  him,  as  a  grocery  was  not  a  place  of  wor- 

200  THE   BIOGRAPHif   OF   DIO   LEWIS. 


After  the  organization  of  the  work  at  Fredonia, 
Jamestown,  Hillsboro,  and  Washington  Court- 
House,  Dr.  Lewis  wrote: 

"  These  repeated  ontbnrsts  of  the  Divine  flame 
convinced  me  that  I  should  make  no  more  engage- 
ments for  lyceum  lectures  for  the  winter,  and  that 
I  should  give  assistance  to  the  work  in  Ohio.  I 
therefore  telegraphed  to  the  business  bureau  to 
this  effect,  and  asked  them  to  cancel,  so  far  as 
could  be  done,  engagements  already  made." 

So  quick  was  the  sympathetic  response  to  the 
movement  throughout  Ohio  that  Dr.  Lewis  was 
at  once  so  burdened  by  his  correspondence  that 
he  was  obliged  to  employ  a  stenographer.  Dur- 
ing a  business  visit  to  Boston  applications  to  the 
extent  of  a  hundred  per  week  came  to  him  from 
Ohio  to  lecture  and  to  help  organize  locally  "  the 
temperance  crusade,"  as  tlie  press  began  to  en- 
title the  new  movement,  of  which  he  was  desig- 
nated as  the  "  Peter." 

He  therefore  returned  without  delay  and  com- 
menced lecturing  at  Cleveland,  Ohio,  February 
8th,  1874,  where,  as  at  Cincinnati  on  the  9th,  at 


Xenia  on  the  lOtli,  and  in  other  places  in  rapid 
succession,  he  was  greeted  by  enthusiastic  crowds 
which  the  largest  halls  could  not  accommodate, 
and  the  work  of  organization  went  on. 

Friends  of  temperance  throughout  the  State 
gave  themselves  at  once  to  the  work,  and  the 
hearts  of  the  noblest  women  seemed  stirred  to  un- 
wonted depths.  The  timid  and  the  reserved  grew 
courageous,  and  the  physically  delicate  became 
enduring  under  the  enkindled  sense  of  their  re- 
sponsibility to  their  unfortunate  brothers,  and 
success,  which  every wliere  crowned  their  efforts, 
lent  new  zeal  and  a  deeper  sense  of  tliankfulness. 

While  hitherto  it  had  been  difficult  to  secure  the 
admission  of  temj)erance  literature  into  the  secu- 
lar or  even  into  the  religious  press,  the  people 
were  now  so  eager  for  the  latest  tidings  that  the 
great  daily  newspapers  of  New  York,  Ohio,  and 
other  States  kept  special  corresj^ondents  in  the 
field  of  action,  who  furnished  lengthy  reports  of 
the  campaign. 

The  religious  press  promptly  reflected  the  many 
phases  of  the  movement,  sometimes  filling  pages 
of  their  issues. 

The  New  York  Tribune  ^ent,  unsolicited,  one  of 
its  ablest  representatives,  Mr.  Moses  P.  Handy, 
to  accompany  Dr.  Lewis  from  Boston  to  Ohio,  that 
its  columns  might  furnish  the  most  trustworthy 
accounts  of  this  new  form  of  Christian  warfare. 


This  gentleman  continued  with  Dr.  Lewis 
throughout  the  camj^aign,  loyally  insisting,  in  the 
times  of  exciting  opposition  and  threats  from  the 
liquor  interest  which  ensued,  ux3on  having  another 
bed  placed  for  him  in  Dr.  Lewis's  room,  that  he 
might  act  as  guard  in  case  of  attack. 

That  the  position  of  press  correspondent  was 
no  sinecure  appears  by  the  statement  of  a  single 
newspaper,  which  says: 

''  We  gare  a  few  days  since  a  condensed  sum- 
mary of  one  day's  campaign  in  the  warfare  against 
intemperance  in  the  West.  The  reports  repre- 
sented thirty-three  towns  in  six  different  States. 
We  condense  here  the  reports  since  received. 
The  two  lists  include  ninety-eight  cities  in  eight 
different  States." 

And  yet  the  story  was  untold;  the  essential 
spirit  of  the  whole,  the  conversations,  the  prayers 
and  the  personal  efforts  could  not  be  adequately 
set  forth  by  the  x>ress ;  they  were  not  subjects  for 
newspaper  reports. 

There  was  in  the  work,  as  carried  on  in  the  sev- 
eral towns  and  cities,  both  unity  and  variety.  The 
workers  everywhere  manifested  the  same  zeal,  the 
same  persistent  purpose,  the  same  patience  with 
offenders,  toward  whom  they  had  no  feeling  of 
contempt  or  anger,  but  only  the  spirit  of  loving- 
service.  From  the  same  divine  source  all  drew 
Strength  to  combat  the  resistance  which,  in  many 


forms,  personal  greed  and  appetite  opposed  to 

As  the  ]^ew  York  Times  of  February  14th,  1874, 
said,  reviewing  the  work : 

"The  successes  of  the  women  did  not  make 
them  dictatorial.  They  were  just  as  mild  in  their 
requests  to  saloon-keepers  as  ever.  They  made  no 
demands.  Tears,  prayers,  and  songs  proved  more 
effectual,  and  with  these  the  work  went  on.  The 
movement  became  popular,  and  in  the  face  of  itte 
popularity,  old  topers  who  were  long  since  sup- 
posed to  be  lost  to  shame  did  not  dare  to  go  to  the 
liquor-shops  still  open.  There  was  an  actual  stag- 
nation of  the  liquor  traffic,  and  those  dealers  not 
influenced  by  prayer  had  to  suspend  business  from 
sheer  lack  of  patronage." 

The  only  recorded  inotance  when  the  ladies  lost 
their  patience  is  given  by  Mrs.  CarjDenter,  of  Wash- 
ington Court-House,  before  named  as  the  leader  of 
the  work  there.  She  relates  that  after  they  had 
been  at  work  for  some  time  at  the  saloon  of  a  stub- 
born dealer,  he  lost  patience  and  rudely  told  them 
to  go  home  and  attend  to  their  own  business. 
Thereupon  the  ladies  also  lost  their  temper  and 
told  the  fellow  that  if  his  conduct  Avere  repeated 
they  would  send  their  husbands  after  him  to  en- 
force the  law.  This  did  not  mend  the  saloon- 
keeper's evil  mood.  But  when  the  ladies  returned 
and  prayed  over  the  matter  until  nearly  midnight. 


tliey  saw  that  tliey  liad  not  acted  in  the  spirit  of 
the  Master,  nor  in  accordance  with  the  true  theory 
of  the  movement.  Accordingly  on  the  next  morn- 
ing they  went  to  his  saloon,  admitted  that  they 
had  been  in  the  wrong,  and  asked  his  pardon. 
From  that  moment  the  fellow's  fate  was  sealed, 
and  on  the  next  day  he  unconditionally  sur- 
rendered. The  lady  who  tells  the  story  says  she 
believes  that  if  she  and  her  associates  had  not  con- 
fessed their  error  and  returned  to  faith  in  the 
law  of  love,  their  victory  would  have  been  long 
delayed  if  accomplished  at  all. 

Meantime,  with  varying  but  cheering  success 
the  work  went  on.  The  story  of  both  the  encour- 
agements and  obstacles  which  it  met  can  be  told 
most  fairly  as  well  as  most  graphically  in  tran- 
scripts from  the  j)ress  of  the  time.  It  is  difficult  to 
choose  from  these  and  from  personal  narratives 
gathered  by  Miss  Frances  E.  Willard,  Mrs.  Wit- 
tenmyer,  and  Mrs.  Bolton,  the  brief  records  which 
the  limits  of  this  volume  j)ermit.  What  must 
here  be  condensed  into  a  few  chapters  was  re- 
ported in  columns  and  in  broadsides  in  the  daily 
and  religious  press,  as  the  contagion  spread. 

The  various  evangelical  denominations  pub- 
lished without  stint  their  "  God  speed "  to  the 
work.  The  Herald  and  Presbyter  of  February 
24th,  1874,  quoted  hearty  commendations  from 
more  than  twenty  of  the  leading  religious  week- 
lies of  the  country. 


Bistinguislied  leaders  of  tlioiight  reviewed  the 
work  from  platform  and  pulpit.  Dr.  Ciiyler,  in 
the  New  York  Evangelist^  said  of  these  Western 
women:  "God  bless  them!  they  are  extorting 
praise  even  from  those  secular  presses  that  have 
never  before  dared  to  lift  a  syllable  against  the 
rum  power." 

The  unanimity  of  friendly  feeling  for  the  work 
on  the  part  of  both  press  and  people,  outside  of 
the  German  press  and  of  those  engaged  in  the 
liquor  traffic,  was  noteworthy.  It  is  true  that  a 
Cincinnati  organ  of  the  liquor  manufacturers  gave 
unfavorable  reports  and  burlesqued  the  workers, 
declaring  that  "  a  devil  of  conversion  has  seized 
the  souls  of  the  women  of  Ohio,"  but  when  one  of 
its  caustic  editorials  was  brought  forward  at  a 
public  meeting  of  the  temperance  women,  "the 
harshest  thing  said,"  wrote  the  Cincinnati  Com- 
Tnercial  reporter,  "  was  that  '  the  editor  was  prob- 
ably misinformed  and  acted  through  ignorance.' 
The  only  resistance  offered  was  to  pray  earnestly 
for  him  and  advise  him  that  they  were  doing  so." 

From  the  Watchman  and  Reflector^  Boston, 
April  9th,  1874: 

"We  regard  the  woman's  temperance  move- 
ment as  the  most  signal  event  of  the  age,  next 
after  the  great  uprising  against  American  slavery, 
and  it  seeks  the  overthrow  of  a  vastly  greater  evil 
than  did  the  latter.     The  bondmen  of  the  South 

206  THE   BIOGRAPHY   OF   DIO    LEWI^. 

might  be  the  Lord's  freemen,  but  the  rum  power 
makes  its  every  victim  the  devil's  slave. 

"  The  grand  characteristic  of  the  movement  is 
that  women  lead  off  in  it  and  are  its  main  sup- 
porters. It  is  the  concentrated  joower  of  mother- 
hood, and  wifehood,  and  daughterhood,  and  sister- 
hood, and  loverhood,  all  thoroughly  Christian- 
ized and  consecrated  as  with  a  pentecostal  bap- 
tism, and  combined  with  the  calmness  of  fixed  pur- 
pose against  the  traffic.  It  seeks  to  bring  woman's 
power  to  plead  with  God  and  man  to  bear  at  the 
very  source  of  the  evil. 

^'  Nothing  is  more  wonderful  in  this  movement 
than  its  religiousness.  If  it  is  not  a  work  of  God, 
then  the  great  uprising  against  human  chattelship 
was  not  of  God;  the  Reformation  was  not  of 
God ;  Pentecost  was  not  of  God ;  and  no  revival 
of  religion  at  the  present  day  is  of  God.  Its 
primal  impulse  and  its  accumulated  momentum 
have  come  of  prayer — prayer  from  the  prof ound- 
est  depths  of  woman's  nature. 

"The  success  has  been  wonderful.  In  Ohio 
alone  nearly  if  not  quite  two  thousand  drinking- 
places  have  been  closed,  and  the  work  is  extend- 
ing to  every  town  and  village  in  the  State.  Thence 
it  has  rapidly  widened  out,  until  now  it  is  felt  at 
a  stage  more  or  less  advanced  from  the  Atlantic 
to  the  Pacific." 

The  following  will  serve  as  a  type  of  the  antag- 

THE   BIOGKAPHY   OF    DIO    LfiWlS.  207 

onism  to  tlie  movement  whicli  now  and  then  wil- 
fully but  amusingly  misinterpreted  its  spirit. 

A  New  York  Herald  reporter  having  inter- 
viewed Dr.  Lewis,  the  latter  remarked:  "The 
shutting  up  of  the  liquor  saloons  is  not  one-tenth 
part  of  the  good  that  will  come  of  the  work.  This 
is  the  first  religious  revival  ever  known  in  this 
country  having  a  distinct  and  tangible  object,  and 
is  therefore  the  first  one  likely  to  retain  all  it 

A  newspaper  which  quotes  this  exclaims : 

"...  That  being  the  case,  we  ask  by  what 
right  does  the  government  submit  to  'religious 
revivals,'  and  allow  its  tax-payers  to  be  perse- 
cuted and  ruined,  and  the  national  treasury  de- 
prived of  its  principal  revenue? 

"  It  is  the  persecuting  spirit  of  the  seventeenth 
century  in  a  new  form.  Its  XDhilosojohy  is  that  the 
wicked — i.e.^  non-puritans — have  no  right  which 
the  faithful  and  good  are  bound  to  respect.  No- 
body can  say  where  they  will  stop ! 

"Is  it  not  time  that  our  national  Congress 
should  pay  some  attention  to  that  outrageous  and 
humiliating  movement,  which  really  puts  us  back 
in  civilization  nearly  two  hundred  years,  and  de- 
bases this  country  in  the  high  opinion  which 
other  nations  have  thus  far  entertained  for  it? " 

The  New  York  Herald  asks : 

"  Who  will  say  that  the  Ohio  reformers,  in  their 


ardor  to  suppress  the  liquor  traffic,  may  not  i)ro- 
j)ose  to  burn  the  beer-sellers,  if  the  indications 
should  fail  of  their  effect?  History  may  repeat 
itself,  and  though  this  is  a  material  age,  there  is 
no  reason  why  men  should  not  be  prej^ared  to  die 
for  beer,  which,  in  its  way,  is  a  substantial,  com- 
prehensible blessing  to  the  poor.  Men  have  died 
for  ideas  they  liked  but  did  not  comprehend,  and 
why  should  not  martyrs  be  ready  to  suffer  in  the 
cause  of  beer,  which  they  both  like  and  under- 
stand?   We  have  it  on  good  authority  that 

"  '  Of  all  cookeries  most 
The  saints  love  a  roast,' 

and  it  is  quite  within  the  range  of  possibility  that 
Dio  Lewis  may  yet  preside  at  an  auto-da-fe  for 
the  conversion  of  beer-sellers." 



The  Boston  Daily  Adi^ertiser  of  February 
12tli,  1874,  says: 

"In  less  than  two  months  tlie  open  traffic  in 
liquor  lias  been  driven  from  a  score  or  more  towns, 
and  in  many  more  it  is  carried  on  under  tbe  great- 
est possible  discouragements.  Meanwhile  the  cru- 
sade increases  in  strength  and  jDower,  and  has 
become  in  many  of  its  aspects  one  of  the  most  in- 
teresting movements  of  the  times.  The  matter  of 
chief  surprise  is  that  means  which  everybody  was 
at  first  disposed  to  ridicule  have  proved  more  po- 
tent than  all  the  laws  and  engines  of  official  action 
ever  applied  to  the  j)urpose.  .  .  . 

"  When  these  meetings  were  first  set  on  foot,  it 
appeared  that  the  over-zealous  women  were  guilty 
of  trespassing,  and  some  legal  steps  were  taken  to 
check  the  progress  of  their  movement.  Later  ac- 
counts show  that  exxDerience  has  taught  them  dis- 
cretion, and  they  are  now  taking  good  care  not  to 
violate  the  law  in  any  respect.  They  enter  no 
house  they  are  forbidden  to  enter,  but  when  not 
asked  to  come  in  they  hold  their  religious  services 
on  the  sidewalk,  and  after  requesting  the  proprie- 


tor  to  pledge  himself  to  sell  no  more,  they  pass  on 
to  come  again." 

From  the  Cincinnati  correspondent  of  the  New 
York  Tribune^  February  9th: 

"  The  reports  and  newspaper  paragraphs  which 
have  been  circulated  in  the  East  give  but  a  faint 
idea  of  the  intense  excitement  which  prevails 
throughout  this  State  in  view  of  the  women's  war 
on  whiskey.  In  traversing  the  State  from  the  ex- 
treme northeast  to  the  extreme  southwest,  this 
great  movement  is  found  to  be  the  prominent  topic 
of  conversation  everywhere,  while  its  wonderful 
results  are  fully  apparent  to  all  who  visit  the 
scenes  of  the  recent  contests  between  the  women 
and  the  whiskey-dealers.  At  first  the  story  of  the 
marching,  singing,  and  praying  of  women  w^as  a 
subject  of  jest,  or  sneered  at  as  fanatical,  but  for 
a  fortnight  j^ast  the  movement  has  loomed  up  in 
all  the  proportions  of  a  social  revolution,  promis- 
ing to  sweep  over  the  entire  West;  a  movement 
attended  with  all  the  solemnity  of  a  religious  re- 
vival, discussed  by  some  with  bated  breath  and 
by  all  respectable  people  with  reverence.  It  is 
literally  true  that  the  women  have  not  been  van- 
quished on  any  field  in  which  they  have  fairly 
joined  battle  with  the  liquor-dealers.  The  most 
stubborn  oj^ponents  have  unconditionally  suiTen- 
dered,  and  the  friends  of  the  traffic  are  beginning 
to  ask  in  earnest,  '  Where  is  this  thing  to  end? ' 


"  The  arrival  of  Dr.  Lewis,  the  apostle  of  the  new 
gospel  of  temperance  and  the  originator  of  the 
popular  system  of  warfare  now  in  vogue,  bids  fair 
to  give  fresh  impetus  to  the  movement.'' 

February  11th,  1874,  came  to  be  known  at  Spring- 
field, Ohio,  as  "  White  Wednesday."  Much  effort 
for  temperance  had  been  made  here  by  the  women, 
stimulated  by  the  zeal  of  a  lady  of  sixty  years, 
reverently  known  as  "  Mother  Stewart  "  from  the 
days  when  the  boys  in  blue  gave  her  the  title  in  the 
time  of  the  civil  war.  She  h  ad  been  for  many  years 
a  devoted  worker  for  temperance,  and  had  been 
especially  well  and  favorably  known  through  her 
efforts  in  the  prosecution  of  liquor-sellers  under 
the  Adair  law,  which,  as  amended  in  1870,  gave 
the  wife  or  mother  of  a  drunkard  right  to  claim 
damages  for  the  sale  of  liquor  to  her  husband  or 

She  had  ably  and  successfully  pleaded  these 
cases  before  jurors  in  the  lower  courts,  as  was  the 
right  of  any  one  under  the  law  of  Ohio.  Though 
it  was  her  method  to  lay  stress  upon  the  enforce- 
ment of  law,  while  finding  spiritual  support  in 
prayer,  when  the  new  movement  so  suddenly 
stirred  whole  communities  to  action  she  gave  it 
her  enthusiastic  support,  although  it  was  a  car- 
dinal principle  of  the  crusade  to  disassociate  itself 
from  all  legal  methods. 

Through  her  remarkable  gifts  and  persistent 


purpose  she  became  widely  known,  both  in  the 
United  States  and  England,  as  one  of  its  most  in- 
spiring leaders.  Her  visit  to  the  latter  country 
led  to  the  formation  of  the  British  Woman's 
Temperance  Association. 

Although  the  ladies  of  Springfield,  a  city  of 
some  twenty  thousand  peox)le,  were  advised  by 
Mr.  Brown,  of  the  Cincinnati  Gazette^  who  had  ob- 
served the  progress  of  the  crusade  work,  that  Dr. 
Lewis  recommended  his  method  as  likely  to  be 
effective  only  in  towns  of  a  few  thousands,  the 
enthusiasm  of  Mother  Stewart  persuaded  a  small 
band,  albeit  with  much  fear  and  hesitancy,  to  visit 
saloons  on  J'ebruary  10th. 

The  Ladies'  Benevolent  Society  had  invited  Br. 
Lewis  to  lecture  in  Springfield  on  February  11th, 
on  which  day  the  saloon  band  increased  in  num- 
bers to  thirty  or  forty. 

In  the  evening  the  Opera  House  was  packed  to 
overflowing.  Mother  Stewart  rejDorted  the  work 
of  the  day.  Dr.  Lewis  spoke,  and  the  appearance 
of  the  now  noted  Yan  Pelt,  the  reformed  saloon- 
keeper, and  his  simple  story  moved  the  audience 
to  tears.  The  meeting  ended  in  a  blaze  of  enthu- 

The  next  morning  Dr.  Lewis  was  present  at  a 
meeting  held  at  the  Central  Methodist  church, 
which  was  crowded  with  ladies,  and  the  number 
who  joined  the  band  was  double  that  of  the  day 


Dr.  Lewis's  caution  in  the  midst  of  enthusiasm 
and  success  appears  in  the  following  letter.  A 
telegram  to  the  New  York  Tribune  from  Spring- 
field, Ohio,  February  13th,  1874,  says : 

''  Dr.  Lewis  fears  that  the  friends  of  temperance 
will  move  prematurely  in  those  neighborhoods 
where  a  few  have  read  the  newspaper  rex^orts,  but 
where  there  is  not  a  general  interest.  Under  such 
circumstances  a  few  good  women  start  out,  but 
the  numbers  bring  the  movement  into  contempt, 
and  then  the  mass  of  the  better  class  of  ladies  will 
hold  back.  He  urges  that  there  are  four  distinct 
stages,  beginning  with  the  conversational,  which 
must  be  comj^leted  before  the  second  step  is  taken, 
that  of  the  large  public  meeting,  at  which  the  best 
ladies  of  the  town  must  be  appointed  in  large 
numbers.  The  third  stage  will  require  no  man- 
agement, as  it  is  the  stage  of  saloon- visiting,  and 
the  women  will  take  care  of  it.  The  fourth  stage 
is  that  of  tying  up  the  loose  strings  and  clinching 
the  nail  with  reading-rooms,  etc. 

"  This  Western  soil  the  doctor  regards  as  pecu- 
liarly adapted  to  the  temperance  plant.  He  says: 
'  It  has  taken  root  and  flourishes  here  for  the  first 
time.  I  propose  to  return  to  Massachusetts  and 
open  the  work  in  Worcester,  but  I  do  not  find 
the  New  England  soil  adapted  to  this  new  method 
of  warfare.' 

"  Having  set  forth  the  principles  in  which  he  so 


strongly  believed,  Dr.  Lewis  was  always  ready  to 
surrender  the  work  without  reserve  to  those  whom 
he  regarded  as  endowed  from  on  high  with  power 
to  carry  it  forward.  He  often  said :  '  The  manage- 
ment of  the  campaign  should  be  left  to  the  women. 
They  have  an  instinct  of  the  best  way  to  do  things, 
and  when  they  fail  Ave  need  not  hope  to  succeed.' " 

On  February  24th  a  State  temperance  conven- 
tion was  held  at  Springfield,  Ohio,  at  which  about 
one  thousand  delegates  were  present,  and  four 
hundred  and  fifty  women  marched  in  procession 
from  the  headquarters  to  the  hall.  Dr.  Lewis 
served  as  temporary  chairman  and  organized  the 
meeting,  and  Mrs.  H.  C.  McCabe  was  elected  per- 
manent president. 

On  February  14th  the  special  Cincinnati  corre- 
spondent of  the  New  York  Tribune  quotes  from 
a  talk  with  Dr.  Lewis  on  methods: 

"...  Money  must  be  used  as  little  as  possible. 
It  is  not  time  to  pay  men  for  temperance  lectures  or 
to  start  the  ball,  and  most  people  will  suspect  the 
motives  of  a  liquor-dealer  who  surrenders  only  on 
condition  that  his  stock  be  purchased,  or  for  whom 
a  purse  is  raised  after  he  takes  down  his  sign  and 
knocks  in  the  head  of  his  barrels." 

The  correspondent  continues:  "The  slanderous 
statement  that  Dio  Lewis  prays  for  temperance  at 
fifty  dollars  a  night  has  been  a  powerful  weapon 
in  the  hands  of  the  enemies  of  the  movement.    The 


truth  is,  as  the  writer  happens  to  know  beyond 
question,  that  this  large-hearted  humanitarian, 
with  ample  means  at  command,  is  dispensing  them 
liberally  in  carrying  out  his  idea  of  effecting  total 
abstinence  by  moral  suasion,  which  appears  to  be 
one  of  his  hobbies. 

*'As  a  lyceum  lecturer  he,  of  course,  has  a  regular 
charge,  but  when  engaged  by  any  institution  or 
society  to  talk  on  this  theme,  even  under  ordinary 
circumstances  his  charge  is  one-half  the  usual  fee, 
but  for  his  services  in  this  movement,  which  will 
absorb  his  whole  time  for  weeks  if  not  for  months,  I 
am  quite  sure  that  he  asks  no  compensation." 

A  letter  from  Dr.  Lems  published  in  the  Cin- 
cinnati Commercial  of  February  4th,  1874,  urges 
the  women  to  establish  reading-rooms  and  amuse- 
ment halls  for  the  benefit  of  those  who  heretofore 
have  given  their  spare  hours  to  the  dram-shop,  and 
also  to  encourage  rum-sellers  to  engage  in  other 
business,  declaring  that  "  rum -sellers  are  not  the 
moral  monsters  temperance  people  represent  them, 
but  good-hearted  fellows  generally,  who  are  en- 
gaged in  a  money-making  business,  against  which 
their  neighbors  have  made  no  earnest  protest.  As 
they  lose  their  means  of  living,  the  women  who 
shut  up  their  shops  ought  to  help  them  to  a  better 

The  first  attempt  of  the  crusaders  to  assail  the 
liquor  interest  in  the  cities  was  made  at  Xenia, 

216  THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF   DIO    LEWIS. 

Ohio,  wliicli  contained  ten  thousand  inhabitants 
and  held  one  hundred  and  twenty  places  where 
liquor  was  sold. 

It  was  hardly  in  accordance  wdth  Dr.  Lewis's 
judgment  that  a  movement  should  be  made  here. 
He  regarded  the  plan  of  work  as  adapted  to  towns 
and  small  cities,  say  of  not  more  than  five  thou- 
sand inhabitants,  but  much  questioned  its  prac- 
ticability in  the  larger  i:)laces.  The  women  of 
Xenia  Avere,  hoAvever,  inspired  to  undertake  the 
suppression  of  the  great  evil,  and  on  February  11th 
he  assisted  them  in  organizing.  It  was  said  that 
there  w^as  not  a  woman  of  any  social  position  in 
Xenia  who  was  not  identified  with  the  move- 

The  Cincinnati  Gazette  of  February  13th  says: 
"  Judged  by  the  standard  of  intelligence,  social 
position,  linancial  standing,  and  Christian  char- 
acter, they  rank  among  the  foremost.  Their  meet- 
ing this  dreary,  wet  morning,  at  nine  o'clock,  was 
full  of  ardor.  Many  facts  show^ed  how  fully  the 
movement  has  the  supx)ort  of  the  citizens.  Mr. 
Davis  Piper  had  oifered  to  furnish  carriages  from 
his  livery  stable,  to  be  placed  around  the  '  Shades 
of  Death,'  for  the  accommodation  of  the  women,  if 
they  wished  to  hold  the  situation  later  in  the 
night.  Mr.  Richardson  offered  his  large  omnibus 
to  move  the  ladies  from  one  point  to  another  dur- 
ing the  week.     Mine  host  Bradley,  .pf  the   '  ,St 

THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF    DTO    LEWIS.  217 

George,'  also  tendered  a  carriage  for  the  same  pur- 

The  Cincinnati  Commercial  reporter  said : 

"  I  left  Xenia  with  the  impression  that  it  was 
too  rigidly  conservative  for  the  temperance  Avar. 
A  week  after  I  returned  and  found  the  city  ablaze 
with  excitement.  At  least  five  hundred  ladies 
were  in  the  movement,  either  directly  at  work  or 
assisting  those  who  were. 

"  Every  res^^ectable  family  in  the  place  was  rep- 
resented. The  Scotch  Seceders,  who  are  numer- 
ous, were  peculiarly  active.  Ladies  who  had 
obeyed  St.  Paul's  (supposed)  injunction  most  re- 
ligiously now  prayed  in  the  streets  with  the  fervor 
of  Methodist  exhorters.  Ministers  who  had  writ- 
ten elaborately  to  prove  that  Christians  should 
sing  only  the  metrical  version  of  the  Psalms,  in  ac- 
cordance mth  the  creed  of  that  church,  now  sang 
to  the  inspiring  tune  of '  John  Brown's  Body,'  etc. 

"The  wan  of  separation  between  the  various 
churches  seemed  completely  broken  down.  Here- 
tofore the  attentive  observer,  hearing  a  prayer, 
could  distinguish  by  the  tone  and  style  whether 
it  was  that  of  a  Seceder,  Methodist,  or  other  sec- 
tarian. But  now  the  nicest  ear  could  not  dis- 
tinguish; all  prayed  just  alike.  All  seemed  as 
sisters  in  Christ,  and  the  sanguine  were  led  to 
hope  that  this  movement  would  lead  to  a  complete 
union  between  the  sects." 


The  Cincinnati  Commercial  of  February  ISth 
contained  a  dispatch  from  Xenia,  saying : 

"The  rex)resentatives  of  six  wholesale  liquor- 
houses  were  here  yesterday,  offering  the  saloonists 
all  the  liquors  they  can  make  use  of  while  the 
campaign  lasts,  free  of  charge." 

One  hard  place  was  besieged  from  eleven  o'clock 
A.M.  until  dark,  while  another  surrendered  at 
sight,  and  hung  out  a  sign  on  which  was  printed, 
'  This  business  is  stopped ! ' 

It  is  charged  that  four  attempts  have  been  made 
to  burn  the  residences  of  clergymen  who  have 
preached  against  the  evils  of  intemperance. 

February  13th.  A  fund  of  $10,000  has  been 
subscribed  for  protection  if  needed. 

A  telegram  to  the  New  York  Herald  of  Febru- 
ary 20th,  1874,  said: 

"  A  Xenia,  Ohio,  special  of  last  night's  date  says 
that  the  greatest  victory  yet  achieved  in  the  tem- 
perance war  has  been  gained  here  to-day,  in  White- 
man  Street.  The  nine  saloons  in  that  short  street, 
five  within  a  space  of  three  hundred  yards,  have 
gained  an  unenviable  reputation,  and  are  known 
about  town  as  '  Shades  of  Death,'  '  Mule's  Ear,' 
^HeU's  Half  Acre,'  'Certain  Death,'  and  'Devil's 
Den.'  For  three  days  the  ladies  have  labored  al- 
most incessantly  in  front  of  the  '  Shades  of  Death,' 
which  is  considered  the  back-bone  of  the  rebellion. 
The  proprietor  only  seemed  to  grow  more  stub' 


bom,  but  at  two  p.m.  to-day  lie  opened  his  doors, 
invited  the  ladies  in,  and  announced  his  uncondi- 
tional surrender.  After  prayers  he  rolled  the  bar- 
rels of  liquor  into  the  street  and  smashed  them 
in,  amid  hymns,  prayers,  and  great  excitement. 

*'  The  news  flew  as  on  wings  over  the  town,  and 
in  a  few  minutes  it  seemed  that  all  the  poiDulation 
were  hurrying  toward  Whiteman  Street.  A  dis- 
patch was  sent  to  the  State  convention  of  gran- 
gers, and  that  body,  numbering  six  hundred,  rose 
and  indulged  in  three  hearty  cheers. 

"All  the  church  bells  were  ringing,  and  the 
entire  town  turned  out  to  rejoice.  Before  night  it 
was  rumored  that  three  more  saloons  had  agreed 
to  surrender  to-morrow  morning.  A  notable  fea- 
ture of  the  war  in  this  city  for  the  last  two  days 
has  been  the  presence  of  a  large  school  of  girls, 
led  by  their  teacher,  Miss  Laura  Hicks,  singing 
before  the  saloons.  It  is  seriously  proposed  to 
close  all  the  schools  and  business  houses  for  a  por- 
tion of  each  day,  that  the  w^hole  population  may 
be  brought  to  bear  on  the  saloons.  It  is  believed 
that  not  a  month  wall  pass  before  every  saloon  in 
Xenia  will  be  closed. 

"  March  14th. — Last  saloon  in  Xenia  closes  after 
desperate  resistance," 



The  Cincinnati  Commercial  says : 

"  On  Tuesday  of  this  week  Dr.  Lewis  attended 
two  meetings  in  this  city,  and  explained  the 
methods  which  he  considered  most  proper  and 
effective  in  the  conduct  of  the  woman's  campaign 
against  the  vice  of  intemperance.  The  doctor's 
views  and  plans,  as  unfolded  by  himself,  are  much 
more  moderate,  definite,  and  practical  than  most 
persons  in  advance  of  his  visit  supposed  them  to 
be.  It  is  evident  from  their  published  iireambles 
and  resolations,  that  the  opponents  of  the  temper- 
ance movement  have  not  comprehended  the  move- 
ment which  Dr.  Lewis  represents,  with  any  degree 
of  exactness,  either  as  to  its  methods  or  its  results. 
They  evidently  imagine  the  woman's  movement 
to  be  a  political  one,  in  the  direction  of  pro- 
hibition, or  woman's  rights,  one  or  both.  Dr. 
Lewis's  explanations,  however,  entirely  dispel  this 
misconception.  Those  who  make  specialties  of 
these  doubtless  seek  to  profit  by  the  prevalent  ex- 
citement, but  the  woman's  movement  proper  has 
no  connection  with  either  of  them,  but  is  on  a  basis 
wholly  different  from  theirs, 


"  Dr.  Lewis  says : 

" '  This  movement  is  essentially  a  revival  of  reli- 
gion, especially  directed  to  the  sux3pression  of  a 
great  and  terrible  vice.  Any  attempt  to  force  an 
enthusiasm  must  certainly  fail.  To  be  successful 
it  must  rest  on  the  calm,  settled  convictions  and 
purposes  of  those  engaged  in  it.  The  evil  to  be 
attacked  can  only  be  successfully  ax)proached  by 
strictly  religious  and  spiritual  instrumentalities.' 

"Thus  it  will  be  seen  that  the  agencies  em- 
ployed or  recommended  are  not  legal,  not  threat- 
ening, but  in  the  form  of  tender,  resx^ectful,  and 
earnest  appeal  to  the  moral  nature  of  those  whom 
they  address.  ... 

"  The  opponents  of  temperance  cannot  combat 
this  movement  vvith  either  political,  legal,  or  for- 
cible methods.  They  must  employ  a  different 
class  of  weapons  altogether." 

Cincinnati,  of  all  places,  offered  the  greatest  ob- 
stacles to  crusade  work.  An  immense  capital  was 
invested  for  the  manufacture  of  liquors,  the  trade 
in  which  amounted  to  $33,000,000  annually.  One- 
third  of  the  i)opulation  were  Germans  and  the 
saloons  numbered  three  thousand. 

Eighty  women  joined  in  the  first  saloon  visita- 
tion, and,  as  indicating  that  they  had  material  as 
well  as  more  important  stake  in  the  community,  it 
is  worth  noting  that  the  wealth  represented  by 
them  was  over  $3,000,000.     A  crowd  of  eight  thou- 


sand  peoi)le  gatliered  in  a  few  moments.  Some 
blessed  and  others  cursed  tlie  women,  but,  wrote 
one  of  them,  "  we  never  felt  so  near  to  heaven  as 
we  did  then." 

The  same  lady,  Miss  M.  E.  Winslow,  relates 
another  day's  experience : 

"  One  day  I  led  a  band  of  eighty  or  a  hundred 
to  the  esplanade.  The  authorities  had  said 
'  this  movement  must  be  put  down,'  and  the  mayor 
had  privately  given  orders  to  the  police  to  be 
scarce  where  the  women  were.  We  did  not  know 
that,  and  after  visiting  fourteen  saloons  we 
marched  toward  the  esplanade,  where  we  found 
a  dense  mass  of  several  thousand  men  awaiting  us. 
I  heard  a  man  say,  *  Jack,  a  woman's  foot  shan't 
touch  the  esplanade  to-day ! '  And  I  said,  '  Lord, 
give  us  the  esplanade.'  One  great,  brutal-looking 
fellow  stood  in  my  Avay,  debauched  and  de- 
graded, yet  with  a  look  which  told  that  there  was 
a  heart  somewhere.  I  took  it  for  granted  that  this 
was  Jack.  I  walked  right  up  to  him  and  said, 
'  Jack ! '  He  started  as  if  he  wondered  how  I 
knew  his  name.  '  Jack,  we  are  a  band  of  broken- 
hearted mothers  and  wives,  weeping  and  praying 
because  you  are  all  going  to  hell  as  fast  as  you 
can  go.  We  want  to  pray  here,  right  by  this 
fountain,  and  I  want  you  to  make  way  for  us  and 
keep  the  men  still  till  we  get  through  our  service.' 

"  First  he  looked  like  a  thunder-cloud ;  then  he 


looked  foolish;  tlien  I  smiled,  and  lie  said,  with 
a  fearful  oath,  '  I'll  do  it.  Make  way  for  the  cru- 
saders ! '  And  as  he  forced  his  great,  brawny  shoul- 
ders through  the  crowd,  many  voices  shouted: 
'  God  bless  the  crusaders ! ' 

"Then  we  knelt  around  that  central  fountain 
which  is  the  glory  of  Cincinnati,  and  two  thou- 
sand men,  mostly  reeking  with  the  fumes  of  rum 
and  tobacco,  knelt  with  us,  with  tears  and  sobs." 

Another  day,  as  the  band  approached  an  open 
market-house,  they  found  an  unnsually  belliger- 
ent crowd.  Butchers  fresh  from  their  stalls,  with 
their  sleeves  rolled  up  and  their  aprons  on,  and 
their  butchers'  knives  in  their  hands ;  villanous- 
looking  men,  some  with  pistols  protruding  from 
their  pockets,  and  women  debased  by  strong  drink, 
uttering  curses,  were  all  huddled  together,  while 
just  across  the  street  a  cannon  had  been  placed  so 
as  to  sweep  the  market-house  if  fired.  But  the 
women  marched  right  on  to  their  usual  meeting- 
place.  When  Mrs.  Leavitt  knelt  in  prayer  she 
found  herself  facing  the  cannon,  with  the  possi- 
bility of  its  being  fired. 

The  crowd,  that  seemed  to  expect  such  an 
event,  surged  to  either  side  so  as  to  be  well  ont  of 
the  way.  Mrs.  Leavitt  remembers  saying  to  her- 
self: "If  God  wants  to  take  me  to  heaven  in  a 
chariot  of  fire  as  He  did  Elijah,  I  would  just  as 
soon  go  that  way  as  any  other." 


The  placing  of  the  cannon  was  a  trick  to  frighten 
the  women,  and  w^as  not  repeated. 

At  first  the  manufacturers  and  dealers  laughed 
at  the  attempt  of  the  women  to  call  public  at- 
tention to  the  harm  of  the  liquor  traffic,  but  loss 
of  business  and  the  effect  on  public  sentiment 
soon  aroused  them  to  resistance. 

The  ladies  were  told  that  they  must  not  hold 
meetings  in  the  streets,  but  must  confine  them- 
selves to  the  public  squares  and  market-places. 
They  obeyed  orders,  but  were  one  day  surrounded 
by  a  mob  of  the  vilest  men  and  women.  The 
mayor  came  to  them  and  earnestly  appealed  to 
them  to  go  home,  saying:  "  I'll  not  be  responsible 
for  your  safety  unless  you  do.  For  God's  sake, 
ladies,  desist!"  The  ladies  appealed  to  him  to 
disperse  the  mob,  but  immediately,  at  some  word 
of  reproach  wdiich  an  indecent  expression  from 
one  in  the  crowd  made  him  utter,  the  mob  swept 
toward  him  with  a  yell  that  caused  the  mayor  and 
secretary  to  run  for  their  lives. 

The  mayor  said  afterward  that  it  would  take  all 
the  police  force  within  twenty-four  square  miles 
of  the  city  to  protect  the  ladies.  He  also  said  that 
the  whole  board  of  police  commissioners  were 
opposed  to  the  women. 

Immediately  after  this  the  mayor  issued  a  pro- 
clamation forbidding  the  ladies  to  hold  meetings 
on  the  streets,  basing  this  action  on  an  old  side- 

THE   BIOGKAPHY   OF   1)10   LEWIS.  225 

walk  ordinance  that  had  been  a  dead  letter  for 
years.  Not  knowing  of  it  some  of  the  ladies  went 
on  as  before. 

"  At  a  saloon  where  we  were  denied  admittance," 
wrote  the  leader  for  that  day,  "  we  knelt  and  were 
singing,  when  a  policeman  laid  his  hand  on  my 
shoulder  and  said:  'Mrs.  Leavitt,  you  are  under 
arrest.'  'All  right,'  said  I,  and  sang  on.  Then 
we  prayed  for  that  j)oliceman  and  for  the  crowd. 
Then  we  rose,  forty-three  in  number,  and  walked, 
two  by  two,  in  an  orderly  manner,  about  two 
miles  to  the  station-house.  There  they  asked  our 
names,  nativity,  and  ages.  They  took  mine  first, 
and  while  they  were  taking  the  others  I  thought 
maybe  the  Lord  had  something  for  me  to  do 
there,  so  I  went  round  to  the  cells  and  talked  to 
the  inmates. 

"At  the  close  I  put  to  myself  this  conundrum: 
'  How  is  it  that  every  one  I  spoke  to  was  put  in 
for  drunkenness,  and  we  forty-three  women  were 
brought  there  for  trying  to  put  it  down? ' 

"  The  mayor  soon  entered,  looking  like  a  man 
who  had  drawn  an  elephant  in  a  lottery.  The 
Common  Council,  after  two  hours,  dismissed  the 
ladies  on  parole.  On  the  next  Monday  the  forty- 
three  ladies,  six  of  them  ministers'  wives,  three 
wives  of  rich  bankers,  and  all  the  rest  wealthy  citi- 
zens, went  to  the  police  court,  and  after  those  ar- 
rested for  drunkenness  had  been  tried,  the  case  of 


those  wlio  had  tried  to  prevent  it  was  brought  be- 
fore the  court. 

"  The  judge  decided  that  their  offence  was  tech- 
nical but  without  evil  intent,  and  they  were  dis- 
missed with  admonition. 

"  The  women  did  not  wish  to  break  the  law,  and 
various  forms  of  organized  work  were  substituted 
for  the  methods  in  use.  Citizens  had  been  roused 
to  protest,  and  nearly  all  the  pulpits  vigorously 
denounced  the  liquor  traffic." 

When  the  obstacles  placed  in  the  way  of  the 
work  at  Cincinnati  were  reported  to  Dr.  Lewis,  he 

"This  persecution  in  Cincinnati  will  help  the 
temperance  cause.  I  am  glad  that  violence  has 
been  used.  It  arouses  the  people.  The  devil  is 
always  keeping  still.  He  does  not  wish  men  to 
be  aroused,  and  that  is  one  reason  why  there  are 
so  many  failures  " 

The  New  York  Tribune  of  March  14th,  1874, 

"A  comparison  of  the  returns  of  internal-rev- 
enue collections  in  two  of  the  largest  liquor  dis- 
tricts in  Indiana  and  Ohio,  for  the  months  of  Jan- 
uary and  February,  gives  some  idea  of  the  effect 
of  the  woman's  temperance  movement  upon  the 
liquor  traffic. 

"  The  total  decrease  in  the  two  districts  named 
is  $353,720.14. 

TiiE   BIOGHAPHY   OF   DIO   LEWIS.  ^27 

"  It  is  estimated  by  revenue  officers  that  eighty 
per  cent,  of  the  collections  are  derived  from  alcohol 
and  malt  liquors;  the  decrease  of  revenue  on 
liquors  therefore  is  $282,976.12." 

From  the  New  York  Tribune  correspondent,  In- 
dianapolis, February  11th,  1874: 

"The  war  has  been  raging  for  some  days  at 
Shelbyville,  Ind.  Several  of  the  saloon  men  mani- 
fested a  disposition  to  fight  for  what  they  call  their 
rights.  Last  Saturday  they  served  upon  the  ladies 
the  following  writ : 

"'You  will  take  notice  that  from  this  time, 
henceforth,  if  the  temJDerance  alliance  either  con- 
gregates on,  near,  or  about  our  premises  or  places 
of  business  for  the  purpose  of  holding  prayer- 
meetings  or  other  meetings,  obstructing  the  side- 
walk or  entrances  to  our  premises,  or  in  any  way 
molesting  us  or  our  agents  by  your  meetings,  we, 
the  undersigned,  liquor- vendors  and  saloon-keep- 
ers of  the  city  of  Shelbyville,  will  hold  you  and 
your  husbands  liable  in  a  civil  action  for  damages. 
.  .  .  This  notice  is  to  be  considered  in  force  from 
and  after  its  reading.' 

"The  ladies  in  their  reply,  announce  as  their 
watchwords  '  Peace,  Persuasion,  and  Prayer,'  and 
ask  that  their  reply  may  be  received  in  the  kindly 
manner  which  dictates  it.     They  say : 

"  '  Gentlemen: — You  threaten  us.  We  answer  in 
the  kindness  of  our  hearts.    You  warn  us  to  cease 


praying  and  singing  in  the  vicinity  of  saloons,  h& 
cause,  as  you  suggest,  it  causes  a  loss  of  money  to 
you.  Permit  us  to  answer  by  saying  that  it  is 
you  who  are  destroying  our  property,  sapping  our 
health,  blocking  up  our  sidewalks  and  streets  with 
your  drunken  men,  and  putting  us  to  tens  of  thou- 
sands of  dollars  expense  to  restrain  and  punish 
the  criminals  you  make.'  " 
A  lady  writing  of  the  work  of  the  alliance,  says: 
"  The  workers  learned  to  trust  God  as  they  had 
never  done  before.  As  Moses  stood  between  the 
erring  Hebrews  and  their  God,  and  on  Mount 
Sinai  the  presence  of  Jehovah  well-nigh  over- 
whelmed him,  so  w^e  stood  interceding  for  the  fall- 
en, and  at  times  the  glory  of  God  shown  to  us 
was  all  that  we  could  bear.  The  promise  that  no 
evil  should  befall  us  was  verified.  A  saloonist 
threatened  to  place  gunpowder  under  the  floor  and 
cause  an  explosion  beneath  us,  but  we  visited  him 
and  no  harm  came  to  us.  Another  turned  a  fierce 
dog  upon  us,  but  he  hung  his  head  and  ran  away. 
A  dealer's  wife  stood  close  by  a  kneeling  crusader 
and  held  a  hatchet  over  her  head,  but  the  lifted 
arm  fell  harmless  by  her  side.  Guns  were  loaded 
and  flourished  menacingly  at  the  windows  near 
us,  and  many  desperate  threats  were  made.  But 
the  Lord  of  Hosts  was  with  us." 



"CoiiUMBUS,  Ohio,  February  16th,  1874. 

"  The  eyes  of  all  the  temperance  people  in  Ohio 
will  scan  the  newspapers  to-morrow  for  news  of 
the  long-looked-for  and  often-postponed  attack  of 
Dio  Lewis  and  his  crusaders  on  the  caxDital  of  the 
State.  Dr.  Lewis  himself  evidently  has  doubts 
about  the  projjriety  of  subjecting  his  plan  to  such 
a  severe  test,  still  holding  his  plan  especially 
adapted  to  the  smaller  places,  but  the  ladies  of 
Columbus  were  so  earnest  and  so  urgent  that  the 
battle  had  to  begin  at  once.  To-night  the  opening 
meeting  was  held  and  was  an  encouraging  suc- 

On  the  platform  were  nearly  all  the  prominent 
clergymen  of  the  city,  twenty-five  State- Senators, 
and  fifteen  members  of  the  lower  branch  of  the 
Legislature,  all  as  vice-presidents  of  the  meeting, 
over  which  Dr.  Lewis  presided. 

After  the  hymn  "  Nearer,  my  God,  to  Thee  "  had 
been  sung  by  the  audience  standing.  Dr.  Lewis  re- 
marked that  this  hymn  struck  the  keynote  of  the 
campaign,  and  explained  his  plan,  which  was,  in 
general  termSj  to  remove  the  cause  of  intemper- 


ance  by  peace,  persuasion,  and  prayer,  the  Wv3men 
using  these  means  to  effect  the  object. 

On  the  17th,  about  three  hundred  persons, 
mostly  ladies,  met  in  City  Hall  to  organize. 

They  began  by  holding  daily  prayer-meetings, 
from  one  of  which,  at  the  Presbyterian  church,  on 
March  3d,  two  hundred  women  went  forth  to  the 
saloons,  while  the  great  bell  tolled  from  the 
steeple.  One  saloon-keeper  had  provided  a  brass 
band,  and  when  the  ladies  appeared  before  his  sa- 
loon played  "  Shoo,  fly,  don't  bother  me,"  and  the 
roughs  joined  in  harmoniously.  But  soon  many  a 
tear  was  brushed  from  manly  cheeks,  and  the  ex- 
pression of  derision  by  the  band  was  tempered 
into  the  playing  of  "  Home,  Sweet  Home." 

The  following  call  for  a  State  convention  was 
issued  about  the  middle  of  February : 

"  At  an  immense  meeting  in  City  Hall,  Colum- 
bus, Ohio,  it  was  voted  to  call  a  convention  of  the 
friends  of  the  women's  temperance  movement,  to 
meet  in  that  hall  on  February  24th,  at  two  p.m. 
General  consultation  and  the  establishment  of  a 
bureau  are  the  objects  of  the  convention.  The 
bureau  will  supply  lecturers  and  organizers;  in 
brief,  it  will  supply  the  conditions  of  success. 
Every  city,  town,  village,  and  neighborhood  in  the 
State  is  invited  to  send  delegates.  Half  of  these 
should  be  women.  .  .  . 

''  Pio  Lewis." 


This  call  drew  together  a  large  number  of  men 
and  women,  in  about  equal  numbers.  It  was  esti- 
mated that  there  were  more  than  fifteen  hundred 
delegates.  The  meetings  were  very  enthusiastic. 
The  press  said :  "  The  temperance  convention  for 
a  more  perfect  organization  of  the  women's  work 
which  met  this  afternoon  was  the  most  harmoni- 
ous and  enthusiastic,  as  well  as  the  best-managed 
convention  which  has  met  here  for  many  years." 

The  N'ew  Yorlv  Tribune  correspondent  at  Co- 
lumbus on  the  24th  reported  the  women  as  doing 
most  of  the  speaking,  and  said : 

"  They  have  thus  far  shown  their  power  to  con- 
trol the  proceedings  and  to  give  every  act  the 
flavor  of  a  peaceful  spirit.  The  speeches  were  in 
good  taste  and  some  were  really  eloquent.  Deep 
religious  fervor  marked  all  the  x^roceedings,  and 
an  air  of  religious  revival,  without  the  extreme 
emotional  manifestation  often  observed  on  such 
occasions,  pervaded  the  meeting  at  every  stage. 

"Mrs.  Mattie  McClelland  Brown,  chief  of  the 
order  of  Good  Templars  in  Ohio,  is  a  cultivated 
speaker  and  used  the  arts  of  rhetoric  with  much 
power.  The  others  spoke  simply,  but  with  much 

"  A  telegram  was  received  from  the  women  of 
Lancaster  stating  that  they  were  moving  upon  the 
enemy  one  thousand  strong. 

"  Among  the  resolutions  was  one  that  this  or- 



ganization  be  made  permanent  under  the  name  of 
'  The  Woman's  Temperance  Association  of  Ohio,' 
and  Mother  Stewart  recommended  in  a  speech  the 
organization  of  permanent  auxiliary  societies  in 
every  county. 

The  influence  of  the  convention  was  shown  in 
the  Ohio  House  of  Representatives,  where,  on 
February  24th,  1874,  a  resolution  "to  extend  to 
the  women  of  Ohio  congratulations  upon  the  sig- 
nal success  which  has  attended  their  efforts,  and 
hearty  sympathy  with  their  object "  came  within 
three  votes  of  passing. 

"  On  the  20th  of  March  two  or  three  hundred  of 
the  women  of  Columbus  marched  in  procession  to 
the  State  Capitol,  and  held  a  meeting  in  the 

"  The  members  of  both  houses  left  their  seats, 
and  stood  reverently,  with  uncovered  heads,  dur- 
ing this  meeting.  The  Avomen  were  preparing  for 
a  struggle  that  they  foresaw  would  come,  and  they 
went  to  their  work  boldly.  A  bill  was  introduced 
in  the  Legislature  to  protect  the  sale  of  ale  and 

"  The  women  met  it  with  counter-petitions  and 
mass-meetings.  Delegations  came  from  all  the 
neighboring  towns,  and  the  Capitol  was  crowded 
during  every  session  with  the  friends  and  enemies 
of  temperance.  It  was  a  hand-to-hand  fight  Avith 
{;l}e  rvim  power,  and  the  women  gained  the  yictorys 


"  On  the  18th  of  April  they  had  the  satisfaction, 
after  the  midnight  hour,  of  seeing  the  Legislature 
adjourn  without  doing  anything  in  the  interest  of 

The  Constitutional  Convention  of  Ohio  had  sub- 
mitted to  the  voters  of  the  State  a  new  constitu- 
tion containing  a  license  clause. 

"Anti-license  meetings  were  held  in  almost 
every  church  and  school-house,  and  speakers  were 
found  not  only  among  the  brothers,  but  also 
among  the  sisters,  who  for  the  first  time  in  their 
lives  dared  to  lift  up  their  voices  in  the  congrega- 
tions of  the  people,  in  earnest,  eloquent  appeals  to 
those  who  represent  them  at  the  polls  not  to  legal- 
ize, by  their  sacred  right  of  franchise,  the  curse  the 
women  have  labored  so  earnestly  to  drive  from 
their  beloved  State.  Much  previously  unknown 
and  undeveloped  talent  was  thus  brought  into 
active  service,  and  the  defeat  of  the  license  clause 
in  the  constitution  of  Ohio  by  a  large  majority, 
though  not  strictly  in  the  line  of  its  special  meth- 
ods, was  one  of  the  grand  results  of  the  women's 

The  following  is  condensed  from  the  report  of 
Mrs.  John  Walker: 

"  Logan,  the  county-seat  of  Hocking,  with  two 
thousand  inhabitants,  contained  before  the  cru- 
sade eighteen  saloons.  Much  of  the  Avealth  of 
the  towii  was  in  the  hands  of  prominent  liquor-.. 


sellers,  and  men  in  other  forms  of  business  quailed 
before  them.  Our  lawyers  and  office-holders,  with 
scarcely  an  exception,  were  in  their  interests. 

"  We  who  worked  in  the  crusade  felt  the  mag- 
nitude of  our  work,  for  many  of  these  liquor- 
dealers  were  our  friends. 

"  Our  meetings  were  solemn ;  processions  well 
ordered;  our  work  determined  and  telling,  for 
God  seemed  to  come  so  near  to  us  that  He  touched 
us  with  His  guiding  hand. 

"  I  can  never  describe  my  own  feelings  as  the 
leader  of  it. 

"  I  seemed  under  a  mighty  inspiration,  so  calm, 
so  peaceful,  so  fearless,  so  trustful,  and  with  re- 
markably clear  views  of  God's  truth.  It  was  a 
spiritual  phenomenon  unexplainable  even  to  our- 
selves. How  our  hearts  burned  as  we  talked  of 
Him  by  the  way ! 

"  In  three  weeks  we  had  the  four  drug  stores 
under  pledge  and  all  the  saloons  closed  except  one. 
That  was  upheld  by  the  wholesale  dealers  in  cities 
and  by  the  Catholic  j)riest  at  home. 

"  Our  Lutheran  minister  also  upheld  his  people 
who  sold  liquor. 

"  Now  for  the  results. 

"  Although  some  of  these  liquor-sellers  gave  us 
their  hand  before  the  crowd,  and  with  tears  prom- 
ised that  they  would  never  sell  liquor  again,  after 
a  few  months  they  returned  to  it  again,  and  as 


mucli  was  sold  as  before.  There  is  a  kind  of 
brotherhood  among  them  and  they  fear  and  influ- 
ence each  other. 

"  But  was  the  crusade  a  failure,  as  some  have 
said?  By  no  means.  We  gave  the  liquor  busi- 
ness a  blow  in  this  town,  from  which  it  never  has 
recovered  and  never  will. 

■  "  It  is  neither  respectable  to  sell  or  drink  whis- 
key in  this  town  now,  although  much  of  it  is  done, 
for  so  long  as  there  is  money  in  the  business  it 
will  be  continued. 

"But  public  opinion  has  taken  an  immense 

Lebanon,  Ohio,  February  13th,  1874,  the  corre- 
spondent of  the  Cincinnati  Commercial  wrote : 

"  The  glorious  company  of  apostles  for  the  tem- 
perance cause  is  moving  on,  but  if  the  firm  of 
Lewis  &  Van  Pelt  keep  bobbing  around  as  they 
have  begun,  the  journalistic  section  will  soon  join 
the  noble  army  of  martyrs. 

"...  Debarking  at  Deerfield,  the  doctor  and 
the  Vienna  aj)ostle  found  a  nice  carriage  awaiting 
them,  but  the  four  journalists  took  the  same  old 
hack  for  the  five-mile  ride.  They  duly  reached 
the  Lebanon  House  and  soon  began  to  feel  uneasy 
about  the  doctor  and  his  wicked  partner.  Two 
hours  of  anxiety  passed,  and  we  were  about  to 
send  out  scouts  when  they  arrived,  and  informed 
us  that  they  had  stopped  for  an  important  meet- 


ing  at  South  Lebanon.  The  largest  church  in 
that  place  was  crowded  at  a  few  hours'  notice  and 
the  temperance  apostles  were  summarily  halted; 
both  delivered  lengthy  speeches,  and  the  meeting, 
lasting  an  hour  and  a  half,  was  a  great  success. 

''  Here  at  Lebanon  the  church  was  well  filled. 
Dr.  Lewis  has  splendid  executive  abilities.  Al- 
though something  of  an  orator  he  is  far  more  of 
an  organizer. 

"  Rev.  Mr.  Douglass,  being  called  on,  opened  vig- 
orously on  a  political  basis.  He  pronounced  sav- 
agely for  prohibitory  legislation,  stringent,  severe, 
declaring  himself  a  native  American,  etc.,  ad  nau- 
seam. .  .  .  When  my  first  surprise  i^assed  I 
glanced  at  Dr.  Lewis.  His  brows  were  contracted, 
his  mouth  drawn  persimmon  style.  Another 
would  have  promptly  squelched  the  offender,  but 
Dr.  Lewis  could  not  do  that.  Instead  he  at- 
tempted a  diversion,  and  by  one  of  those  strong, 
nervous  appeals  in  which  he  is  so  powerful,  re- 
stored the  balance  and  good  humor  of  the  audi- 

A  Cincinnati  telegram  to  the  New  York  Tribune, 
February  18th,  says: 

"  Dr.  Lewis  reports  progress  quite  equal  to  nis 
expectations,  but  expresses  the  fear  that  the  move- 
ment is  in  danger  of  losing  its  high  moral  and  re- 
ligious sjjirit  by  becoming  mixed  up  with  threats 
of  men  and  legal  proceedings. 

ME  Biography  of  dio  Lewis.  287 

''He  says:  'One  hundred  and  fifty  towns  in 
Ohio  have  been  cured.  But  such  results  come 
from  unwavering  trust  in  the  divine  method; 
whenever  that  gives  way  and  reliance  upon  law 
takes  its  place  disaster  follows.  This  was  mani- 
fest at  the  spring  elections.  In  many  towns  the 
women  said,  "  Let  men  put  up  temperance  candi- 
dates and  we  will  work  for  them."  They  were 
elected,  but  the  whole  tide  of  rum  returned  before 
the  election,  and  went  on  despite  the  officers.  In 
the  towns  in  which  they  clung  to  the  divine 
methods  and  ignored  x)olitics  the  reform  has  kept 
the  field.' " 

238  l^HE   BIOGRAPHY   OF   BlO   LEWIS. 


At  Mount  Vernon  a  new  plan  was  adopted  in 
the  appointment  of  what  was  known  as  the  Men's 
Advisory  Committee,  composed  of  a  representa- 
tive of  each  of  the  leading  professions,  business 
corj)orations,  and  benevolent  orders  and  associa- 
tions. Thus  the  lawyers,  clergymen,  physicians, 
editors,  insurance  companies,  and  manufacturing 
establishments  were  all  represented.  So  the  sev- 
eral orders.  Masons,  Odd  Fellows,  Knights  of 
Pythias,  Red  Men,  and  for  the  first  time  in  the 
history  of  the  movement,  the  colored  people  had 
a  voice  in  the  direction  of  a  meeting. 

From  the  special  correspondent  of  the  New 
York  Tribune^  Mr.  Handy,  from  Mount  Vernon, 
Ohio,  February  27th,  1874: 

"When  I  visited  this  place  two  weeks  ago  I 
found  twenty-eight  places  where  liquor  was  sold. 
The  most  influential  men  in  the  place  advised  the 
women  not  to  begin  the  movement,  believing  that 
failure  was  certain  and  that  it  would  retard  the 
progress  of  the  temperance  reform  in  Northern 
Ohio.  Dio  Lewis  came,  however,  and  in  two  days 
persuaded  the  women  to  make  a  trial.    The  men 

THE   BiOGRAPfiY   OF   DIO   LEWIS.  ^89 

agreed  to  sustain  the  women  and  did  so  witli  their 
whole  hearts.  Organization  was  effected  and 
street  work  begun.  The  men,  meantime,  closed 
their  places  of  business  and  repaired  to  the 
churches  for  prayer.  The  enemy  took  fright  at 
once.  The  saloons  considered  most  formidable 
first  gave  way;  others  followed  in  rapid  succes- 
sion, and  to-day  I  find  that  of  the  twenty-eight 
liquor  stores  here  twelve  days  ago  only  five  have 
not  surrendered. 

^'  Henceforth  woman  suffrage  will  be  a  x)erma- 
nent  plank  in  the  platform  of  the  Prohibitionists. 
Success  of  the  woman's  temperance  movement 
has  made  them  a  unit  in  favor  of  it. 

"With  curiosity  as  to  what  the  late  liquor- 
sellers  thought  of  the  movement  and  its  effects, 
I  went  to  a  billiard-room,  said  to  be  one  of  the 
finest  in  Southern  Ohio,  which,  when  I  was  here 
before,  was  crowded  every  night  with  young  men 
who  rank  high  in  Mount  Yemon  society.  The 
proprietor,  an  Irishman,  with  the  physique  of  a 
trained  prize-fighter,  had  told  me  that  '  the  thing 
will  never  work  in  Mount  Vernon,'  and  that '  they ' 
(meaning  the  ladies)  '  had  better  not  try  it  on.'  I 
now  found  him  in  a  much  more  tranquil  state  of 
mind,  as  he  stood  dispensing  lemonade  and  soda 
to  old  topers,  who  have  now  to  be  content  with 
such  mild  substitutes  for  old-fashioned  toddies 
and  punches,  while  in  his  hall  hung  an  elegantly 

240  l^HE   BtOGRAPHY   OF   DIO   LEWIS. 

framed  inscription,  '  God  bless  our  noble  women/ 
'  How  do  you  feel  after  your  surrender? '  I  asked. 
'  Never  better,  never  so  well  in  my  life,'  was  tlie 
prompt  reply.  '  I  don't  know  anything  about  get- 
ting religion,  but  a  fellow  who  has  been  converted 
must  feel  something  like  I  have  felt  for  the  last 
week.  I  actually  enjoy  going  to  church.  Some- 
how or  other  everything  looks  brighter.  The  best 
day's  work  I  ever  did  was  hanging  out  the  white 
flag  on  my  saloon.'  '  But  you  will  go  into  the  old 
business  again  when  this  excitement  dies  out  ? ' 
'  Not  if  I  know  myself.  I  wouldn't  be  able  to  hold 
my  head  up  if  I  did ;  I  couldn't  look  a  lady  in  the 
face.  No,  sir,  I  don't  know  what's  come  over  me, 
but  whiskey-selling  don't  appear  to  me  now  as  it 
used  to.  Besides,  everybody  seems  to  look  on  me 
so  different  now.  The  very  men  that  used  to 
drink  at  my  bar  think  more  of  me ;  and  as  to  the 
ladies — why,  sir,  some  of  the  best  ladies  in  town 
have  been  in  my  dining-room  with  their  husbands 
to  dinner  since  I  closed  out,  and  one  or  two  looked 
on  the  other  day  at  a  game  of  billiards.'  '  Has 
your  business  suffered  by  your  stopping  the  sale 
of  liquors? '  '  Not  a  bit,  so  far.  Won't  you  have  a 
cigar  or  a  glass  of  lemonade?  I  can't  offer  you 
anything  stronger.'  I  could  hardly  realize  that  I 
was  talking  to  the  same  man  who  a  few  days  ago 
had,  with  angry  tone  and  defiant  eye,  wished  the 
ladies  to   '  try  it  on,'  and  who,  over  this  same 

TliE   BIOG^RAPltY   OF   DlO   LEWIS.  241 

eoutiter,  tried  to  induce  me  to  take  something  in 
the  way  of  cold- weather  alcoholic  drinks* 

"At  the  hotel  I  fjund  the  landlord  actually 
bragging  that  he  had  been  the  first  man  to  sur- 
render, while  his  wife  was  putting  on  her  bonnet 
and  shawl  to  attend  the  daily  j)rayer-meeting.  A 
commercial  traveller  was  about  leaving  the  hotel, 
with  a  bundle  of  samples  under  his  arm,  when  the 
landlord  exclaimed,  '  You  need  not  go  out  at  this 
time  of  day,  sir.  You  won't  find  a  respectable 
store  in  town  open  now.'  'WlajV  asked  the  as- 
tonished drummer,  who  had  just  finished  a  nine- 
o'clock  breakfast.  'Because  every  day  between 
nine  and  ten  o'clock,  everybody  goes  to  prayer- 
meeting,'  was  the  reply.  Surprised  myself,  I  went 
on  the  street  and  found  that  the  shops  were  all 
closed  at  this  hour,  when  merchants,  mechanics, 
and  housekeepers  in  country  towns  are  generally 
busiest.  There  must  be  earnestness  in  the  move- 
ment when  the  pocket-nerve,  so  hard  to  kill,  is 
thus  deadened. 

''  From  the  hotel  I  went  to  the  Episcopal  church. 
Few  places  of  amusement  are  ever  more  crowded. 
Every  seat  was  filled,  and  men  and  women  stood 
in  the  aisles  and  thronged  the  vestibule.  The  in- 
closure  within  the  altar-rail  Avas  occupied  by 
clergymen,  every  denomination  appearing  to  be 
represented.  The  meeting,  to  use  a  homely  west- 
em  expression,  seemed  to  run  itself.  Nobody 


presided.  A  man  arose  to  speak.  His  message 
was  the  story  of  what  had  been  accomplished  in 
another  town.  A  woman  said,  'Let  us  pray,'  and 
the  congregation  followed  her  with  devout  air 
in  an  impassioned  appeal.  As  they  arose  from 
their  knees  some  one  began  to  sing,  and  all  joined 
in  familiar  words  which  seemed  to  them  now  to 
have  new  meaning: 

"  'Mine  eyes  have  seen  the  glory  of  the  coming  of  the 
Lord  : 
He  is  trampling  out  the  vintage  where  the  grapes  of 
wrath  are  stored. 
Our  God  is  marching  on, 
Glory,  glory,  hallelujah,  our  God  is  marching  on.' 

"  During  the  exercises  a  young  man  suddenly 
entered  the  house  and  pushed  his  way  through 
the  crowded  aisles  to  the  iDulj^it.  Here  he  arrested 
the  attention  of  the  congregation  by  an  excited 
gesture.  '  Ladies,'  he  said, '  I  have  come  to  tell  you 
that  I  can't  hold  out  any  longer.  I,  too,  give  in.  I 
shall  not  sell  any  more  liquor,  and  I  want  to  sign 
the  pledge.'  The  thoughtless  forgot  that  they 
were  in  the  house  of  God,  and  clapped  their  hands 
in  applause;  the  preachers  uttered  loud  and 
hearty  '  aniens ! '  and  almost  by  one  impulse  the 
congregation  arose  and  sang  the  only  doxology 
which  everybody  can  sing: 

"  'Praise  God,  from  whom  all  blessings  flow  : ' 

Before  the  echo  died  away  the  sexton  was  in  the 

The   BiOGEAPHY   OF   DiO   LEWIS.  243 

tower  of  the  church  and  the  bell  pealed  forth  the 
news  of  the  surrender.  The  bells  of  other  churches 
took  up  the  tidings,  and  for  an  hour  they  chimed 
away  until  it  seemed  that  everybody  in  Mount 
Yernon  and  vicinity  must  have  been  aroused. 

"This  bell-ringing  is  a  favorite  feature  of  the 
movement,  and  has  become  in  nearly  every  town  a 
well-known  signal  of  victory  over  a  rum-seller. 

"The  prayer-meeting  over,  the  women  sallied 
out  of  the  church  on  the  street,  and  dividing  into 
two  sections,  each  under  an  appointed  leader,  vis- 
ited the  few  liquor  stores  still  holding  out. 

"  Snow  several  inches  deep  was  on  the  ground, 
and  it  was  intensely  cold,  but  there  was  no  shrink- 
ing from  duty. 

"At  night  another  union  prayer-meeting  was 
held;  but  while  the  brethren  were  praying  and 
singing  the  sisters  held  a  meeting  in  another  place. 
Mrs.  Wiant,  wife  of  a  clergyman,  arose  in  this 
private  meeting  and  called  for  volunteers  for 
special  duty.  If  twenty -five  ladies  would  follow 
her,  she  proposed  making  a  night  attack  upon  a 
saloon  which  had  been  barred  against  their  en- 
trance during  the  day.  Thirty  ladies  arose  and 
expressed  their  willingness  to  go  anywhere  their 
courageous  leader  might  direct.  Some  inquired 
what  was  to  be  done,  but  Mrs.  Wiant  declined  to 
tell,  fearing  the  enemy  should  hear  of  the  move- 
ment.    The  main  column  was  ordered  to  move 

244  ^HE   BIOGEAPilY   OF   DiO   LEWIS. 

down  Mnlbeny  Street  to  Front,  down  Front  to 
Main,  and  up  Main  to  a  certain  point,  and  there 
await  a  signal  wliicli  would  be  understood  by  the 
column  commander.  Meanwhile  Mrs.  Wiant  and 
three  other  ladies  quietly  walked  down  Main 
Street  and  entered  Irvine's  saloon  without  opposi- 
tion, and  to  the  great  surj)rise  of  that  proprietor 
and  company  of  mortified  tip]3lers.  A  few  min- 
utes later  the  main  column  entered,  nearly  filling 
the  room.  A  prayer-meeting  was  held  for  the 
benefit  of  Irvine  and  his  guests,  and  the  ladies 
then  shook  hands  with  the  saloon-keeper  and 
bade  him  a  kind  good-by.  Irvine  made  no  neAV 
pledges,  but  says :  '  I  have  locked  my  door  against 
the  ladies  for  the  last  time.  They  can  come  in 
and  pray  whenever  they  are  so  disposed.' " 



Feom  the  correspondent  of  the  New  York  Tri- 
hune,  Chicago,  111.,  February  25th,  1874. 

"  First  real  work  began  to-day  on  the  west  side, 
where  a  number  of  saloon-keepers  have  had  their 
eyes  opened  to  the  probability  of  a  general  engage- 
ment by  the  visits  of  a  quiet  lady,  who  has,  since 
morning,  been  tramx^ing  from  saloon  to  saloon  in 
Madison  and  Halsted  streets.  Her  conduct  has 
taken  the  enemy  by  ^torm  on  account  of  its  mild- 
ness. She  says,  as  she  leans  against  the  beer- 
stained  counter:  '  Dear  sir,  I  am  praying  for  you.' 
Then  she  steps  back  into  the  farther  corner  and 
kneels  on  the  sawdust-covered  floor,  utters  not  a 
loud  word,  but  prays  in  secret  for  an  open  answer 
to  her  prayer.  In  a  moment  after  she  has  said 
'good-by'  and  is  gone.  The  saloon-keeper  is 
amazed ;  the  woman  has  made  no  noise,  and  he  has 
a  vague  idea  that  she  was  in  earnest  and  has 
prayed  for  him.  He  has  declared  that  he  would 
kick  the  first  woman  who  tried  to  pray  with  him 
into  the  street,  but  he  hasn't. 

"  These  visits  have  already  begun  to  work  upon 
the  saloons  visited  in  causing  an  extra  diligence 


to  be  used  in  keeping  the  i)laces  neat  and  orderly, 
and  in  some  instances  vile  pictures  have  been  re- 
moved surreptitiously.  A  general  movement  will 
begin  to-morrow." 

With  the  street  work  came  the  obstacles  and 
trials  which  inevitably  beset  workers  in  the  great 
cities,  types  of  which  have  already  been  depicted. 
These  reached  their  climax  in  the  scenes  portrayed 
in  the  following  pages. 

In  March,  1874,  the  City  Council  determined  to 
repeal  the  law  requiring  liquor-dealers  to  close 
their  doors  on  Sunday.  There  Avere  three  thou- 
sand saloons  in  the  city. 

At  a  crowded  meeting  called  by  the  temperance 
women  a  committee  of  fifty  ladies  was  appointed 
to  present  to  the  Common  Council  a  petition 
against  the  repeal  of  the  law.  The  signatures  of 
sixteen  thousand  women  Avere  secured  in  a  canvass 
of  ten  days. 

By  going  to  the  Council  chamber  three  hours 
before  the  time  for  assembling,  the  ladies  partially 
avoided  the  mob  which  soon  gathered  in  the 
streets.  The  liquor-dealers  stood  treat  to  the 
dead-beats,  Avhom  they  Avould  ordinarily  have  re- 
jected from  their  saloons,  on  condition  that  they 
Avould  swell  the  mob  about  the  City  Hall. 

The  ladies  were  courteously  received  by  the 
Council,  and  presented  their  petition  in  a  feAv  Avell- 
chosen  Avords.    This  Avas  read  by  the  clerk  of  the 


Council  and  placed  on  file.  A  short  debate  was 
held  on  the  ordinance  permitting  the  liquor- 
saloons  to  be  open  on  Sunday,  and  by  a  vote  of 
twenty -two  to  fourteen  the  obnoxious  ordinance 
was  adopted. 

The  defeated  ladies  were  then  escorted  from  the 
Council  chamber  by  armed  policemen,  who,  with 
the  utmost  difficulty,  held  back  the  crowd  which 
packed  the  corridors.  Outside  they  encountered 
a  yelling,  howling,  blasphemous  mob  of  ^ve  thou- 
sand men,  the  off-scourings  of  the  city.  Said  the 
leader  of  the  temperance  band,  the  wife  of  a 
clergyman:  "The  moment  I  stepped  out  of  the 
Council  room  an  infuriated  yell  went  up  which 
fairly  shook  the  building." 

It  was  said  to  be  the  most  vile  and  disgraceful 
demonstration  of  the  spirit  of  ruffianism  ever  wit- 
nessed in  the  city. 

The  Chicago  Times  said:  "  The  rage  of  the  mob 
following  the  cart  of  Marie  Antoinette  to  the  guil- 
lotine was  not  more  demoniac,  and  probably  far 
more  courteous. 

"  The  ladies  were  so  terrified  that  some  fainted, 
others  covered  their  faces  with  their  hands  and 
hurried  through  the  blasphemous  throng  as  best 
they  could  to  the  church  where  their  friends  were 
awaiting  them.  Happily  no  one  was  seriously  in- 

"  For  much  of  this  outrage  the  superintendent 


of  police  was  responsible.  He  was  in  league  with 
the  rabble.  The  ladies  called  on  him  for  protec- 
tion and  he  refused." 

The  petition  which  had  cost  this  exposure  and 
peril  having  been  thus  promptly  rejected  by  the 
Common  Council,  a  committee  of  ladies  waited 
upon  Mayor  Colvin  to  urge  him  to  veto  the  ordi- 
nance. The  mayor  received  the  ladies  kindly,  but 
told  them  decidedly  that  he  did  not  agree  with 
them.  He  did  not  believe  it  would  be  better  to 
close  the  saloons.  He  was  elected  by  thirty  thou- 
sand citizens  to  wdiom  he  stood  pledged  to  sustain 
the  questionable  ordinance. 

The  zeal  of  the  women  was  not  quenched  even 
by  the  powerfully-organized  resistance  which  they 
met,  but  they  saw  the  necessity  of  long  and  persist- 
ent labor.  They  laid  well-considered  plans  for 
reaching  the  "  elbow-heathen  "  of  the  streets,  and 
in  the  ensuing  summer  Frances  Willard,  as  presi- 
dent of  the  Chicago  Union,  lent  her  power  and 
enthusiasm  to  the  work. 

The  business  judgment  which  went  to  their 
.:work  appears  in  Mrs.  Wittenmyer's  "  History  of 
[the  Crusade  :^* 

"Humanly  speaking,  the  elements  of  success 
.were  dauntless  determination ;  thorough  advertis- 
ing of  meetings  and  persistently  keeping  the  sub- 
ject before  the  public,  by  large  placards  of  welcome 
hand-bills  circulated  on  the  streets  and  notice^ 


of  the  press;  accounts  of  occurrences  at  the  meet- 
ing, as  well  as  mere  announcements;  having  the 
gatherings  accessible — in  heart  of  city,  down- 
stairs, at  level  of  street;  good,  lively  music  and 
excellent  instrumental  accompaniment;  regularly- 
appointed  leaders  (assigned  the  week  beforehand, 
so  that  they  could  prepare) ;  going  into  reading- 
room  of  the  Young  Men's  Christian  Association, 
and  daily  inviting  the  loungers  there,  with  utmost 
kindness,  to  attend." 

Cleveland,  where  the  liquor  stores  numbered 
not  less  than  fifteen  hundred,  renewed  the  story 
so  often  told  of  personal  devotion,  and  the  com- 
parative success  only  which  followed  the  efforts 
in  the  largest  cities.  A  writer  of  the  time 
speaks  of  the  response  to  the  call  in  March,  1874, 
for  a  meeting  of  ladies  to  see  whether  they  would 
take  up  the  crusade  work.     She  writes : 

"  I  can  safely  say  that  no  lady  who  went  to  that 
meeting  did  so  Avith  the  intention  of  visiting  sa- 
loons. Yet  that  meeting  adjourned  to  visit 
saloons.  Women  who  had  scarcely  spoken  even 
in  a  quiet  prayer-meeting,  rose  in  strength  un- 
know^n  before  and  said:  'We  will  go.'  Some  of 
the  leaders  had  received  the  training  which  the 
Methodist  church  gives  its  members,  but  the  ma- 
jority had  not.  Nor  are  they  those  who  have 
been  prominent  in  the  suffrage  movement.  Most 
of  them  have  opposed  it. 


"  To  one  outside,  the  movement  seems  grotesque, 
ill-advised,  illy-conceived,  and  futile;  but  once 
within  the  influence  of  the  magic  circle  all  is 
changed.  No  one  can  attend  the  prayer-meetings 
and  listen  to  the  reports  of  the  ladies  without  feel- 
ing the  tremendous  power  that  is  being  exerted. 

"It  matters  not  what  one  believes  concerning 
prayer,  it  is  simply  impossible  to  listen  unmoved 
to  the  exercises  of  these  women.  Men  who  will 
not  give  up  their  business,  men  who  have  counted 
the  cost  and  decided,  men  of  inflexible  will  and 
iron  nerve  turn  pale  and  tremble  at  the  sound  of 
the  women's  prayers,  at  the  strains  of  these 
women's  songs.  Their  only  safety  is  not  to  hear 
them.  Women  who  never  faced  an  audience  be- 
fore in  their  lives  address  a  church  full  as  if  it 
were  their  accustomed  occupation. 

"  It  is  really  aristocratic  to  be  a  crusader.  Euclid 
Avenue  has  turned  out  in  force,  and  wicked  little 
'  gamins '  see  a  close  relation  between  a  seal-skin 
cloak  and  a  crusader. 

"One  saloon-keeper  said:  'AVhy,  if  I  couldn't 
stand  the  singing  and  praying  for  half  an  hour, 
how  do  you  suppose  I  shall  stand  it  in  heaven, 
where  I  shall  hear  it  all  the  time? ' " 

The  following  account  is  abbreviated  from  a 
sketch  of  the  crusade  published  by  Mrs.  Sarah  K. 
Bolton,  one  of  the  "  original  crusaders."  She  was 
a  leader  in  Noi^thex^n  Ohio,  where  she  accompanied 


the  praying  bands  in  their  saloon- visiting  and 
spoke  in  meetings.  Later  she  became  favorably 
known  as  one  of  the  editorial  staff  of  the  Boston 
Congregatlonalist,  and  by  her  interesting  contri- 
butions to  magazines,  and  by  published  volumes. 

On  the  third  day  of  the  street  work  in  Cleve- 
land the  whiskey  and  beer  interest  seemed  to  have 
awakened  to  the  situation.  A  rough  mob,  headed 
by  an  organization  of  brewers,  waited  for  and  at- 
tacked the  praying  bands.  The  police  were 
obliged  to  lock  the  women  in  a  store  for  safety, 
and  then  dispersed  the  crowd. 

The  next  day,  taking  their  lives  in  their  hands, 
a  larger  company  of  women  went  out  and  some- 
what similar  scenes  were  enacted.  Meantime 
public  meetings  called  in  the  churches  were  so 
crowded  that  standing  room  could  not  be  found. 
Business  men  left  their  stores  and  shops,  minis- 
ters their  studies,  and  a  thousand  manly  men 
went  out  to  defend  the  praying  women.  The  mili- 
tary companies  were  ordered  to  be  in  readiness, 
resting  on  their  arms;  the  police  force  was  in- 
creased, and  the  liquor  interest  was  soon  made  to 
feel  that  the  city  was  not  under  its  control.  The 
mob  never  again  tried  its  power.  For  three 
months,  with  scarcely  a  day's  exception,  the  pray- 
ing bands,  sometimes  with  twenty  in  each,  work- 
ing in  various  parts  of  the  city,  sometimes  with 
five  hundred,  quietly  and  silently,  two  by  two, 

252  THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF    DIO    LEWIS. 

forming  a  procession  over  a  quarter  of  a  mile  in 
length,  followed  by  scores  in  carriages  who  could 
not  bear  the  long  walks,  went  from  saloon  to  sa- 
loon, or  to  warehouses,  holding  services  where  the 
proprietors  were  willing,  or  in  vacant  lots  near  by 
when  they  were  unwilling. 

Those  were  wonderful  days,  when  a  city  was 
baptized  by  continuous  prayer;  when  women, 
forgetting  the  ease  and  luxury  of  their  homes, 
went  down  to  these  places  of  desolation  to  save 
those  for  whom  Christ  died.  Men  took  off  their 
hats  as  the  procession  went  by.  Little  children 
gathered  close  to  the  singers,  and,  catching  the 
words,  sang  them  months  after  in  their  hovels. 
Haggard  women  bent  their  heads,  as  they  mur- 
mured with  unutterable  sadness:  "You've  come 
too  late  to  save  my  boy,  or  my  husband." 

During  these  three  months  of  crusade  work  three 
distilleries,  eight  breweries,  thirty-one  drug  stores, 
thirty-five  hotels,  forty  wdiolesale  dealers,  and 
eleven  hundred  saloons  were  visited,  many  of 
them  again  and  again.  Four  hundred  and  fifty 
of  these  places  often  admitted  the  bands  for  ser- 
vice. There  were  seventy  out-door  meetings. 
Mass-meetings  on  the  Sabbath,  conducted  by 
women,  were  held  in  wigwams  in  different  wards 
as  well  as  in  churches,  and  were  always  crowded. 

The  prominent  men  of  the  city  were  aroused  to 
special  activity  on  other  lines  of  temperance  work. 


The  good  result  of  all  these  efforts  appears  in  the 
reports  of  the  Liquor-Dealers'  and  Brewers'  Asso- 
ciation, which  show  for  1874  five  thousand  nine 
hundred  and  sixty-nine  prosecutions,  and  for 
1875  four  thousand  two  hundred  and  seven  prose- 



In  Pittsburg,  upon  the  inauguration  of  the  cru- 
sade, the  Liquor- Sellers'  Association  voted  not  to 
permit  ladies  to  enter  places  where  liquors  were 
sold.  The  crusade  was,  however,  carried  on  for 
several  weeks,  the  ladies,  who  were  led  by  the 
wife  of  a  United  Presbyterian  minister,  being  sub- 
jected to  every  indignity  by  a  turbulent  and  blas- 
phemous mob.  Cayenne  pepper  was  scattered 
and  brimstone  was  burned  in  the  vaults  beneath 
the  gratings  of  the  pavement.  The  experience  of 
the  devoted  band  was  severe,  but  they  suffered  no 
interference  from  the  police. 

A  petition  of  wholesale  and  retail  liquor-dealers 
was  presented  to  the  mayor  to  prevent  praying 
bands  in  the  street,  on  the  ground  that  they  hin- 
dered business  and  were  common  nuisances.  The 
ladies  were  constantly  notified  by  the  mayor  to  de- 
sist from  i:)raying  upon  the  sidewalks.  They  did 
not  heed  this,  and  on  May  21st  a  few  were  arrested. 
The  mayor  courteously  reminded  them  that  it  was 
his  duty  to  enforce  the  law,  and  bade  them  go 
and  offend  no  more.  They  resumed  usual  cru- 
sade work  on  the  next  day,  and  one  man  and  two 


ladies  were  arrested.  A  fine  of  twenty -five  dol- 
lars was  imposed  on  tlie  former,  one  of  twenty-five 
dollars  each  on  the  latter.  Against  their  earnest 
protest  this  was  j)aid  by  one  who  was  believed  to 
represent  the  liquor  interest. 

On  the  third  day,  May  23d,  a  repetition  of  the 
offence  led  to  the  arrest  of  thirty -two  women.  An 
immense  crowd  gathered  and  threats  against  the 
liquor  men  were  rife.  Some  of  the  women  stepped 
upon  boxes  or  whatever  was  at  hand,  and  sought 
by  gentle  words  to  calm  the  people,  entreating 
them  not  to  resist  the  law.  The  policemen  then 
marched  their  prisoners,  two  by  two,  to  the  sta- 
tion-house, where  they  were  crowded  into  filthy 
quarters,  with  the  refuse  of  the  city,  the  very  vic- 
tims of  a  depraved  appetite  whom  they  were  try- 
ing to  save.  With  words  of  prayer  and  of  counsel 
to  their  wretched  companions  they  strove  to  make 
precious  the  hours  and  the  opportunity  so  rudely 
given  them,  but  these  were  sometimes  drowned  in 
the  turbulence  of  the  mob  which  surged  around 
the  building.  Suddenly  the  clear,  sweet  voices  of 
women  rose  outside  above  the  discord: 

"  Rock  of  ages,  cleft  for  me," 

sang  the  band  which  had  made  its  way  through 
the  riotous  streets  to  cheer  their  sisters;  voices 
within  the  prison  walls  chimed  in : 

"Let  me  hide  myself  in  Thee," 


AVhen  the  offenders  were  taken  before  the 
mayor  he  demanded  security  in  thirty  dollars 
each,  but  finding  that  he  Avas  not  likely  to  get  rid 
of  his  prisoners  he  reduced  the  bail  to  ten  dollars 
each.  A  gentleman  stepped  forward  and  paid  the 
requisite  three  hundred  and  thirty  dollars,  and 
they  were  released.  This  money  was  afterward 
refunded,  as  a  writ  had  been  obtained  directing 
that  the  case  j)ending  be  transmitted  to  the  Court 
of  Common  Pleas.  This  r^ourt  decided  that  "  sing- 
ing and  praying  upon  the  streets  are  not  disor- 
derly conduct."  This  being  concurred  in  by  the 
other  judges,  Judge  Stowe  decreed  that  the  de- 
cision of  the  acting  mayor  should  be  set  aside, 
that  restitution  be  awarded,  and  that  fines  and 
costs  be  returned ;  the  city  to  pay  the  costs. 

Again  the  crusaders  took  up  their  work,  herein 
as  before  acting  in  violation  of  the  principles  of 
Dr.  Lewis,  whose  invariable  counsel  was,  "never 
break  a  law.  If  you  wish  to  pray  in  a  saloon  ask 
permission,  and  if  refused  retire.  If  you  are 
warned  not  to  obstruct  the  sidewalk,  take  some 
other  place  for  praying." 

In  but  few  cases  was  this  disregarded,  and  in 
these  the  ladies  soon  learned  the  true  method. 

Says  Mrs.  Wittenmyer  in  her  "  History  of  the 
Crusade :"  "  The  drunkards,  tramps,  and  hoodlums 
that  gathered  at  the  call  of  the  saloon-keepers,  to 
insult  and  silence  the  respectable  Christian  women 

THE   BIOGRAPHY   OF   1)10   LEWIS.  257 

who  dared  publicly  to  protest  against  the  liquor 
traffic  by  song  and  j)rayer,  was  largely  of  the  same 
class  as  the  howling  mob  that  struck  terror  to  the 
hearts  of  the  x)eople  of  Pittsburg  during  the  sub- 
sequent riot  of  July,  1877.  Yet  while  the  latter 
mob  made  the  streets  of  Pittsburg  red  with  hu- 
man blood,  of  the  women  who,  going  on  God's 
errand  and  upheld  by  His  strength,  calmly  faced 
that  of  1874,  not  one  was  harmed." 

In  the  adjacent  municipality  of  Alleghany,  a 
separate  organization  was  eifected  and  fine  head- 
quarters were  secured.  The  disastrous  floods  of 
July,  1874,  led  the  temperance  band  to  offer  its 
services  to  the  relief  committee,  and  "  Crusade 
Hall "  became  one  of  the  most  important  relief 

In  the  autumn,  finding  their  prayer-meetings 
disturbed  by  boys  of  the  lowest  class,  an  evening 
each  week  was  set  apart  for  their  instruction.  A 
similar  work  for  girls  led  to  the  establishment  of 
a  flourishing  industrial  school. 

The  spirit  of  the  movement  now  and  then 
found  expression  in  song: 

The  Temperaxce  Crusade. 

Song  of  the  army  of  women. 

We're  coining,  Father  Lewis, 
Three  hundred  thousand  strong  ; 

We're  burnishing  our  weapons 
Of  Faith  and  Prayer  and  Song. 

258  THE   BIOGRAPHY^   OF    DIO   LEWlB. 

We  bear  no  martial  banner, — 

We  have  no  battle  cry 
Except  our  loud  hosannas, 

Which  pierce  the  bending  sky. 

We  do  not  stop  for  scorning  ; 

We  do  not  stop  for  taunts  ; 
But  follow,  night  and  morning, 

The  rum  fiend  to  his  haunts. 
The  demon  flies  before  us, 

His  high-priests  join  our  ranks. 
While,  with  united  chorus. 

We  shout  to  Heaven  our  thanks. 

If  e'er  our  steps  should  falter, 

We'll  think  upon  the  slain 
Who  fell  before  Rum's  altar, 

And  we'll  rally  yet  again. 
We  have  no  mortal  leader, 

We  have  no  mortal  foe  ; 
In  heaven  our  Interceder 

Smiles  on  our  work  below. 

Law  makers  in  their  blindness 

Could  ne'er  remove  this  stone  ; 
The  law  of  loving  kindness 

Is  competent  alone. 
We're  coming,  Father  Lewis, 
;  Six  hundred  thousand  strong  ; 

!  The  enemy  shall  meet  us — 

We  fight  with  Prayer  and  Song, 

P.  H.  Myers,  Auburn,  N.  Y. 

The  story  of  devotion,  of  effort,  of  difficulties, 
and  of  varying  success,  as  here  told  of  Ohio  and 
its  immediate  vicinity,  was  repeated  in  number- 

*in^   BIOGRAPHY   OF   DIO   LEWIS.  259 

less  towns  throughout  States  reaching  to  the 
Pacific  Coast.  Illinois,  Indiana,  Iowa,  Kansas, 
Nebraska,  California,  and  Oregon  caught  the  en- 

In  England  the  great  London  Times  devoted 
columns  to  this  movement. 

The  distinguished  press  correspondent  William 
F.  Robinson,  better  known  as  "Warrington," 
wrote  from  London  to  the  Boston  Journal,  March 
M,  1874: 

"No  American  topic  seems  worth  considering 
by  the  English  papers  except  Dr.  Dio  Lewis's  cru- 
sade against  the  liquor-dealers  in  Ohio  and  else- 
where. This  must  seem  very  comical  to  the  Eng- 
lish people,  who,  like  most  grave  people,  are  a 
race  of  humorists,  but  they  take  it  more  seriously 
than  I  should  suppose  they  would.  It  is  not 
likely  that  they  seriously  fear  any  successful  cru- 
sade of  this  sort  within  a  hundred  years,  but  the 
possibility  of  the  path  to  the  public  house  being 
obstructed  by  groups  of  praying  women  may  well 
appal  them." 

Meantime  Mrs.  Margaret  E.  Parker,  of  Dundee, 
Scotland,  "  a  modest  gentlewoman  of  an  old  Tory 
line,  and  reared  with  all  the  prejudices  of  aristo- 
cratic birth,"  says  Miss  Frances  E.  Willard,  "  mar- 
shalled '  the  bonnets  of  bonny  Dundee,'  leading  a 
procession  of  sixty  of  her  townswomen  to  the 
headquarters  of  the  magistrate,  where  they  pre- 


sented  a  no-license  petition,  with  nine  thousand 
names  of  women.  All  this  in  the  days  of  'onr 
crusade '  and  under  its  blessed  inspiration. 

"  An  '  orthodox  of  the  orthodox,'  Mrs.  Parker 
had  worked  for  woman  suffrage  side  by  side  with 
the  party  of  John  Stuart  Mill;  she  had  addressed 
the  British  Social  Science  Congress  on  the  ques- 
tion of  capital  and  labor,  but,  active  as  she  had 
always  been  in  reforms,  the  crusade  movement 
stirred  Margaret  Parker's  heart  as  nothing  else  had 
ever  done.  The  presentation  of  her  temperance 
petition  to  the  authorities  of  Dundee  struck  the 
key-note  for  the  United  Kingdom,  aroused  Chris- 
tian women  to  a  sense  of  their  responsibility,  and 
led  to  the  formation  of  temperance  unions  in  Dun- 
dee and  many  other  towns,  and  finally  to  the 
organization  of  the  British  Women's  Christian 
Temperance  Union." 

Turning  again  to  the  United  States,  only  a  brief 
sketch  can  be  given  of  the  effort  to  inaugurate  the 
Crusade  movement  in  the  cities  on  the  Atlantic 
slope.  While  a  measure  of  success  has  been  at- 
tested by  its  fruit  more  than  by  any  immediate 
responsiveness,  the  impression  made  bore  no  favor- 
able comparison  to  that  made  in  the  Ohio  Yalley 
and  westward. 

Dr.  Lewis  said  in  Sj)ringfield :  "  I  do  not  find 
the  soil  here  adapted  to  my  method  of  warfare." 



Stirred  by  the  accounts  from  Ohio,  there  had 
been  a  qnlckening  of  the  life  of  the  temperance 
societies  in  New  York  City  and  Brooklyn. 

The  New  York  Tribune  of  February  25th,  1874, 

"  Most  quiet  methods  will  be  employed,  in  the 
way  of  direct  appeals  of  ladies  to  landlords  and 
liquor-sellers.  Prayer-meetings  will  be  held.  The 
sentiment  is  not  for  going  in  a  body  to  saloons, 
but  to  see  laws  strictly  enforced.  The  laios,  lioio- 
ever,  liave  been  so  sTcilfully  framed  that  the 
ladies  find  it  next  to  impossible  to  prove  that 
the  statutes  have  been  violated.  The  city  statis- 
tics show  that  in  one  ward  in  New  York  City 
there  is  a  liquor  store  to  every  thirty-six  men, 
women,  and  children,  and  the  general  average  is 
one  in  every  one  hundred  and  twenty-six  through- 
out the  city." 

Here,  on  March  2d,  1874,  the  key-note  of  the  ajD- 
X)roaching  campaign  was  sounded  at  a  great  tem- 
perance rally.  Dr.  Dio  Lewis  being  the  speaker. 

From  ail  account  given  by  Mrs,  Helen  F.  Brown 


and  published  in  the  "  History  of  the  Woman's 
Crusade,"  by  Mrs.  Wittenmyer,  we  extract  the 

" '  It  is  useless  for  women  to  do  anything  here. 
New  York  is  a  walled  city,'  said  a  liquor-dealer  to 
one  of  our  visitors  in  the  early  days  of  the  cru- 
sade. Its  walls  are,  indeed,  thick  and  high,  and 
to  all  human  force  impregnable.  First  in  the  in- 
trenchments  are  the  drunkards,  men  and  women, 
standing  shoulder  to  shoulder,  not  very  erect  and 
firm,  it  is  true,  but,  supported  and  filled  in  by  the 
moderate  drinkers  next  behind  them,  every  one  is 
a  brick  well  laid.  Then  come  the  domestic  and 
social  users  and  offerers  of  beer  and  wine,  next 
the  traffickers,  then  the  j)roperty-holders,  with 
their  wealth  and  greed,  and  last,  but  not  least, 
since  they  afford  strength,  finish,  and  adornment 
to  the  defences,  stands  the  church  in  its  cold  in- 
difference. What  a  strong  wall  is  this !  No  won- 
der our  opponents  feel  secure  behind  it;  no 
wonder  human  sight  discerns  no  way  to  over- 
throw it. 

"  In  April  the  Woman's  Christian  Temperance 
Union  was  organized.  A  committee  was  ai)pointed 
to  visit  the  excise  board  and  also  the  clergymen 
of  the  city.  We  found  every  denomination  more 
or  less  apathetic,  the  ministry  indifferent  or  faith- 
less, and  in  the  membership  a  deplorable  lack  of 
principle.    It  was  a  sad  revelation,  but  it  taught 


US  that  temperance  work  w^as  needed  in  the  church 
as  well  as  out  of  it. 

"  Sunday-evening  meetings  were  commenced  in 
the  churches,  a  gospel  temperance  meeting  was 
established,  with  wonderful  results,  in  one  of  the 
most  desi3erately- wicked  localities  in  the  city, 
where  we  were  surrounded  by  dance-houses  of  the 
worst  description,  and  wedged  in  between  two  of 
tTie  yilest  dens  in  the  city. 

"  On  one  occasion  three  of  us  went  together  to  a 
corner  shop  of  the  most  notorious  character. 
About  twenty  women  were  huddled  together  in 
one  corner,  vile,  dishgured,  clad  in  filthy  rags,  and 
presenting  an  appearance  to  melt  the  hardest 
heart.  We  were  almost  overcome  by  the  appal- 
ling sight;  but  we  joined  in  a  beautiful  hymn. 

"  We  had  not  sung  two  lines  before  every  head, 
one  after  another,  was  raised  with  a  Avondering 
expression;  then  the  big  tears  began  to  fall,  and 
by  the  time  we  had  finished  the  strain  the  sobs 
and  groans  were  pitiful  to  hear.  As  we  went  out- 
side they  followed  us  with  staggering  steps,  and 
one  poor,  marred,  wretched  woman  drew  near, 
and  asked,  with  trembling  lips,  '  Won't  you  sing 
"  Whiter  than  snow? "  '  Those  words,  seemingly 
so  incongruous  in  that  dark  place,  never  seemed 
so  precious,  as  we  sang  them  with  our  hearts  rest- 
ing on  the  promise,  '  Though  your  sins  be  as  scar- 
let, they  shall  be  white  as  snow.' 


"  Several  girls  followed  us  that  day  to  homes  of 
safety  which  we  were  able  to  provide  for  them  in 
institutions  and  refuges  in  the  city." 

Says  the  ISTew  York  Trihune  of  February  23d, 

"  The  temperance  movement  of  the  West  within 
the  past  two  weeks  has  developed  considerable 
strength  in  the  immediate  vicinity  of  New  York 

"  The  most  notable  step  yet  taken  is  the  deci- 
sion of  the  trustees  of  Trinity  church,  the  largest 
religious  corporation  in  the  country,  to  lease  no 
more  of  their  buildings  to  liquor-dealers.  It  is 
said  that  the  number  of  liquor  saloons  leased  by 
Trinity  is  forty.  None  which  expire  on  May  1st 
will  be  renewed.  This  action  on  the  part  of  the 
Trinity  trustees  has  been  hastened  by  the  urgent 
entreaty  of  the  Avomen  of  the  parish,  although 
some  of  the  trustees  have  long  felt  their  position 
to  be  indefensible. 

"  March  1st  the  movement  assumed  decided  pro- 
portions, the  most  distinguished  of  the  clergy 
holding  meetings.  Dr.  Lewis  said  that  on  general 
princii)les  he  looked  for  the  spread  of  the  move- 
ment here,  although  the  city  was  so  large  that  he 
could  not  judge  what  course  it  was  best  to  pursue. 
The  women  would  soon  have  some  inspiration  on. 
the  subject. 

^'  March  3d. — A  meeting  called  and  wholly  man- 


aged  by  Avomen  drew  an  assemblage  such  as  is  sel- 
dom seen  except  under  fclie  excitement  of  a  politi- 
cal campaign. 

"  At  this  meeting  Miss  Smiley  briefly  described 
the  good  results  of  the  movement  in  the  West. 
She  had  resolved  not  to  speak  in  public  except 
on  the  gospel  of  Christ,  and  she  had  at  first  re- 
fused to  speak  here,  but  it  flashed  across  her  mind 
that  this  was  the  gospel. 

"The  ladies  organized  daily  prayer-meetings, 
and  at  one  of  them  received  and  accepted  an  in- 
vitation from  a  Mr.  Myers  to  hold  a  Sabbath-even- 
ing meeting  in  his  saloon.  Fully  three  thousand 
men,  mostly  young,  gathered.  A  spirit  of  solem- 
nity pervaded  the  meeting.  Many  signed  the 
pledge  and  thirteen  conversions  resulted,  and  in  a 
few  days  the  liquor-dealer  voluntarily  j)laced  the 
key  of  his  saloon  in  the  hands  of  the  ladies,  and 
it  was  afterward  opened  as  a  temperance  restau- 

"  Cordial  sympathy  with  the  movement  was  ex- 
pressed by  some  of  the  most  earnest  men  in  New 

"Hon.  Thurlow  Weed,  in  a  letter  to  the  New 
'YoTk.Tri'bune,  April  8th,  1874,  pointed  out  the  in- 
adequacy of  all  movements  for  temperance  hither- 
to undertaken,  and  adds : 

"  Meantime,  intemperance  has  made  and  is  mak- 
ing hearts  and  households  sad  and  desolate,  sq 


mucli  so  as  to  provoke  a  movement  by  the  women 
of  our  country  alike  spontaneous,  magnetic,  and 
extraordinary.  Of  tliat  movement,  emanating 
from  the  highest  and  purest  sympathies  and  emo- 
tions of  the  human  heart,  I  can  neither  speak  nor 
think  but  with  profound  and  intense  resi)ect  and 

At  the  annual  meeting  of  the  National  Temper- 
ance Society,  in  May,  the  .Hon.  W.  E.  Dodge  said: 

"We  have  gained  during  the  last  year  more 
than  any  other  year  in  our  history.  The  move- 
ment carried  on  by  the  women  of  this  country  is 
something  which  is  marvellous,  and  we  can  only 
account  for  it  that  it  is  from  above;  that  these 
mothers,  wives,  and  sisters  have  received  a  bap- 
tism from  on  high." 

Kev.  Dr.  Theodore  L.  Cuyler  said : 

"  We  must  not  talk  too  complacently  about  the 
matter  in  regard  to  our  own  efforts,  for  after  all 
I  am  inclined  to  think  that  the  great  move- 
ment came  from  God  through  womanhood.  That 
aroused  the  nation,  and  the  shot  fired  by  Quaker 
gunners  in  Ohio  was  a  second  Sumter  to  awaken 
the  nation." 

Said  Rev.  Dr.  Duryea,  in  Brooklyn :  "  One  of 
the  grandest  sights  that  a  man  can  look  upon  is 
the  human  soul  thoroughly  aroused  in  all  its  pas- 
sion and  its  powers.  What  is  it  that  is  sending 
simultaneously  a   mighty    impulse    over   whole 


States,  until  men,  women,  and  cliildren  are  lifted 
to  demonstrations?  Whence  comes  it  but  from 
the  Being  who  is  as  broad  as  space? " 

Henry  Ward  Beecher,  in  Plymouth  church 
lecture-room,  February  21st,  1874,  said: 

"  We  see  in  nature  two  modes  of  action — one 
the  gradual,  steadfast  motion,  the  other  a  kind 
of  climacteric  motion;  so  we  have  nightly  dews 
and  gentle  rain,  and,  on  the  other  hand,  mighty 
outbreaks  and  storms,  both  admirable.  There 
seems  something  like  this  in  human  society.  Be- 
yond all  question  the  moderate  is  appointed  to  be 
the  ordinary,  and  there  is  just  as  little  question 
that  at  times  come  natural  upliftings  to  a  higher 

"  We  have  a  remarkable  instance  now  going  on 
in  the  West  in  the  effort  to  suppress  drinking.  I 
don't  know  that  history  can  show  its  parallel  in 
the  past,  and  I  don't  know  that  anything  is  more 
needed  than  the  suppression  of  dram-drinking. 
This  is  the  scourge  of  the  household,  and  it  comes 
with  special  weight  on  women.  It  is  a  kind  of 
evil  that  has  defied  legislation,  and  now,  under 
the  providence  of  God,  there  has  arisen  a  moral 
cyclone,  a  perfect  tempest  of  influence.  It  is  one 
of  the  fruits  of  the  agitation  of  the  question  of 
woman's  rights.  I  never  have  troubled  you  much 
on  this  subject,  though  I  am  devoted,  first,  middle, 
and  last,  to  the  cause  of  raising  woman,  and  she  is 


coming  on  a  line  of  equality  with  men.  People 
say,  'AVhat  have  you  gained  in  this  direction?' 
Why,  this  movement  never  could  have  taken  place 
but  for  the  agitation  of  this  question. 

"  I  am  not  sure  but  we  are  going  to  have  this 
whirlwind  come  here  and  change  the  creed  of 
those  who  do  not  believe  in  woman's  speaking. 
So  much  moral  i^ower  as  belongs  to  a  woman  has 
a  right  to  be  heard  even  in  other  jDlaces  than  the 
household.  It  is  true  the  place  for  the  candle  is 
in  the  candlestick,  and  the  place  to  shed  its  light 
is  in  the  room ;  but  if  the  AvindoAV  be  open  shall 
the  light  not  go  out  to  gladden  -^ome  poor  way- 
farer ?  So  woman's  place  first  is  in  her  family, 
but  if  she  has  no  family  is  she  to  stand  in  ever- 
lasting Availing?  Is  she  to  be  a  gun  forever  loaded 
and  never  fired  off?  The  first  sphere  we  admit  to 
be  the  household,  and  when  in  the  household  her 
domestic  relations  require  her  to  be  public,  it  is 
all  Phariseeism  to  say  she  has  Ubt  a  right  to 
be  so. 

"  I  tell  you  if  Dante  had  li\*ed  in  our  time,  in 
inventing  punishments  for  the  damned  he  would 
have  thought  of  a  sensitive,  i3roiid,  high-strung 
woman,  who,  beguiled  by  the  semblance  of  love 
into  wedlock,  sees  her  idol  turn  into  clay  and  her- 
self obliged  to  spend  her  life  with  a  fiend,  week 
after  week,  month  after  month,  year  after  year.  I 
tell  you  there  is  no  other  hell  needed.    You  can't 

The  BioGEAPiiY  of  mo  lewis.  269 

imagine  suffering  greater  than  this.     Have  the 
victims  no  right  to  destroy  the  destroyer? 

"  This  plan  of  woman's  temx)erance  work  came 
by  inspiration.  There  never  was  a  thing  more 
noble  than  this.  Everybody  ought  to  pray  that 
there  shall  be  great  good  done.  I  observe  that  all 
great  movements  acting  from  enthusiasm  die  away. 
Now,  it  is  a  great  pity  that  this  powder  could  not 
be  recognized  and  last  a  longer  time.  I  think  it 
much  to  be  desired  that  such  a  movement  should 
be  united  with  great,  permanent  religious  organi- 
zations— should  be  associated  with  churches." 



In  one  of  his  addresses  in  New  York  Dr.  Lewis 
thus  enforced  his  appeals : 

"  Standing  once  at  the  foot  of  the  Longstone 
light-house  on  the  Fame  Islands,  oif  the  coast  of 
England,  I  heard  again  the  story  of  Grace  Dar- 
ling. You  remember  how  in  the  midst  of  a  severe 
gale  she  saw,  on  one  of  the  rocky  crags,  a  wrecked 
vessel.  The  survivors  were  sure  to  be  washed 
away  by  a  returning  tide.  Her  father  said  rescue 
was  impossible  in  such  a  sea.  '  If  you  will  not  go 
I'll  try  alone,'  she  replied,  and  was  j)ushing  her 
boat  from  shore  when  he  joined  her.  They  were 
half-way  to  the  wreck  when  a  great  wave  broke 
over  the  little  boat,  and  the  father  insisted  upon 
abandoning  the  hopeless  attempt.  But  the  noble 
girl,  who  thought  only  of  the  imperilled  mariners, 
threw  herself  into  the  bow  of  the  boat  and  said : 
*If  you  turn  back  I  will  throw  myself  into  the 
sea  and  drown  with  those  on  the  wreck.'  Again 
they  bent  to  the  struggle  and  at  length  reached 
the  rocks,  and  nine  poor  fellows,  who  had  given 
themselves  up  for  lost,  were  rescued  and  carried 
to  shore. 


"  When  tlie  news  spread,  what  shouts  of  joy 
went  up  over  all  the  civilized  world ! 

''  As  I  stood  there  by  the  light-house,  one  vision 
inspired  another.  I  looked  out  upon  the  surging 
sea  of  intemperance,  and  saw  not  nine,  but  mil- 
lions of  creatures  struggling  for  life,  and  I  said, '  Is 
there  not,  in  God's  providence,  some  Grace  Dar- 
ling, who,  forgetting  self,  will  risk  all  to  rescue 
them?'  Dear  friends,  God  has  sent  her  to  us.  I 
have  seen  her  in  Ohio  and  slie  has  inspired  a 
thousand  to  do  likewise.  Surely  rescue  is  at 
hand!  She  will  soon  be  found  in  every  village 
through  this  rum-cursed  land.  God  sent  woman 
into  this  world  to  take  us  men  into  her  arms  and 
carry  us  to  heaven.  I  believe  she  is  just  awaken- 
ing to  the  consciousness  of  her  obligations  and 
her  destiny.  I  have  seen  it  in  every  woman  of 
wealth  and  influence  kneeling  on  the  sidewalk  in 
the  snow,  praying  to  God  to  send  His  Spirit  into 
the  heart  of  the  man  who  is  selling  his  poison  to 
their  friends.  God  is  not  dead.  He  has  not  gone 
away,  and  He  is  ready  to-day  to  carry  us  through 
this  great  struggle." 

A  candid  review  of  the  crusade  work  appeared 
in  the  l^ew  York  Tribune  of  March  30th,  1874: 

^'  The  temperance  crusade  is  no  longer  the  sen- 
sation of  the  day  in  the  newspapers,  but  it  con- 
tinues to  appear  a  matter  of  absorbing  importance 
to  the  women  engaged  in  it,  and  of  practical  in- 

272  THE    BIOGRAPHY   OF   1)10   LEWIS. 

terest  to  the  men  wliose  business  it  so  materially 
affects.  There  is  no  evidence  that  the  women  are 
weary  in  their  well-doing.  The  number  of  saloons 
closed  has  increased  from  day  to  day  until  it  noAv 
exceeds  a  thousand,  and  we  look  m  vain  for  an 
instance  in  which  the  women  after  fairly  begin- 
ning battle  have  fled  the  field.  Their  faith  is  of 
the  kind  that  is  said  to  remove  mountains.  It 
hesitates  not  to  attack  the  enemy,  whether  he  be 
strongly  intrenched  in  three  thousand  grog-shops, 
as  in  Cincinnati,  or  supported  by  an  angry  rabble, 
as  in  Cleveland.  An  array  of  superior  numbers 
in  opposition  serves  only  to  call  for  more  thorough 
organization  and  greater  perseverance  on  the  part 
of  the  crusaders.  Persecution  arouses  the  spirit 
of  martyrdom,  and  elicits  sympathy  for  the  perse- 
cuted from  unexpected  quarters.  A  single  vic- 
tory encourages  a  praying  band  to  weeks  of  more 
earnest  and  devoted  prayer  and  labor.  But  a 
speedy  victory  does  not  seem  necessary  to  keep 
the  fire  of  faith  aglow.  W  eeks  may  pass  without 
a  surrender,  yet  the  women  keep  on  with  a  pa- 
tience which  enlists  the  sympathy  of  the  most 
careless  spectator,  and  assures  the  harassed  liquor- 
dealer  that  though  the  day  of  his  capitulation 
may  be  distant,  it  must  inevitably  come. 

"  Tliere  is  one  weak  point,  however,  in  the  line 
of  advance.  It  is  more  and  more  apparent  that 
this  mode  of  warfare  cannot  be  successful  in  large 

5^HE   BtoaHAPHY  OF   DlO   LEWIS.  27S 

cities  without  modifications  not  yet  devised.  Un- 
til then  the  reformers  must  be  satisfied  with  the 
creation  of  a  healthier  public  sentiment  on  the 
subject  which  weighs  so  heavily  on  their  minds." 

In  Brooklyn,  IST.  Y.,  February,  1874,  renewed 
zeal  was  kindled  in  an  old  temperance  society, 
and  the  ladies,  aided  by  some  of  the  clergy, 
pressed  the  work  with  so  much  energy  that  be- 
fore the  end  of  March  Dr.  King  said :  ''  We  have 
closed  three  hundred  saloons  and  have  induced 
thirty  thousand  persons  to  sign  the  pledge." 

In  one  year  twenty -five  hundred  saloon  visits 
were  made,  and  meetings  were  held  weekly  at 
the  jail,  the  inebriate  asylum,  the  naval  chapel, 
the  penitentiary,  and  at  Fort  Hamilton. 

The  interest  felt  was  manifested  by  the  eager- 
ness of  the  people  to  hear  the  subject  discussed. 
The  press  said  of  one  meeting: 

a  There  has  been  no  such  assemblage  inside  of 
Plymouth  church  since  the  days  of  E.  P.  Ham- 
mond as  there  was  on  Sunday  to  listen  to  Dio 
Lewis  on  temperance. 

"  The  lecturer  began  on  the  hackneyed  part  of 
his  subject,  but  he  threw  into  it  a  wonderful 
power  of  illustration." 

A  notable  result  of  the  crusade  effort  by  women 

in  Brooklyn  was  the  conversion,  in  April,  1874, 

of  Capt.  Oliver  Cotter,  who  kept  four  saloons 

in  Brooklyn  and  one  in  JSTew  York.     He  was  the 


secretary  of  the  Kings  County  Liquor  Dealers'  So- 
ciety, twenty-five  hundred  strong,  with  ten  thou- 
sand dollars  in  the  treasury,  and  carried  great  influ- 
ence. He  said  afterward:  "Ten  Christian  w^omen 
marched,  two  and  two,  into  my  saloon,  where  the 
liquor-dealer  was  drinking  with  his  customers. 
The  w^hole  of  us  were  soundly  converted.  Ten 
visitors  came  and  ten  inebriates  were  reclaimed." 

Captain  Cotter  abandoned  his  profitable  busi- 
ness, destroyed  his  liquors,  valued  at  several  thou- 
sands of  dollars,  and  gave  himself  to  the  work  of 
combatting  the  liquor  business,  at  cost  of  persecu- 
tion from  friends  and  foes,  and  entire  loss  of  prop- 

The  liquor-dealers  offered  to  restore  to  him  his 
house,  which  cost  nine  thousand  dollars,  if  he 
w^ould  resume  the  business  again.  Instead  he  ac- 
ce]3ted  humble  employment  for  a  livelihood,  and 
organized  reform  leagues  by  his  own  methods  of 
work  in  many  States.  His  experience  gave  him 
especial  power  of  achievement. 

Says  the  Christian  Union  of  July  24th,  1874 : 
'     "  Captain  Cotter  has  reduced  the  liquor  shops 
of  Brooklyn  one-third  by  his  vigorous  campaign." 

Later  Captain  Cotter  wrote : 

"  In  1874  there  were  in  Brooklyn  three  thousand 
one  hundred  and  ten  saloons;  now  w^e  have  less 
than  fifteen  hundred." 

The  arrests  for  drunkenness  in  1875  were  six 

THE  :biography  of  dio  lewis.  ^75 

thousand  eight  hundred  and  ten  less  than  during 
the  year  1874. 

Dr.  Lewis  visited  Philadelphia  in  March,  1874, 
and  "  did  yeoman's  service."  In  March  and  April 
saloons  were  visited  and  hundreds  of  public  meet- 
ings were  held,  including  Sunday  mass-meetings 
at  Wood's  Museum,  which  was  crowded  to  its  ut- 
most capacity  and  hundreds  were  unable  to  gain 
admittance.  The  proprietor  had  received  several 
notices  that  there  would  be  a  mob,  and  that  the 
museum  would  be  burned  down  if  he  attempted 
to  hold  such  a  meeting.  He  was  a  staunch  temper- 
ance man  and  determined  that  the  meeting  should 
be  held  at  any  hazard,  but  there  was  no  mob  and 
no  disturbance.  After  ten  days  it  was  reported 
at  a  general  meeting  that  one  hundred  and  twelve 
meetings  had  been  held,  twenty -four  thousand 
eight  hundred  and  seventy  names  enrolled  on  the 
pledge-books,  of  whom  one  thousand  six  hundred 
and  thirteen  had  been  drunkards,  sixty-one  bar- 
keepers, and  a  number  saloon-keepers. 

Thirty-eight  church  members  who  owned  proj)- 
erty  which  was  rented  for  saloons  had  given  a 
pledge  not  to  rent  their  buildings  for  such  pur- 
poses in  future. 

The  depth  of  sympathy  and  earnestness  of  pur- 
pose of  the  women  found  exx)ression  in  the  fitting 
up  of  comfortable  lodging-houses  for  fifty  men, 
with  a  well-lighted  reading-room,  at  a  small  charge, 

276  THE   BIOGiiAPttY  OF   BlO   LEWIS. 

and  in  tlie  establishment  of  a  temporary  home  f  oi* 
reformed  men  who  were  homeless  and  without 
work.  This  was  soon  hlled  and  a  larger  building 
was  secured,  and  still  another  was  started  in  an- 
other part  of  the  city. 

A  home  for  old  women  was  oi^ened  in  West 
Philadelphia  by  one  of  the  leaders  in  the  w^ork. 

The  National  Republican  of  Washington,  D.C., 
March  24th,  1874,  said: 

"The  prince  of  the  crusade  against  alcoholic 
drink  is  with  us  at  the  National  Caj)ital.  He 
came  alone  and  unheralded,  unostentatiously  and 
unannounced.  He  appeared  unexpectedly  on 
Sunday,  and  joined  in  the  temperance  devotions 
of  the  Christian  workers  at  Lincoln  Hall.  .  .  . 

"  This  Dio  Lewis  is  a  most  singular  man  in  man- 
ner and  sx)eech.  He  is  kind,  gentle,  confident. 
There  is  no  bluster,  bravado,  swagger,  or  impor- 
tance about  him.  He  does  not  apjDear  like  a  Phar- 
isee, a  Sadducee^  or  a  magician.  He  looks  and 
acts  like  other  people,  and  seems  to  be  a  judge  of 
human  nature.  He  is  as  cool  as  an  iceberg,  as  gentle 
as  a  lamb,  and  seems  to  be  sustained  by  an  im- 
pregna]:)le  faith  in  the  efficacy  of  women's  prayers 
for  the  success  of  the  cause  in  which  he  is  labor- 
ing. His  faith  is  sublime.  He  says  he  has  waited 
for  this  many  years,  and  now  he  simply  knows 
that  the  time  has  come.  .  .  . 

"  It  is  not  easy  to  calculate  the  influence  of  such 


a  person  and  such  a  si^irit  in  Washington.  But 
there  seems  to  be  a  magnetism  about  him  to  which 
all  the  people  in  other  places  which  he  has  visited 
have  succumbed." 

A  meeting  to  take  action  in  regard  to  temper- 
ance work  was  attended  by  twenty-six  of  the  city 
pastors.  The  Hon.  M.  D.  Leggett,  Commissioner 
of  Patents,  addressed  the  meeting.  He  said  that 
he  came  from  Zanesville,  a  town  in  Ohio  of  twenty 
thousand  inhabitants.  Last  Christmas  there  were 
thirteen  tippling-shops  in  that  town.  To-night 
there  was  not  one.  This  great  work  was  accom- 
plished by  the  ladies  in  two  weeks.  The  temper- 
ance men  had  not  done  as  much  in  two  months, 

A  stranger  in  the  audience  said  that  he  had  re- 
cently come  from  Iowa  and  had  passed  through 
Northern  Ohio.  The  whole  West  was  lighted  up 
with  intense  interest  on  this  subject.  He  had 
never  witnessed  such  enthusiasm.  Every  man  and 
woman  seemed  to  be  praying  and  singing.  In  the 
town  of  Grennell,  Iowa,  no  liquor  was  drunk. 

A  public  demonstration  long  to  be  remembered 
followed  on  March  23d,  at  the  Foundry  church, 
the  largest  in  Washington.  Long  before  the  ap- 
pointed hour  both  auditorium  and  galleries  were 
crowded  to  repletion. 

The  women  organized  for  saloon  and  other  work 
with  beneficial  results, 



The  tidings  of  the  work  of  the  crusade  in  the 
West  had  stimulated  many  of  the  clergy  of  Wor- 
cester, Mass.,  to  the  preaching  of  sermons  on  the 
great  revival,  and  led  the  religious  women,  es- 
pecially those  of  the  order  of  Friends,  to  call 
meetings  and  to  form  an  organization  for  prose- 
cuting, as  might  seem  best,  the  work  against  the 

In  correspondence  with  Dr.  Cheever  Dr.  Lewis 
wrote  the  following  letter: 

"  Delaware,  Ohio,  February  23d,  1874. 

"  To  THE  Rev.  Heney  T.  Cheever,  Woecester, 
"Dear  Sir: — The  world  has  seen  nothing  like 
this  woman's  temperance  movement.  Religious 
revivals  are  often  characterized  by  wild  extrava- 
gances. These  saloon  meetings  are  marked  by 
all  the  quiet  dignity  and  deep  solemnity  of  the 
best  family  devotions.  Everywhere  weeping  be- 
holders are  amazed.  Thousands  unaccustomed  to 
religious  thought  exclaim, '  This  is  of  God ! '  It  is 
sweeping  over  the  country  like  a  prairie  lire,    The 


wholesale  dealers  of  Cincinnati  liave  already- 
suffered  immensely.  More  has  been  accomplished 
within  the  last  ten  days  than  during  the  previous 
fifty.  The  hour  has  struck.  My  heart  beats  fast 
fifty  times  a  day.  I  thank  God  that  I  have  lived 
to  see  this  uprising  of  my  countrywomen.  The 
women  of  Ohio  send  greeting  to  their  sisters  of 
l^ew  England  and  challenge  them  to  the  race  set 
before  them,  looking  ever  to  the  Captain  of  our 

"  In  four  days  I  turn  my  face  eastward.  May 
Grod  heli3  us  to  be  wise,  patient  and  determined, 
while  we  inaugurate  the  work  in  New  England. 
Now  I  am  satisfied  that  Boston  can  cast  off  that 
incubus  in  less  than  two  months,  and  Worcester 
in  thirty  days.  Yours  ever, 

^'Dio  Lewis." 

On  March  2d,  1874,  an  attempt  was  made  by  Dr. 
Lewis  to  inaugurate  the  movement  for  temper- 
ance in  Worcester,  Mass. 

A  large  meeting  was  held,  with  clergy  of  all  de- 
nominations on  the  platform.  The  meeting  was 
at  first  cool,  but  by  half-past  ten  o'clock  got 
warmed  up  to  Dr.  Lewis  and  his  methods. 

March  3d,  ten  o'clock  a.m. — A  woman's  prayer- 
meeting  was  held.  One  lady  asked  Dr.  Lewis  if 
he  thought  women  had  any  right  to  go  into  the 


Br.  Lewis  said:  "I  think  if  women  liave  not  a 
right  to  go  to  the  ballot-box,  they  at  least  have  a 
right  to  go  to  the  place  of  their  woes  and  plead  in 
the  name  of  God. 

"  In  Ohio  about  half  the  dealers  were  themselves 
converted.  At  any  rate  the  moral  atmosphere  be- 
came too  warm  for  them.  In  many  places  the 
Roman  Catholics  join  wdth  us,  and  I  say  to  these 
Protestant  friends,  if  you  cannot  put  your  arms 
around  a  Roman  Catholic  and  say  '  my  brother,' 
you  will  not  succeed." 

The  only  applause  which  broke  the  quiet  of  the 
meeting  greeted  this  remark. 

The  ladies  organized  under  the  leadership  of 
Mrs.  Susan  Gilford,  an  honored  member  of  the 
Society  of  Friends. 

A  plan  of  work,  as  follows,  was  suggested  by 
Dr.  Lewis: 

"Appoint  two  committees  of  live  persons  each; 
these  five  to  go  to-day,  not  making  any  noise,  but 
in  the  spirit  of  love,  asking  the  rum-sellers  if  they 
may  talk  wdth  them.  They  will  all  say  '  come  in.' 
Ask  each  to  sign  the  pledge.  If  any  one  does  not 
sign  it,  go  again  to-morrow  and  ask  him  again.  If 
he  does  not  sign  it,  then  pray.  There  will  be  no 
noise  and  no  disturbance,  and  there  will  be  noth- 
ing unwomanly ;  if  the  women  were  in  heaven  they 
could  not  be  more  womanly.  In  two  weeks  the 
result  will  astonish  you.     Men  cannot  put  upon 

THE    BIOGRAPHY   OF    DIO    LEWIS.  281 

women  a  greater  insult  than  to  advise  tliem  con- 
cerning propriety.  If  women  have  one  esj^ecial 
sense  it  is  tliat  of  propriety." 

Both  the  ladies  and  the  clergy  had  some  reluc- 
tance about  the  methods  which  had  prevailed  in 
the  West.  Dr.  Lewis  urged  the  ladies  to  form 
their  own  plans. 

After  two  days'  sessions  a  modified  plan  was 
adopted.  It  embraced  prayer  and  appeal  to  own- 
ers of  buildings  to  sign  a  pledge  not  to  rent  to 
liquor-dealers,  also  the  visiting  of  dealers  at  their 
homes,  the  movement  to  be  private  and  no  street 
work  to  be  done. 

By  March  5th  the  women  reported  themselves  as 
'•'  working  with  muffled  oars,"  "  with  closed  doors," 
*'  in  secret,"  and  "  few  in  favor  of  immediate  ad- 
vance." By  the  middle  of  the  month  the  movement 
had  api^arently  died  out.  On  the  morning  of  the 
19th,  however,  to  the  general  surprise  four  bands 
of  women,  of  from  ten  to  sixteen  each,  and  rep- 
resenting all  the  churches  but  two  or  three,  be- 
gan the  work  after  the  manner  of  their  Ohio  sis- 
ters. They  visited  ten  saloons  in  the  morning, 
and  in  only  two  was  admission  refused. 

With  few  exceptions  they  were  received  with 
courtesy,  but  appeals  to  saloon-keepers  and  to 
owners  of  liquor  shops  to  pledge  themselves  were 
often  futile.  Worst  of  all  was  the  indifference  of 
men  of  prominence  and  even  of  church  members, 


The  Watchman  and  Reflector  of  March  26th, 
1874,  furnishes  the  following  retrospective  view 
of  the  movement  in  Worcester: 

"  A  few  weeks  ago  the  most  sanguine  friends  of 
temperance  would  hardly  have  anticipated  the 
present  moral  uprising  against  the  rum  traffic  in 
this  staid,  respectable,  and  conservative  city.  Dio 
Lewis  did  much  good  by  his  visit,  although  but 
few  were  prepared  to  adopt  his  measures.  The 
churches  and  ministers  looked  a  little  askance  on 
what  seemed  so  radical  an  innovation  upon  New 
England  customs  and  tastes.  But,  while  not  in- 
dorsing the  so-called  Ohio  movement  in  all  its 
features,  a  majority  of  the  clergy  of  all  denomina- 
tions, Catholic  as  well  as  Protestant,  agreed  in 
the  desirableness  of  taking  advantage  of  the  pop- 
ular enthusiasm  to  attempt  to  do  something  in 
the  much -needed  work  of  temperance  reform  in 
the  city. 

"  The  conditions  seemed  to  render  Worcester  a 
peculiarly  unfavorable  place  in  which  to  make  the 
experiment.  But  it  has  been  tried  and,  in  a  meas- 
ure, has  succeeded.  Not  many  dram-shops  have 
yet  been  closed,  and  not  many  pledges  have  been 
obtained  from  dealers.  But  public  sentiment  has 
been  aroused,  the  consciences  of  many  have  been 
quickened,  and  many  who  have  hitherto  been  apa- 
thetic have  been  incited  to  activity  in  the  cause. 
Most  of  the  ministers  of  the  city  have  preached 


on  the  subject,  nearly  every  prayer -meeting  takes 
this  direction,  and  mass-meetings  have  been  held 
in  different  churches  night  after  night  increasing 
steadily  in  attendance  and  enthusiasm.  A  busi- 
ness men's  prayer-meeting  is  also  held  every  morn- 
ing, and  the  women  have  been  meeting  for  consul- 
tation and  prayer  for  three  weeks.  A  great  deal 
of  work  has  already  been  accomx)lished. 

"  But  comparatively  few  objectionable  features 
have  as  yet  presented  themselves.  The  work  has 
gone  on,  for  the  most  part,  steadily  and  noise- 
lessly, and  with  unlooked-for  unanimity.  The 
women  certainly  deserve  great  credit  for  their 
discretion,  persistence  and  patience.  They  have 
developed  a  moral  power  among  themselves  w^hich 
will  long  be  felt  in  widely-separated  circles  of 

"  The  religious  element  is  kept  ]3rominent  in  the 
work.  It  is  more  than  a  temperance  reformation ; 
it  is  a  moral  and  religious  awakening,  such  as  the 
city  has  perhaps  never  seen. 

"With  all  this  for  encouragement  there  is  a 
darker  side.  Many  of  the  dealers,  while  receiving 
the  women  with  all  courtesy,  seem  utterly  oblivi- 
ous to  the  moral  depth  of  the  work  and  the  earn- 
estness of  those  who  are  engaged  in  it.  But  worse 
than  this  is  tlie  apathy,  if  uot  open  opposition,  of 
many  leading  citizens  and  even  church  members. 
But  the  cause  is  God's  and  must  go  on," 

284:  THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF    DIO    LEWIS. 

Dr.  Lewis  believed  that  efforts  would  be  futile 
if  not  spontaneous,  and  in  New  England  he  found 
much  less  of  this  spontaneity  than  he  did  in  the 

This  was  illustrated  in  the  movement  under- 
taken in  Worcester,  and  is  indicated  in  a  pub- 
lished report  of  an  interview: 

.  .  .  Reporter—"  What,  then,  is  your  opinion  of 
the  movement  in  that  city? " 

Dio  Lewis — "  I  believe  it  in  a  quiet  but  healthy 
and  vital  condition.  I  think,  however,  precious 
time  has  been  lost." 

Reporter—"  In  what  way? " 

Dio  Lewis — "  If,  immediately  after  the  meeting 
in  Mechanics'  Hall,  four  weeks  ago,  forty  commit- 
tees of  five  women  each  had  quietly  moved  on  the 
enemy,  as  soon  as  in  their  judgment  it  was  wise, 
and  had  visited  the  more  conspicuous  X3laces  in 
companies  of  fifty  to  one  hundred,  the  work  would 
have  been  finished  before  now.  The  number  of 
volunteers  'for  the  service  would  have  surprised 

Reporter — "  What  do  you  think  of  the  recep- 
tion of  the  plan  in  Worcester?  " 

Dio  Lewis — "  The  meeting  the  morning  after  the 
great  gathering  in  Mechanics'  Hall,  four  weeks  ago, 
was,  I  think,  one  of  the  most  solemn  and  earnest  I 
ever  attended.  Nothing  can  be  clearer  to  my  mind 
than  that  there  were  three  hundred  women  in  that 

THE  BIOGRAPHY   OF   t)IO   Li^WIS.  285 

audience  ready,  tlien,  to  begin  the  work  in  some 
quiet  and  determined  manner.  But  many  earnest, 
Christian  women  had  the  matter  in  charge.  Tliey 
decided  to  pursue  a  somewhat  different  course." 

Rei^orter — "  And  do  you  think  they  have  acted 
in  the  wisest  manner? " 

Dio  Lewis — "  It  does  not  become  me  to  criticise 
them.  They  tell  me  that  these  weeks  have  been 
devoted  to  reconciling  differences  between  the 
churches,  and  to  securing  the  co-operation  of 
clergymen.  All  these  and  many  other  good  results 
have  been  secured,  elsewhere,  by  a  single  day's 
prayer  and  singing  by  companies  of  women,  and  I 
have  no  doubt  would  have  followed  in  the  wake 
of  the  first  decided  movement  in  Worcester." 

RejDorter — ''  Can  you  say  the  results  have  been 
as  satisfactory  as  you  anticipated? " 

Dio  Lewis — "  If  I  answer  your  question  I  must 
say  that  I  have  been  sorely  disappointed  thus  far." 

Reporter — ''  In  what  respect? " 

Dio  Lewis — "  The  movement  in  Worcester  so 
deeply  interested  me  that  I  could  scarcely  sleep 
the  night  before  or  the  night  after  the  meeting. 
It  seemed  to  me  that  the  whole  movement  in  New 
England  would  hinge  upon  Worcester.  I  cannot 
tell  you  with  what  eager,  painful  anxiety  I 
watched  the  papers  for  news  of  progress  there." 

Reporter — ''Do  you  think  success  will  ulti- 
mately crown  the  movement? " 

286  THE   BlOGHAPilY   OF   DtO   LEWIS. 

Dio  Lewis — "  Yes,  I  believe  it  will,  tliougli  tlie 
steps  are  being  taken  with  such  extreme  caution 
that  I  have  no  concej^tion  of  the  time  required  to 
obtain  the  victory." 

Reporter — "  Wherein  do  you  think  weak  points 
have  been  displayed?" 

Dio  Lewis — "The  part  of  the  harness  with 
which  the  hold-back  is  done  is  a  very  important 
part,  but  it  should  not  be  used  when  going  up 

Reporter — "  Do  you  think  that  praying  in  the 
saloons  is  the  best  method  that  can  be  adopted  in 
the  work?" 

Dio  Lewis — "  The  natural  order  is,  first,  to  spend 
a  few  days  in  visiting  the  property-holders  and 
dram-sellers  in  companies  of  two  or  three,  at  their 
homes,  and  pleading  with  them.  Secondly,  visit- 
ing the  saloons  in  companies  of  from  five  to  ten, 
for  pleading  and  silent  prayer.  Lastly,  visiting 
dram-shops  for  singing,  vocal  jjrayer  and  plead- 
ing, in  large  companies." 

Reporter — "Then  you  place  the  visiting  of 
dram-shops  last  on  the  list? " 

Dio  Lewis — "  That  method  will  not  be  adopted 
where  the  others  can  be  made  to  succeed.  I  need 
hardly  say  that  all  this  work  is  to  be  preceded 
and  accompanied  by  secret  and  vestry  prayer." 

Reporter — "How  long,  in  your  opinion,  Dr. 
Lewis,  will  this  prayer  crusade  continue? " 


Dio  Lewis — ''  I  trust  tliat  it  will  continue  until 
the  dram-sliops  are  closed." 

The  interest  in  the  crusade  of  the  West  led 
to  the  formation  of  twelve  organizations  in  Massa- 
chusetts, during  March  and  April  of  1874  and 
the  succeeding  October. 

In  October  of  this  year  a  convention  was  held 
in  Worcester,  to  which  fifty-four  towns  sent  three 
hundred  delegates,  and  here  was  formed  the 
"  Woman's  Christian  TemjDerance  Union,  of  Massa- 

288  THE   SlOGtlAPHY   Oi'  DlO  LJEWlS. 


On  Dr.  Lewis's  return  to  Boston  lie  accepted  an 
invitation  from  the  Young  Men's  Christian  Asso- 
ciation to  speak  on  temperance  in  Music  Hall. 
"  Such  an  audience  gathered  as  perhaps  never  be- 
fore squeezed  within  its  portals.  The  audience 
was  not  only  interested,  but  inquisitive.  It  asked 
questions  so  sharply,  and  in  such  antagonistic 
spirit,  that  there  was  more  than  once  promise  of 
a  serious  disturbance." 

The  Boston  Globe  of  March  30th,  1874,  said: 

"  Many  a  public  speaker  would  have  been  fright- 
ened at  sight  of  the  audience  which  assembled 
at  Music  Hall  last  night.  There  were  the  staunch 
thick-and-thin  prohibitionists,  the  anti-x)rohibition 
temperance  men,  men  who  favored  temperance 
but  did  not  know  exactly  how  to  x)romote  it,  and, 
most  numerous  of  all,  those  w^ho  were  present  to 
see  the  fun  which  they  anticipated. 

''  In  introducing  the  speaker  the  chairman  re- 
marked that  Dr.  Lewis's  services  were  given  with- 
out pay.  This  led  Dr.  Lewis  to  say  that  the  chair- 
man had  said  this  without  his  desire,  but  as  the 


newspapers  were  still  busy  with  tlie  story  that  lie 
received  fifty  dollars  per  day  for  his  services,  he 
would  do  what  he  had  often  refused  to  do,  that 
was  make  a  personal  explanation.  Here,  at  his 
home,  he  thought  that  he  owed  it  to  the  public 
and  himself.  He  then  stated  that  during  the  last 
three  months  he  had  worked  harder  than  ever  be- 
fore in  his  life;  that  in  return  for  his  services  he 
had  received  8465,  while  the  exjjenses  of  himself 
and  secretary  had  been  about  $900. 

"  He  called  on  the  audience  to  sing  '  Nearer,  my 
God,  to  Thee '  and  then,  after  sketching  rapidly 
the  work  of  the  women  in  the  West  in  suppress- 
ing the  sale  of  liquor,  he  invited  questions.  Be- 
ing asked  the  proportion  of  the  towns  in  which 
the  movement  had  proved  a  failure,  Dr.  Lewis  said 
that  it  has  not  failed  in  a  single  town.  By  that 
he  did  not  mean  that  all  places  where  it  had  been 
tried  are  free  from  liquor-selling,  but  that  it  has 
not  been  given  up  in  any  case.  He  believed  that 
seventeen  thousand  and  seventy-five  dram-shops 
had  been  closed  in  Ohio,  and  he  challenged  any 
one  to  find  an  instance  in  which  a  dealer  had 
broken  his  pledge  given  to  the  women. 

"  He  said  that  prayer  undoubtedly  did  the  work, 
but  success  depended  very  much  upon  the  charac- 
ter of  the  prayer  and  of  those  making  it. 

"  Some  desultory  questions  were  ruled  out  by 
the  speaker. 

^90  THE   BIOGllAPHY   OF   DIO   LEWIS. 

"  At  length  a  prominent  proliibitionist  sliai-ply 
asked : 

" '  Are  you  opposed  to  legal  prohibition? ' 

"Dr.  Lewis  said  that  he  was  associated  with 
women  in  his  work  and  depended  on  the  exercise 
of  love  and  patience.  Women  have  nothing  to  do 
with  making  the  laws,  and  he  therefore  declined 
to  mix  himself  up  in  a  question  concerninp*  which 
there  is  so  much  difference  of  opinion. 

"  The  question  was  still  urged,  and  Dr.  Lewis 
said  he  would  not  enter  upon  this  phase  of  the 
subject  now  unless  compelled,  and  then  he  would 
say  the  prohibitory  law  Avas  a  blunder.  It  could 
not  be  enforced  in  Boston  because  temperance 
men  did  not  believe  that  selling  rum  was  a  crime, 
as  stealing  a  horse  was.  Men  do  not  look  upon 
Harvey  D.  Parker  as  they  do  uj)on  a  horse-thief. 

''  Dr.  Lewis  was  proceeding  when  the  chairman, 
Mr.  E.  H.  Sheafe,  who  evidently  had  been  ill  at 
ease  for  some  time,  came  to  the  front  of  the 
platform.  He  said  he  was  a  prohibitionist  and 
knew  that  prohibitionists  looked  upon  the  selling 
of  a  glass  of  beer  or  of  cider  as  being  worse  than 
the  stealing  of  a  horse.  He  stated  that  he  did  not 
wish  to  be  held  responsible  for  any  sentiments 
which  might  be  expressed  by  the  lecturer. 

"This  speech  was  received  with  hisses,  ap- 
plause, laughter,  etc.,  according  to  the  inclination 
of  the  persons  who  composed  the  audience,  and 

^HE   BIOGRAPHY   OF    BIO   LEWIS.-  ^9i 

many  sliowed  that  tliey  were  elated  over  the  pros- 
pect of  '  fun.' 

''  Dr.  Lewis  said  that  he  did  not  want  any  one 
to  be  responsible  for  him  or  for  Avhat  he  said.  If 
the  prohibitory  people  were  vexed  with  what  he 
had  said,  it  was  not  his  fault,  for  they  had  forced 
him  into  a  statement.  He  was  about  to  resume 
where  he  had  left  off  when  interrupted  by  Mr. 
Sheafe,  but,  turning  to  that  gentleman,  he  asked 
him  if  he  were  willing  that  he  should  go  on. 

"  Mr.  Sheafe  hesitated  a  moment,  and  then  said 
that  if  Dr.  Lewis  wished  to  make  an  argument 
against  iDrohibition  it  was  no  more  than  right  that 
he  should  be  answered. 

"  After  some  confusion.  Dr.  Lewis,  who  had  pre- 
served his  serenity  meanwhile,  continued  his  re- 
marks. The  remainder  of  his  lecture  consisted  of 
a  statement  of  the  potency  of  love." 

The  lecture  in  the  temperance  course  on  the  suc- 
ceeding Sunday  was  by  Rev.  Dr.  Lorimer,  who 
spoke  with  thrilling  effect  on  "The  Woman's 
Crusade."    He  said: 

"  Since  Christendom  was  aroused  to  rescue  an 
empty  sepulchre,  and  to  lift  the  oppression  of  the 
Mussulmans  from  Judea,  no  grander  crusade  has 
taken  place  than  this  of  the  wives,  mothers,  and 
sisters  who  have  reared  again  the  sign  of  the  cross 
and  are  moving  forward  to  conquer. 

"  It  was  not  to  rescue  an  empty  grave,  but  be- 

292  THE    BIOGEAPHY   OF   1)10   LEWIS. 

cause  there  were  millions  of  graves  crowded  full 
of  their  husbands,  brothers,  and  sons ;  not  to  lift  a 
curse  from  Judea,  but  to  lift  a  curse  from  hu- 

"  The  Western  praying  bands  are  the  spontane- 
ous expression  of  a  thought.  If  the  women  of 
Boston  want  to  pursue  the  same  course,  well  and 
good.  They  should  not  pump  up  enthusiasm ;  if 
it  comes  spontaneously  it  will  be  a  grand  power, 
but  if  the  movement  is  attempted  as  an  imitation 
of  others  it  will  simx)ly  be  an  absurdity. 

^'  The  power  of  w^oman  is  to  influence  the  civili- 
zation of  the  future  as  it  has  not  influenced  that 
of  the  x)ast.  Woman's  right  is  only  limited  by 
her  capacity,  the  same  as  man's.  Her  right  in 
this  cause  is  founded  upon  her  capacity  and  her 
wrongs.  May  it  be  hers  to  bear  on  to  victory  the 
white  flag  of  purity  on  which  appears  the  red 
cross  of  the  crusade." 

April  12th,  1874: 

"Dr.  Dio  Lewis  made  more  of  a  sensation  to- 
day, when  one  was  least  expected,  than  he  has 
created  in  Boston  since  his  debut  as  the  leader  of 
the  crusade  against  intemperance.  The  Rev.  A. 
W.  Haskell,  who  supplied  the  pulpit  of  the  Music 
Hall  society,  spoke  rather  slightingly  of  Dr. 
Lewis,  saying  that  the  people  did  not  believe  in 
his  reliance  in  prayer.  Nor  could  they  believe 
that  he  w^ould  ever  have  embarked  in  this  move- 


ment,  wMdi  was  purely  accidental,  had  it  not 
been  for  tlie  remuneration.  The  woman's  crusade 
he  characterized  as  an  entire  misconception  of 

"  Dr.  Lewis,  who  was  in  the  house,  at  the  close 
of  the  address  rose  in  his  seat  and  asked  to  be 
heard.  One  of  the  committee  told  him  that  he 
could  not  be  allowed  to  speak.  The  benediction 
was  then  x3ronounced,  and  amid  loud  cries  of  '  take 
the  x^latf orm ! '  Dr.  Lewis  stepx^ed  upon  one  of  the 
seats  and  was  ]3roceeding  to  speak  amid  great 
confusion,  when  the  committeeman  again  called 
on  him  to  stop.  Hisses  and  continuous  cries  of 
'  take  the  platform ! '  '  speak,  doctor ! '  The  com- 
mitteeman called  out,  '  If  you  will  hire  the  hall, 
Mr.  Lewis,  we  shall  be  very  glad  to  hear  you.' 
Colonel  Ward  well  said:  'Brothers  and  sisters, 
this  isn't  the  sj)irit  of  the  Master.'  The  organ  here 
drowned  his  voice,  and  the  meeting  disx)ersed." 

In  a  spirit  quite  unlike  that  which  greeted  Dr. 
Lewis  from  some  of  these  so-called  temperance 
workers  in  Boston,  many  meetings  were  held  in 
the  vicinity  of  the  city,  in  which  able  ministers 
and  laymen  and  laywomen  indorsed  the  West- 
ern work. 

At  Hyde  Park,  Mass.,  a  discussion  was  arranged 
between  Dr.  Lewis  and  the  distinguished  advocate 
of  prohibition.  Dr.  A.  A.  Miner,  of  Boston.  Here 
Dr.  Lewis  felt  free  to  express  his  opinion  on  this 


topic,  which,  he  had  considered  untimely  at  the 
meeting  in  Music  Hall. 

Says  a  newspaper  report: — In  the  town  hall  in 
Hyde  Park,  Mass.,  a  discussion  was  held  between 
Dr.  Lewis  and  Rev.  Dr.  A.  A.  Miner,  the  cham- 
pion of  prohibition  in  Massachusetts. 

Many  came  from  Boston  to  hear.  The  speak- 
ers were  limited  to  twelve  minutes  each. 

Dr.  Lewis  opened  the  debate,  which  was  main- 
tained most  gallantly  throughout  by  both  the  gen- 
tlemen. The  opening  argument  laid  the  founda- 
tion for  the  evening's  debate.  He  gave  some  facts 
relating  to  his  early  life,  then  mentioned  an  inci- 
dent that  occurred  in  Lincoln  Hall,  Washington,  a 
few  evenings  since,  in  order  to  show  how  he  re- 
garded moral  suasion  versus  prohibition.  "At  the 
third  meeting,"  said  he,  "  there  were  about  twenty 
Congressmen  present,  among  them  a  Judge  Law- 
rence, of  Ohio.  The  judge  was  asked  to  come  on 
the  platform  and  defend  the  prohibitory  law.  He 
sprang  to  his  feet,  and  in  an  instant  declared  from 
the  platform,  '  I  am  in  favor  of  prohibitory  law. 
If  a  man  comes  into  my  house  and  gives  my  son 
drink  until  his  body  goes  staggering  in  shame 
through  the  streets,  and  his  soul  goes  shrieking 
into  eternity,  in  delirium  tremens,  that  man  has 
committed  a  crime  a  thousand-fold  greater  than 
to  have  stolen  my  horse,  and  should  receive  a 
punishment  a  thousand  times  more  severe.'  I 
interrupted  him  with — 

THE    BIOGKAPHY   OF    DIO    LEWIS.  295 

"  If  you  say,  Judge  Lawrence,  tliat  the  loss  of 
your  son  under  sucli  circumstances  is  a  thousand- 
fold greater  calamity  or  misfortune  than  the  loss 
of  your  horse;  or  if  the  rum-seller  comes  into 
your  house,  seizes  your  son  and  binds  him  hand 
and  foot,  and  then  pours  the  poison  into  his 
mouth  until  all  these  dreadful  consequences  come 
to  pass,  then  I  agree  with  you  that  he  has  com- 
mitted a  crime  a  thousand-fold  greater  than  steal- 
ing a  horse,  and  should  receive  a  thousand-fold 
greater  punishment. 

"  But  if  your  son  is  compos  mentis — if  he  has  a 
free  mind,  with  a  right  to  think,  speak,  choose, 
and  act  for  himself  like  other  men,  and  he  goes 
to  the  rum-seller  and  asks  for  drink  knowing  just 
what  he  will  get,  and  the  liquor-dealer  under  such 
circumstances  sells  him  drink,  then  if  you  say 
that  the  liquor-dealer  has  committed  a  crime  at 
all  in  the  sense  that  stealing  a  horse  is  a  crime,  I 
do  not  agree  with  you ;  and  if  you  do  not  make  a 
distinction  between  vices  and  crimes,  the  former 
of  which  are  to  be  cured  by  moral  suasion,  and 
the  latter  to  be  treated  with  legal  suasion,  then 
you  cannot  understand  why  it  is  that  in  Boston, 
the  most  law-abiding  of  all  large  cities,  we  cannot 
enforce  the  prohibitory  law.  Boston  is  powerless." 

Dr.  Miner's  opinion  of  the  law  was  that  it  was 
a  piece  of  heaven  put  into  the  hand  of  man  to  use 
and  to  use  rightly,  and  if  men  who  formed  legis- 

296  THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF   DIO    LEWIS. 

latiires  had  lialf  the  desire  for  carrying  out  the 
grand  principles  contained  in  the  laws,  especially 
in  the  prohibitory  law  now  under  discussion,  that 
they  had  for  votes,  Boston  would  not  to-day  be 
called  i3owerless.  The  chief  of  police  needed  but 
the  word  from  those  in  authority,  and  his  six  hun- 
dred men  would  soon  show  whether  Boston  was 
strong  or  weak.  It  was  not  the  law  that  was  at 
fault.  The  law  was  grand.  It  was  the  men  to 
whom  we  confided  the  applying  of  the  laws. 
They  were  the  weakness  in  the  bones  of  the  com- 

Upon  rising  the  second  time  Dr.  Lewis  said: 
"  The  precious  jewel  of  life  is  personal  liberty.  A 
man  has  a  perfect  right,  so  far  as  Ms  fellow-men 
are  concerned,  to  drink,  eat,  chew,  smoke,  or  in- 
dulge in  any  score  of  vices  at  his  pleasure.  Until 
he  becomes  insane  or  interferes  with  his  neigh- 
bor, no  man  has  any  right  to  interfere  with  him. 
Trench  upon  this  sacred  right,  and  you  enter  the 
path  that  leads  to  all  tyranny.  It  was  to  be  free 
from  tyranny  that  our  fathers  fought." 

Dr.  Miner  defined  the  War  of  the  Revolution 
to  have  been  "  one  in  which  our  fathers  fought  for 
the  right  to  build  up  a  noble  Christian  govern- 

"  Tliey  fought  for  nothing  of  the  kind,"  said  Dr. 
Lewis.  "  They  fought  for  freedom  and  for  noth- 
ing else.    The  use  of  tobacco,  wearing  of  corsets, 


and  twenty  other  vices  are  sapping  the  life  from 
the  community,  breaking  down  strong  constitu- 
tions and  destroying  lives,  and  law  does  not  cure 
them.  No  man  of  common  sense  proj)oses  legisla- 
tion against  them.  Law  cannot  reach  them.  They 
must  be  left  now  and  ever  to  reason  and  persua- 

Dr.  Miner  wanted  to  know  if  his  opponent 
would  not  have  a  law  against  the  sale  of  tainted 
meats  and  adulterated  foods. 

Dr.  Lewis  replied  that  if  dealers  cheated  it  was 
within  the  province  of  law  to  punish,  but  if  the 
buyer  wanted  to  buy  adulterated  food  and  knew 
just  what  he  was  buying,  there  was  no  government 
on  the  planet  that  had  the  right  to  interfere. 

As  the  minutes  began  to  approach  the  hour 
w^hen  the  return  train  to  the  city  was  due,  the  ex- 
citement began  to  wax  warm.  Both  gentlemen 
were  standing  side  by  side  at  the  front  when  Dr. 
Lewis  asked  the  following  question: 

"  Do  you  think  you  have  a  right  to  say  to  the 
hundreds  of  men  and  women  in  this  hall  to-night 
that  they  shall  not  drink  what  they  please? " 

Dr.  Miner  quickly  replied : 

''  If  it  can  be  shown  that  the  habit  of  drink  leads 
to  enormous  crimes  and  destruction  of  all  the  best 
interests  of  society,  the  Legislature  has  a  right  to 
prohibit  the  sale  of  all  intoxicating  drinks." 

Dr,  Lewis  warmly  replied: 


"  Don't  you  see  that  you  have  entered  a  path 
that  logically  leads  to  the  control  of  every  man's 
religious  views? " 

"  I  accept  it,"  cried  Dr.  Miner,  "  I  accept  it.  If 
any  views  are  entertained  in  society  which,  in  the 
judgment  of  the  Legislature,  tend  to  produce  as 
much  harm  as  rum  does,  it  is  the  bounden  duty 
of  the  Legislature  to  prohibit  such  views." 

"  Intense  excitement  pervaded  the  audience. 

Dr.  Lewis  sprang  forward  with — 

"  Dr.  Miner,  I  challenge  yOu  to  put  that  state- 
ment on  record.  I  never  heard  an  opinion  which 
so  astonished  me.  Here  are  the  re^Dorters.  Put 
that  on  record." 

Dr.  Miner  cried  out  with  the  same  warmth : 

"  I  welcome  the  reporters — let  them  put  it  on 

Dr.  Lewis  (amid  cries  of  "go  on,"  "go  on "): 

"  It  will  amaze  everybody,  though  I  believe  it 
to  be  the  logical  outcome  of  the  prohibitory  law." 



Dr.  Lewis  lectured  at  this  period  on  the  ab- 
sorbing theme  in  the  principal  cities  of  Maine, 
Rhode  Island,  and  Eastern  jN'ew  York,  and  the 
women  organized  for  Avork  in  nearly  every  city 
which  he  visited,  but  the  method  which  he  favored 
never  had  the  hold  npon  the  'New  England  and 
Eastern  States  that  it  had  npon  the  Western 
States,  where  its  movement,  till  it  touched,  in 
Oregon  and  California,  the  Western  limit  of  the 
continent,  was  aptly  described  by  Miss  Frances 
E.  Willard  in  this  rare  pen  picture: 

"The  crusaders  came  with  the  suddenness  of 
the  power  of  Pentecost;  bringing  also,  like  it,  a 
baptism  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  and  thousands  felt 
the  movings  of  the  spirit. 

"  I  was  reared  on  a  Western  prairie,  and  often 
have  helped  to  kindle  the  great  fires  for  which  the 
West  used  to  be  so  famous.  A  match  and  a  wisp 
of  dry  grass  were  all  we  needed,  and  behold  the 
magnificent  spectacle  of  a  prairie  on  fire,  sweeping 
across  the  landscape  swift  as  a  thousand  untrained 
steeds  and  no  more  to  be  captured  than  a  hurri- 


cane!  Just  so  it  was  with  tlie  crusade.  .  .  . 
When  God  lets  loose  an  idea  upon  this  planet,  we 
vainly  set  limits  to  its  progress." 

Noting  the  diflference  Avhich  characterized  the 
work  in  the  two  sections  of  the  country,  Dr.  Lewis 

"  The  woman's  crusade  in  Ohio  astonished  the 
world.  IN'ow  the  people  Avonder  that  the  women's 
movement  in  New  England  should  accomplish  so 
little.  People  have  said  to  me,  '  The  way  doesn't 
seem  to  work  so  well  here.' 

"  The  Ohio  Avay  Avould  work  just  as  well  here  as 
it  did  in  Ohio.  The  secret  is  that  the  New  Eng- 
land way  is  not  at  all  like  the  Ohio  way.  It 
would  be  difficult  to  imagine  two  w-ays  more 
widely  different.  I  have  urged  here  and  there, 
again  and  again,  in  New  England,  the  employ- 
ment of  the  Ohio  tactics.  The  reply  has  generally 
been  that  the  means  ada^^ted  to  Ohio  are  not 
adapted  to  the  refined  tastes  of  New  England. 
This  is  an  entire  misapprehension  of  the  case. 

"  Let  me  illustrate.  I  have  recently  held  two 
mass  temperance  meetings  in  a  neighboring  city, 
and  explained  the  methods  which  were  so  trium- 
phantly successful  in  the  West.  After  the  second 
meeting,  in  an  interview  with  the  president  of  the 
Woman's  Prayer  League,  I  urged  immediate  ac- 
tion.    Her  reply  was : 

"  *  We  are  holding  weekly  prayer-meetings  and 


praying  God  to  close  the  dram-sliops  of  this  city. 
He  will  close  them  if  He  sees  fit.' 

^'  I  said,  Sni^pose  to-morrow  morning  you  rise, 
and,  gathering  your  family,  yon  ]3ray  '  Give  ns 
this  day  our  daily  bread.'  Rising  from  your  knees 
you  look  at  the  table  and  find  that  the  bread  has 
not  come. 

"  The  children  cry,  '  Mother,  I  am  hungry.' 

"  You  say,  '  Let  us  pray  again,'  and  you  repeat, 
with  still  more  fervor,  '  0  Lord,  give  us  this  day 
our  daily  bread.' 

"  Rising  from  your  knees  you  agaia  examine 
the  table,  and  still  it  is  bare.  No  one  denies  that 
God  could  give  you  the  bread  if  He  chose;  but 
you  may  go  on  repeating  the  j^rayer  until  you 
starve;  not  a  crumb  will  appear. 

''  The  women  of  Ohio  prayed  no  more  earnestly 
than  you  do,  but  they  worked  as  well  as  prayed, 
and  that  was  the  secret  of  their  wonderful  success. 
You  pray,  '  Give  us  this  day  our  daily  bread,'  and 
wait  for  the  bread  to  come.  The  women  in  Ohio  ut- 
tered the  same  prayer,  and  then  went  to  work  and 
made  the  bread.  That  is  the  difference  between 
the  woman's  temperance  movement  in  Ohio  and 
the  woman's  temperance  movement  in  New  Eng- 

"  That  the  women  of  Ohio  are  quite  as  refined  as 
those  of  New  England  needs  no  proof  or  illustra- 
tion with  those  who  are  familiar  with  society  in 

802  THE   BIOGRAPHY  Of    DiO   LEWIS. 

both  sections;  and  to  say  that  the  most  refined 
ladies  of  that  great  and  noble  State,  the  wives  of 
judges,  Congressmen,  clergymen,  the  wives  of  the 
richest  citizens,  ladies  who  stand  highest  in 
society,  were  the  leaders  in  the  woman's  move- 
ment in  Ohio,  is  to  repeat  what  is  already  familiar 
to  the  public. 

"  No ;  it  is  not  that  the  methods  employed  in 
Ohio  are  not  adapted  to  New  England ;  but  the 
explanation  is  this :  New  England  is  given  to  es- 
says, sj)eeches,  the  '  evolution  of  ideas ; '  while  the 
West  combines  with  thought,  action !  action !  ac- 
tion ! 

"  There  is  not  a  locality  in  the  country  where  the 
tactics  employed  by  the  Ohio  women  would  fail. 

"Again,  there  is  a  general  idea  in  New  England 
that  the  temperance  revolution  is  to  be  achieved 
through  public  meetings.  The  rum-seller  and  the 
drunkard  are  away  over  there,  a  mile  off.  The 
rum-seller  is  on  one  side  of  the  bar,  the  drunkard 
is  on  the  other.  The  evil  work  goes  on.  We  long 
to  put  a  stop  to  it;  it  is  the  aim  and  object  of 
the  temperance  movement.  We  gather  in  a 
church,  sing,  pray  and  preach  about  the  horrors 
of  intemperance,  and  the  beauties  of  temperance, 
and,  when  the  meeting  is  over,  and  w^e  are  walk- 
ing past  the  rum-shop,  we  hear  them  singing, '  We 
who  drink  are  jolly  good  fellows.' 

"  But  to  go  back  to  the  meeting.     The  good  man, 

THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF   DIO    LEWIS.  86^ 

in  his  prayer,  asks  God  to  bless  tlie  truths  which 
are  spoken,  to  send  them  home  to  the  hearts  of 
every  rum-seller  in  the  land,  etc. 

"  Riding  through  Kansas  recently,  I  saw,  here 
and  there,  prairie-chickens  Hying  in  the  distance. 
If  a  man  had  loaded  his  rifle,  put  the  breech 
against  his  breast,  and  pointing  it  upward  had 
shut  his  eyes  and  pulled,  no  matter  though  he 
were  starving,  his  prayers  that  God  would  direct 
the  shot  to  the  bird  would  probably  not  be  an- 
swered. If  he  would  have  his  prayer  answered 
he  must  get  up  close  to  the  game  and  take  good 
aim  at  the  bird's  heart.  And  if  at  the  temperance 
meeting  the  sjpeakers  fire  off  their  temperance  plat- 
itudes into  the  air,  no  matter  how  earnestly  they 
may  pray  God  to  direct  the  shot  so  as  to  hit  the 
rum-seller  a  mile  away,  it  will  probably  not  hit 
him.  If  they  would  have  their  prayer  answered, 
they  must  get  close  to  the  man  and  take  aim 
straight  at  his  heart. 

"Nothing  could  be  more  pitiful  than  the  pres- 
ent management  of  the  woman's  temperance  move- 
ment in  some  parts  of  'New  England.  I  have  in 
mind  a  small  city  which  has  three  hundred  and 
forty  known  grog-shops.  The  good  women  of 
that  city  have  organized  a  prayer  league,  and 
about  a  dozen  of  them  meet  once  a  week  to  pray 
God  to  close  the  dram-shops.  The  newspapers  of 
the  town  report  now  and  then  that  '  the  ladies  of 


the  prayer  league  are  busy  and  hopeful.'  Exactly 
what  they  are  doing  is  to  meet  once  a  week  to 
pray.  They  do  not  propose  to  do  anything  else. 
When  you  urge  them  to  move  on  the  works  of  the 
enemy,  they  stop  all  discussion  by  asking  if  you 
think  God  could  not  remove  the  curse  if  He  chose ; 
if  you  think  His  arm  is  shortened. 

"  I  never  argue  this,  but  always  admit  that  God 
could  close  all  the  dram-shops  if  He  chose ;  though 
I  did  venture  the  other  day  to  ask  one  of  these 
ladies  why,  if  she  trusted  the  closing  of  dram-shops 
exclusively  to  prayer,  she  did  not  leave  the  con- 
version of  the  heathen  with  God.  Why  send  mis- 
sionaries? Why  not  confine  their  efforts  to 
prayer?  And  I  asked  her  if  she  had  ever  heard 
of  conversions  among  the  heathen  except  through 
missionaries  and  other  similar  means. 

"A  IS;  ew  York  clergyman  said  he  did  not  be- 
lieve in  the  women's  kneeling  in  the  snow  and 
dirt.  Neither  do  I.  Less  than  two  per  cent,  of 
the  movement  has  been  of  this  sort.  The  women 
do  not  habitually  get  down  on  their  knees  in  the 
street;  this  only  occasionally  through  necessity. 
They  do  not  style  themselves  'praying-bands.' 
These  are  newspaper  falsehoods.  On  going  to  the 
saloons  they  find  that  the  men  who  keep  them  are 
not  ogres,  but  people  like  themselves.  No  New 
Englander  has  the  faintest  conception  of  what  the 
movement  is ;  nor  of  the  patience,  gentleness  and 


love  which  women  show  in  their  prayer-meetings. 
There  are  two  features  to  this  woman's  temper- 
ance movement :  the  first  is  the  obtaining  of  this 
spirit;  the  second,  its  application. 

"  The  greatest  danger  menacing  the  temperance 
movement  in  New  England  is  that  we  shall  bury 
it  in  meetings.  As  large  meetings  are  often  the 
graves  of  temperance  feeling,  so  j)rayer-mee tings 
alone  will  often  kill  it.  '  Faith  without  works 
is  dead.' 

" '  The  Washingtonian  Movement/  as  it  came 
to  be  called,  a  movement  which  threw  the  arms 
of  love  around  tTie  rum-drinker^  was  the  only 
thing  ever  done  in  this  country  until  last  Christ- 
mas which  really  helped  forward  the  temperance 

"  Then  a  few  Western  women  made  another  dis- 
covery, viz.,  that  if  we  would  end  the  liquor  busi- 
ness we  must  follow  tTte  rum- seller  with  the 
Washington  method.     The  arms  of  love  must  be 

thrown  around  him  too." 



The  rapidity  of  action  which  marked  the  cru- 
sade, and  which  was  naturally  characteristic  of 
Dr.  Lewis,  led  those  not  on  the  spot  to  think  that 
it  was  merely  an  emotional  movement  and  that  it 
was  pressed  along  the  lines  of  excitement. 

To  one  who  revieAvs  the  daily  reports  as  tele- 
grai)hed  at  the  time,  to  the  great  newspapers  of 
the  country,  which,  like  the  'New  York  Tribune^ 
Cincinnati  Commercial^  etc.,  kept  their  corre- 
spondents in  the  field  of  crusade  effort,  Dr.  Lewis 
appears,  while  urging  action,  to  have  deprecated 
rather  than  stimulated  excitement.  While  re- 
joicing in  zeal,  he  cautioned  prudence  in  move- 
ment, and  respect  for  personal  rights  was  a  cardi- 
nal principle  with  him.  He  always  insisted  on 
the  central  idea  that  "  the  cure  of  the  vice  must 
be  through  the  hearts  of  the  jieople." 

While  having  in  his  mind  a  definite  plan  of 
temperance  work,  especially  involving  womanly 
gifts,  upon  Avhich  he  had  pondered  through 
twenty-one  years  of  service  in  the  cause,  it  was 
always  offered  suggestively,  never  dogmatically, 


and  with  ready  deference  to  what  he  regarded  as 
the  superior  intuitions  of  woman. 

The  misapprehensions  to  which  the  crusade 
movement  was  subject  from  those  outside  its  line 
of  progress,  were  not  to  be  wondered  at. 

Unique  in  its  conception,  elevated  in  its  spirit, 
rapid  in  its  movement,  phenomenal  in  its  manifes- 
tations, surprising  in  its  results,  it  was,  naturally, 
variously  interpreted,  according  to  the  standpoint 
of  the  observer. 

The  marvel  is  that  by  those  who  took  up  the 
work,  under  the  inspiration  and  leadership  of  one 
who  had  so  long  carried  it  in  heart  and  mind,  its 
deep  significance  was  so  readily  apprehended, 
that  its  sacrifices  were  so  courageously  met,  and 
that  its  failures  and  its  triumphs  were  borne  with 
equal  meekness  of  spirit.  It  is  scarcely  less  im- 
pressive that  those  who  watched  it  apart,  over- 
looking its  merely  superficial  and  unaccustomed 
aspects,  regarded  it  with  something  little  short  of 

No  word  could  express  the  respectful  admira- 
tion which  Dr.  Lewis  felt  for  the  noble  women 
who  took  part  in  the  crusade.  Their  names  were 
legion.  From  the  very  multiplicity  of  them  it 
has  been  necessary  to  omit  them  here,  except  as 
the  narrative  includes  them.  The  reverence  for 
woman  which  had  been  inspired  in  Dr.  Lewis  from 
his  childhood  by  the  character  of  his  mother,  and 


wliich  deepened,  as  years  went  on,  until  it  gave 
bent  to  his  life-work,  was  only  intensified  by 
his  experience  in  the  crusade  work.  Wherever 
tliat  was  inaugurated,  whether  in  hamlet,  town, 
or  city,  he  saw  women  accustomed  only  to  the 
seclusion  of  their  homes  and  social  circles, — alto- 
gether inexperienced  in  the  world's  ways, — step 
forth,  in  utter  self-forgetfulness,  at  the  call  of 
duty,  and  manifest,  in  marvellous  degree,  not  de- 
votion alone,  but  courage,  perseverance,  wisdom 
and  self-control. 

For  historical  sketches  of  those  Avho  came  to  be 
most  widely  known, — and  many  found  in  the  cru- 
sade the  insx)iration  which  has  made  their  lives  a 
nation-wide,  or  even  a  Avorld-wide  benefaction, — we 
refer  our  readers  to  ''  Women  and  Temperance  " 
in  which  Frances  E.  Willard,  with  generous  hand 
and  sisterly  tenderness,  has  embalmed  their  noble 

The  story  of  the  crusade  has  been  told  here  with 
some  detail  both  as  a  significant  part  of  the  his- 
tory of  temperance  reform,  and  because  it  pecu- 
liarly illustrates  the  power  of  the  spirit  of  Chris- 
tianity as  an  aggressive  agent  against  sin. 

In  how  many  of  the  beneficent  movements  since 
Christ  has  the  all-sufficient  power  of  love  been 
trusted,  without  recourse  to  other  measures  in 
any  emergency? 

Herein  lies  the  distinctive  quality  of  the  work 

THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF   DIO    LEWIS.  809 

of  the  crusade.  In  dealing  with  men's  vices — 
not  some  men's,  but  all  men's — not  some  vices,  but 
all  vices, — Dr.  Lewis  trusted  to  the  moral  power 
to  the  end.  There  was  no  doubled  fist  clenched 
behind  his  back  to  take  the  place  of  the  smiling 
face  and  the  warm  grasp  of  the  hand  if  patience 
were  too  long  or  too  sorely  tried. 

It  was  in  response  to  this  spirit  that  there  came 
the  descent  of  power  to  win  men  from  their  sins, 
upon  those  who,  with  him,  put  serene,  unquestion- 
ing faith  in  the  universal  forces,  in  siTni^athy,  in 
love,  in  persuasion,  in  jDrayer. 

May  it  not  be  a  forecast  of  the  spirit  and 
method  of  service  which  shall  guide  all  efforts  for 
reform  in  the  better  future? 



To  this  fragmentary  history  of  the  crusade,  as 
currently  recorded  with  flying  pen  in  the  daily 
and  weekly  press,  it  is  of  interest  to  add  from  the 
pages  of  Mrs.  Annie  Wittenmyer's  "History  of 
the  Crusade,"  a  statement  of  the  conditions  which 
may  be  said  to  have  compelled  its  inauguration, 
and  a  vivid  sketch  of  the  movement,  in  which  one 
may  feel  its  very  j^ulse-beat;  also  Miss  Frances 
E.  Willard's  answer  to  the  question,  ''  What  has 
the  crusade  done?" 

Mrs.  Wittenmyer  says: 

"  In  1873,  the  beginning  of  the  crusade,  accord- 
ing to  the  estimate  of  Dr.  Young,  Chief  of  the 
Bureau  of  Statistics,  our  annual  drink-bill  reached 
the  sum  of  $600,000,000.  This  was  an  annual  tax 
of  over  fifteen  dollars  per  capita  for  every  man, 
woman  and  child  in  the  country. 

"  The  whole  land  was  filled  with  beggary  and 
crime.  Millions  Avho  ought  to  have  been  pro- 
ducers and  bread-winners  became  consumers, 
tramps,  and  criminals.  It  was  with  us  as  it  was 
with  the  Egyptians — there  was  one  dead  in  almost 
every  house, 

THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF    DIO    LEWIS.  811 

''  But  the  liquor-dealers  were  so  intrenched  be- 
hind law,  so  sheltered  in  politics,  so  guarded  and 
sustained  by  the  government,  national.  State,  and 
municipal,  that  they  were  an  oligarchy  that  could 
dictate  to  statesmen,  and  control  legislatures,  and 
defy  public  sentiment.  Restrictive  laws  in  most 
of  the  States  were  weak  and  inoperative.  There 
was  no  redress  anywhere. 

"  The  church  in  the  presence  of  these  evils  was 
criminally  silent  and  inactive,  and  many  of  the 
watchmen  on  the  walls  of  Zion  were  dumb,  and  gave 
no  warning  voice  on  the  approach  of  the  enemy. 

"No  pen  can  portray  the  utter  hojDelessness  of 
the  women  into  whose  homes  the  drink  curse  had 
come.  Nor  were  their  more  fortunate  sisters  free 
from  care.  The  gulf  of  ruin  was  near  each  door, 
and  an  undefined  dread,  an  awful  foreboding,  was 
in  the  heart  of  every  thoughtful  wife  and  mother, 
lest  all  she  loved  should  be  swallowed  up  in  its 
black  depths. 

"  Countless  unspoken  prayers  went  up  to  God. 
Women,  weeping  and  praying  through  the  long 
night-watches,  appealed  their  cause,  lost  in  so 
many  of  the  courts  of  earth,  to  the  Supreme  Court 
of  Heaven. 

"  Suddenly  the  world  was  startled  by  a  flash  of 
heavenly  light.  Hands  of  faith  had  touched  the 
hem  of  power,  and  a  mighty  spiritual  swirl  came 
down  upon  the  people.     Christian  women,  many 


of  whom  liad  never  spoken  or  prayed  in  their 
churches,  under  this  Pentecostal  baptism  went 
into  the  streets  and  saloons,  preaching  the  gospel 
of  Christ,  and  tlie  people  gathered  by  thousands 
to  listen  to  the  truths  that  fell  from  their  lips. 

"  The  whole  nation  was  stirred.  Never  before 
had  men  so  trembled  under  the  power  of  prayer. 
Never  before  had  society  been  so  shaken  by  a 
moral  earthquake. 

"  The  women  who  kept  step  with  God  in  His 
grand,  onward  marcliings,  were  calm  and  serene. 
To  them  the  thunder  and  lightning  Avere  but  the 
roll  and  rumble  of  God's  artillery  turned  against 
their  enemies,  and  the  earthquake  was  the  tread  of 
their  Caj^tain  and  his  mighty  hosts. 

"  Delicately-nurtured  women,  who  had  not  felt 
the  awful  evil  in  their  own  homes,  and  who  had 
passed  by  on  the  other  side,  marched  boldly  into 
the  saloons  and  preached  to  the  spirits  in  prison 
there.  Men  who  walked  among  the  tombs  heard 
through  them  the  voice  of  the  Master  and  were 

^'Public  attention  was  directed  to  the  liquor 
traffic  as  never  before.  A  calcium  light  had  been 
turned  upon  it,  and  the  mass  of  the  people  were 
horrified  at  what  they  saw  and  heard. 

"  When  Mrs.  Thompson  and  the  seventy  women 
who  followed  her,  went  out  of  the  Presbyteriai} 
church  at  Hillsboro,  Ohio,  singing. 


"  'Give  to  the  winds  your  fears  ! 
Hope,  and  be  undismayed  1 
God  hears  thy  sighs,  and  counts  thy  tears  ; 
God  will  lift  up  thy  head  1 ' 

they  heralded  a  new  dispensation  in  the  temx^er- 
ance  work,  a  nnion  of  the  moral  forces  of  earth 
with  the  invincible  forces  of  heaven,  and  victory 
was  assured." 

Says  Frances  E.  Willard: 

"Concerning  that  spiritual  prairie-fire  in  the 
West  immortalized  by  fifty  days  of  prayer,  per- 
suasion and  victory,  and  called  '  The  Woman's 
Crusade,'  hoAv  often  in  Ohio  have  I  said  to  some 
temperance  woman :  '  IN'ow  talk  to  me  of  the  cru- 
sade,' and  how  significantly  uniform  was  the  re- 
ply :  '  Oh,  that  was  something  only  to  be  felt  and 
lived ;  to  be  wept  and  prayed  over ;  it  was  not  to 
be  told.' 

" '  What  did  the  crusade  do  ? '  It  was  the  great 
iconoclast,  that  wonderful  crusade !  It  broke  down 
sectarian  barriers ;  it  taught  women  how  to  trans- 
act business,  to  mould  public  opinion  by  public 
utterance,  to  influence  the  decisions  of  voters,  and 
it  opened  the  eyes  of  scores  and  hundreds  to  the 
need  of  the  republic  for  the  suffrage  of  women, 
and  made  them  willing  to  take  up  for  their  homes' 
and  country's  sake  the  burdens  of  citizenship. 

'*  Take  an  illustration  of  the  way  in  which  sec- 
tarian prejudice  gave  way  before  it. 


"  In  front  of  a  saloon  that  had  refused  them  en- 
trance knelt  a  crusading  group.  Their  leader  was 
the  most  prominent  Methodist  lady  of  the  commu- 
nity. Her  head  was  crowned  with  the  glory  of 
gray  hairs;  her  hands  were  clasped,  her  gentle 
voice  was  lifted  up  in  prayer.  Around  her  knelt 
the  flower  of  all  the  churches  of  that  city — Con- 
gregationalists,  Baptists,  Presbyterians — many  of 
whom  had  never  worked  outside  of  their  own  de- 
nominations until  now.  At  the  close  an  Ex)iscopal 
lady  offered  the  Lord's  Prayer,  in  which  joined 
Unitarians,  Swedenborgians,  and  Universalists, 
and  when  they  had  finished  a  dear  old  lady  in 
the  dove-colored  garb  of  the  Friends'  Society  was 
moved  to  pray,  while  all  the  time  on  the  curb- 
stone's edge  knelt  Bridget  with  her  beads  and  her 
^Ave  Maria.' 

" '  Going  out  on  the  street '  signified  a  good  deal 
when  one  comes  to  think  about  it.  First  of  all  it 
meant  stepping  outside  the  denominational  fence, 
which,  proj)eiiy  enough,  surrounds  one's  home. 

"  Best  of  all,  going  out  on  the  street  brought 
women  face  to  face  with  the  world's  misery  and 

"  Never  can  I  forget  the  day  on  which  I  met  the 
great  unwashed,  untaught,  ungospelled  multitude 
for  the  first  time.  Need  I  say  that  it  was  the 
crusade  that  opened  before  me,  as  before  ten 
thousand  other  women,  this  wide,  effectual  door? 


"  It  was  in  Pittsburg,  tlie  summer  after  tlie  cru- 
sade. Greatly  liad  I  wished  to  have  a  i3art  in  it, 
but  this  one  experience  was  my  first  and  last  of 
'  going  out  with  a  band.'  A  young  teacher  from 
the  public  schools,  whose  custom  it  was  to  give 
an  hour  twice  each  week  to  crusading,  walked 
arm-in-arm  with  me.  Two  schoolma'ams  together, 
we  fell  into  the  procession  behind  the  experienced 
campaigners.  On  Market  Street  we  entered  a 
saloon;  the  proprietor,  pointing  to  several  men 
who  were  fighting  in  the  next  room,  begged  us  to 
leave,  and  we  did  so  at  once,  amid  the  curses  of 
the  bacchanalian  gi'oup.  Forming  in  line  on  the 
curbstone's  edge  in  front  of  this  saloon  we  knelt, 
while  an  old  lady  to  vrhose  son  that  place  had 
proved  the  gate  of  death,  offered  a  prayer  of  ten- 
derness and  faith,  asking  God  to  open  the  eyes  of 
those  who,  just  behind  that  screen,  were  selling 
liquid  fire  and  breathing  curses  on  His  name.  We 
rose,  and  what  a  scene  was  there !  The  sidewalk 
was  lined  by  men  with  faces  written  all  over  and 
interlined  with  the  record  of  their  sin  and  shame. 
Soiled,  tattered,  dishevelled,  there  was  not  a  sneer- 
ing look  or  a  rude  word  or  action  from  any  of 
them.  Most  of  them  had  their  hats  off;  many 
looked  sorrowful ;  some  were  in  tears ;  and  stand- 
ing there  in  the  roar  and  tumult  of  that  dingy 
street,  with  that  strange  crowd  looking  into  our 
faceSj  with  a  heart  stirred  as  never  until  now  by 


human  sin  and  shame,  I  joined  in  the  sweet  gos- 
pel song: 

"  '  Jesus  the  water  of  life  will  give, 
Freely,  freely,  freely.' 

*'Just  such  an  epoch  as  that  was  in  my  life  has 
the  crusade  proved  to  a  mighty  army  of  women 
all  over  this  land.  Does  anybody  think  that,  hav- 
ing-learned  the  blessedness  of  carrying  Christ's 
gospel  to  those  who  never  come  to  hear  the  mes- 
sage we  are  all  commanded  to  '  Go,  tell,'  we  shall 
ever  lay  down  this  work?  Not  until  the  genius  of 
'The  Arabian  Nights'  crowds  himself  back  into 
the  fabulous  kettle  whence  he  escaped  by  'ex- 
panding his  pinions  in  nedulous  bars,' — not  until 
then.  To-day  and  every  day  they  go  forth  on  their 
beautiful  errands,  the  'Protestant  nuns,'  who, 
a  few  years  ago,  were  among  the  '  anxious  and 
aimless'  of  our  crowded  population,  or  who  be- 
longed to  trades  and  professions  over-full,  and 
with  them  go  the  women  fresh  from  the  sacred 
home-hearth  and  cradle-side,  wearing  the  halo  of 
these  loving  ministries.  If  you  would  find  them 
go  not  alone  to  the  costhf  churches;  go  to  the 
'  North  End '  in  Boston,  and  to  Water  Street  in 
New  York;  go  to  'Friendly  Inns,'  to  women's 
temperance  rooms;  go  wherever  the  perishing 
gather,  and  you  will  find  the  glad  tidings  declared 
by  the  new  '  apostolic  succesion,'  dating  from  the 
Pentecost  of  the  crusade. 


"  It  lias  come  and  it  lias  gone,  — this  whirlwind 
of  the  Lord — but  it  has  set  forces  in  motion  which 
each  day  become  more  potent,  and  will  sweep  on 
nntil  the  rum  power  in  America  is  overthrown. 
There  was  but  one  Pentecost;  doubtless  history 
will  record  but  one  '  temperance  crusade.' 

"A  j)lienomenon  no  less  remarkable  has  suc- 
ceeded that  wonderful  uprising — •indeed,  is  aptly 
termed  'its  sober  second  thought.'  This  is  the 
phenomenon  of  organization.  The  women  who 
went  forth  by  an  impulse,  sudden,  irresistible,  di- 
vine, to  pray  in  the  saloons,  became  convinced,  as 
weeks  and  months  passed  by,  that  theirs  was  to 
be  no  easily- won  victory.  The  enemy  was  rich 
beyond  their  power  to  comprehend.  He  had  upon 
his  side  the  majesty  of  law,  the  trickery  of  poli- 
tics, and  the  strength  of  that  almost  invincible  pair, 
appetite  and  avarice.  He  was  persistent,  too, 
as  fate.  He  had  determined  to  fight  it  out  on 
that  line  to  the  last  dollar  of  his  enormous  treas- 
ure-house and  to  the  last  ounce  of  his  power.  .  .  . 
And  so  it  came  about  that  though  they  had  gone 
forth  only  as  skirmishers,  they  soon  fell  into  line 
of  battle;  though  they  had  innocently  hoped  to 
overcome  the  enemy  by  a  sudden  assault,  they 
buckled  on  the  armor  for  the  long  campaign. 
The  '  woman's  praying  bands,'  earnest,  impetu- 
ous, inspired,  became  the  '  Woman's  Temperance 
Unions,'  firm,  patient,  persevering." 

818  l^HE   BioaRAl^HY  OF   DtO   LEWt^. 

As  the  Woman's  Cliristian  Temperance  Union 
is  the  child  of  the  crusade,  it  is  fitting  to  include 
here  the  story  of  its  birth  in  the  words  of  one  who 
assisted  on  that  occasion.  Although  this  child,  in 
true  nineteenth-century  fashion,  has  departed  from 
its  ancestral  faith — so  far  as  the  originator  and 
inspirer  of  the  work  may  be  held  to  embody  it — 
making  the  stone  of  prohibition,  which  he  rejected, 
the  head  of  the  corner  of  its  structure,  mindful  of 
their  common  aim,  he  would,  like  a  wise  and  lov- 
ing parent,  rejoice  in  the  lofty  ]3urpose  and  grand 
achievements  which  have  marked  its  illustrious 

Says  Miss  Willard: 

"At  Chautauqua  Lake,  N.  Y.,  August  15th, 
1874,  good  and  gifted  women  gathered,  fresh  from 
the  crusade  Pentecost,  and  prayed  and  planned 
into  permanent  organic  form  the  work  which  has 
since  sent  hundreds  of  temperance  Esthers  and 
Miriams  to  the  platform  and  the  polls." 

Mrs.  Mary  E.  Ingham,  of  Cleveland,  Ohio,  writes : 

"  The  handful  of  corn  upon  the  tops  of  the  moun- 
tains grew  apace  after  its  wonderful  planting  in 
Ohio  during  the  winter  and  spring  of  1873-74. 
The  fruit  shook  like  Lebanon  throughout  the  Mid- 
dle and  Western  States,  and  in  August  of  that 
year  many  of  the  seed-sowers  had  gathered  upon 
the  shore  of  Lake  Chautauqua  for  a  fortnight 
in  the  woods.     In  primitive  fashion  we  dwelt  in 

THE   BlOOHAPHl^   OF   DlO   LEWIS.  819 

tents,  or  sat  in  the  open  air  about  the  watch-fires 
kindled  at  the  first  national  Sunday-school  as- 
sembly. Women  who  had  drawn  near  to  God  in 
saloon  prayer- meetings  felt  their  hearts  aflame 
again  as  they  recounted  the  wonders  of  the  great 

"  One  bright  day  a  very  few  ladies  were  in  con- 
versation upon  the  subject  that  filled  their  hearts, 
inspiring  the  thought  that  the  temperance  cause 
needed  the  united  eifort  of  all  the  women  of  the 
country.  The  suggestion  came  from  Mrs.  Mattie 
McClellan  Brown,  of  Ohio.  Upon  consultation  it 
was  decided  to  call  a  meeting. 

"At  the  hour  appointed,  August  ISth,  1874,  a 
large  audience  gathered.  An  organization  was 
formed  which  issued  a  circular-letter  asking  the 
woman's  temperance  leagues  everywhere  to  hold 
conventions  for  the  x^urpose  of  electing  one  woman 
from  each  Congressional  district  as  delegate  to 
an  organizing  convention,  to  be  held  in  Cleveland, 
Ohio,  JS'ovember  18th,  19th,  and  20th,  1874." 

State  conventions  were  held  and  delegates  ap- 
pointed, and  on  the  morning  of  November  18th, 
"  they  were  with  one  accord  in  one  place." 

"  Red-letter  days,"  Miss  Willard  calls  the  three 
which  followed.  She  says :  "  This  was  a  repre- 
sentative gathering,  not  only  geographically,  but 
in  respect  to  character  and  achievement. 

"  We  had  a  lady  lawyer,  a  lady  physician,  three 

S^O  TllE   BiOGilAPHY   OF   DIO   LEWIS. 

or  four  editors,  any  number  of  teachers,  two  col- 
lege professors,  Quaker  ministers  looking  out 
with  dove-colored  eyes  from  their  dove-colored 
bonnets,  three  licensed  preachers  of  the  Methodist 
persuasion,  business  women  not  a  few,  and  gray- 
haired  matrons  from  scores  of  homes  all  up  and 
down  the  land. 

"An  association  was  formed  to  be  known  as 
'The  Woman's  National  Christian  Temperance 

"  President,  Mrs.  Annie  Wittenmyer. 

"  Corresponding  secretary,  Frances  E.  Willard." 

The  spirit  which  had  inspired  and  animated 
the  crusade  found  complete  and  noble  expression 
in  a  resolution  offered  by  Miss  AVillard  at  the 
first  convention  of  the  AV Oman's  Christian  Tem- 
perance Union,  November,  1874: 

"  Resolution :  Realizing  that  our  cause  is  com- 
batted  by  mighty  and  relentless  forces,  Ave  A\ill  go 
forward  in  the  strength  of  Him  who  is  the  Prince 
of  Peace,  meeting  argument  with  argument,  mis- 
judgment  with  patience,  and  all  our  difficulties 
and  dangers  with  prayer." 

"A  resolution,"  says  one,  "which,  springing 
from  the  inspirations  and  aspirations  of  the  hour, 
has  proved  to  be  in  its  spirit  a  glory  and  a  de- 

THE   BIOGRAPHY   OF   L>10   LEWIS.  821 


EvEKY  event  of  tlie  crusade  had  confirmed  Dr. 
Lewis  in  his  belief  that  the  cure  of  intemperance 
can  come  only  through  the  hearts  of  the  people, 
and  his  careful  and  painful  study  of  the  workings 
of  the  coercive  method,  diametrically  opposed  to 
this,  led  him  to  prepare  and  to  publish  in  the 
spring  of  1875  a  volume  entitled  "  Prohibition  a 

Some  extracts  are  here  given  from  this  volume, 
and  from  subsequent  lectures  and  public  discus- 
sions with  prohibitionists  on  the  subject,  and  from 
a  contribution  to  the  NortTi  American  Remeio  of 
August,  1884.  In  the  latter  the  Hon.  ISTeal  Dow 
presented  the  claims  of  prohibition,  and  Dr.  Lewis 
argued  its  impotence  to  control  liquor- drinking 
on  the  ground  that  vices  are  beyond  the  domain 
of  legislation. 

Dr.  Lewis  writes: 

"After  forty  years'  service  in  behalf  of  temper- 
ance, I  venture  the  opinion  that  our  enemy,  the 
drink  curse,  can  be  conquered  only  by  social  and 
moral  weapons,  and  that  to  call  attention  away 
from  these  agencies  and  fix  it  upon  the  constable 
is  a  fatal  blunder. 


322  TilE   BIOGRAPHY   OF   DIO   LEWIS. 

"  In  tlie  struggle  with  intemj)erance  we  find  on 
one  side  virtue,  intelligence,  and  hope;  on  the 
other,  vice,  cunning,  and  despair.  Good  men  can- 
not hesitate  on  which  side  to  stand.  The  only 
doubt  lies  in  the  choice  of  weapons. 

"  Washingtonianism,  the  Woman's  Crusade,  and 
other  social,  moral,  and  religious  movements  com- 
mand our  united  approval;  but  some  of  us  hesi- 
tate to  summon  jihysical  force.  Some  of  us  believe 
that  its  employment  is  suicidal.  It  is  the  aim  of 
civilization  to  eliminate  vices  through  moral  agen- 
cies, as  it  is  its  duty  to  punish  crimes  with  physi- 
cal force.  With  schools,  social  attractions,  and 
religious  appeals  we  win  votaries  of  vice;  with 
IDrisons  and  chains  w^e  punish  the  perpetrators  of 

"  Prohibitory  liquor  laws  are  indisx)ensable  to 
the  triumph  of  the  temperance  cause.  But  they 
must  be  ax)plied  to  the  crimes  of  the  liquor  traffic, 
not  to  its  vices.  The  failure  to  make  this  distinc- 
tion threatens  the  ruin  of  the  grandest  revolution 
in  human  history.  • 

*'  In  the  discussion  of  prohibition  the  distinction 
between  vice  and  crime  is  x^ivotal.  A  vice  is  a 
harm  I  do  to  myself  in  the  j)ursuit  of  pleasure. 
Gluttony  and  drunkenness  are  vices.  A  crime  is 
a  harm  I  do  to  another  with  malice  prepense. 
Forgery  and  murder  are  crimes. 

"Although  vices  do  more  harm  in  a  day  than 


crimes  do  in  a  year,  althougli  all  crimes  originate 
in  vices,  man  cannot  punish  until  vices  take  form 
in  actions  inspired  by  malice  prepense.  It  is  clear 
to  my  mind  that  the  real  sources  of  nine-tenths 
of  our  ignorance,  bad  health,  bad  morals  and 
crimes  are  as  far  beyond  the  reach  of  the  constable 
as  are  our  thoughts  or  our  dreams. 

"A  man  may  be  tilled  with  hypocrisy,  envy, 
hatred,  avarice,  gluttony,  indolence  and  a  score 
of  other  vices.  For  these  the  Almighty  punishes 
him  every  hour  of  his  life,  but  his  fellow-man 
cannot  punish  him  until  he  is  guilty  of  a  crime. 
'No  act  however  harmful,  can  be  a  crime  unless 
inspired  by  a  criminal  purpose.  The  intent  is  the 
very  essence  of  a  crime.  As  malice  prepense  can 
never  exist  in  a  vice,  so  a  vice  can  never  be  a  crime. 
It  is  a  fallacy,  therefore,  to  talk  of  making  a  vice 
a  crime  by  the  vote  of  a  majority,  however  large. 
When  hate  shows  itself  in  a  personal  assault 
man  steps  in  to  punish.  But  the  hate  which  is 
the  tap-root  of  the  crime,  man  cannot  punish, 
God  will. 

"  In  the  nature  of  things,  if  we  punish  one  vice 
by  law,  we  must  punish  all  vices  by  law ;  and  if 
that  were  done,  the  last  man  would  have  to  reach 
out  through  his  cell-door  and  lock  himself  in,  for 
we  are  all  guilty  of  vices. 

"  The  distinction  between  a  moral  and  a  legal 
right,  which  is  as  well  defined  as  that  between  a 


vice  and  a  crime,  lias  been  ridiculed  by  proMbi- 
tionists.  A  man  lias  a  legal  riglit  to  do  a  thousand 
tilings  that  are  morally  wrong.  He  has  a  legal 
right  to  doubt  the  existence  of  God  or  the  bind- 
ing force  of  the  decalogue ;  to  believe  in  free  love 
and  piracy  or  to  hate  his  mother. 

"  It  is  only  when  his  belief  in  piracy  or  his  ha- 
tred of  his  mother  is  embodied  in  crindnal  action 
that  he  may  be  punished  by  law.  The  Puritan 
forefathers  denied  these  differences  between  vices 
and  crimes,  and  between  moral  and  legal  rights; 
but  the  civilization  of  to-day  finds  its  highest  dis- 
tinction in  the  liberty  left  to  be  and  to  do  what- 
ever we  please  until  we  assault  with  criminal  pur- 
pose or  through  criminal  carelessness  the  right  of 
other  people  to  be  and  to  do  what  they  please. 

"  It  is  a  legal  axiom  that '  to  the  willing  there 
is  no  offence.'  This  is  but  a  logical  corollary  of 
the  doctrine  of  personal  liberty.  Of  ten  glasses  of 
strong  drink,  nine  are  drank  by  men  who  have 
just  as  good  a  right  to  drink  whiskey  as  I  have  to 
drink  coffee.  I  may  think  rum  is  bad  for  them, 
as  they  think  coffee  is  bad  for  me ;  but  both  of  us 
must  have  the  liberty  of  choice.  A  large  part  of 
the  life  of  an  average  man  is  made  up  of  blunders. 
The  whole  world  is  at  liberty  to  reason,  exhort, 
and  plead  with  him,  but  if  we  shout  at  him, '  You 
shall  not,'  he  either  defies  us  and  goes  on  his  own 
way,  or  if  we  contrive  to  take  away  from  him  his 

THE    BIOGRAPHY   OF    DIO    LEWIS.  325 

personal  freedom,  liis  right  of  choice,  he  is  no 
longer  a  free  man,  but  a  slave. 

"  If  the  rumseller  should  slyly  approach  men  in 
the  street,  seize  them  and  force  them  into  his  den, 
and  compel  them  to  swallow  his  poison,  it  would 
be  a  very  grave  crime.  But  he  does  none  of  these 
things.  He  lights  and  warms  his  saloon,  fur- 
nishes music  and  a  hearty  welcome.  The  people 
who  go  in  and  drink  are  legally  sane  and  go  in 
voluntarily.  If  you  doubt  their  sanity  and  should 
challenge  it  before  a  court,  and  it  were  asked,  '  Is 
this  man  competent  to  vote?  Is  he  capable  of 
making  a  contract  or  a  will? '  and  experts  should 
answer  'yes,'  your  charge  of  insanity  would  be 
dismissed  with  a  reprimand.  The  men  who  go 
into  this  saloon  are  legally  sane  until  they  are 
shown  to  be  non  compos  mentis.  They  have  a  right 
to  enter  that  street,  a  legal  right  to  enter  the  sa- 
loon, and  as  perfect  a  legal  light  to  drink  whis- 
key as  you  and  I  have  to  drink  coffee. 

"  If  we  propose  to  use  the  word  '  crime '  in  the 
dictionary -authorized  sense,  we  must  say  that  the 
rumseller  has  committed  no  crime.  He  is  acces- 
sory to  a  wretched  vice  which  does  more  harm  in 
the  world  than  all  crimes  put  together,  but  which, 
like  other  vices  or  sins,  must  be  treated  by  social, 
moral  and  religious  agencies.  We  rejoice  over 
this  because  we  know  that  these  forces  are  infi- 
nitely stronger  than  the  constable. 


u  ( 

But,'  say  proliibitionists,  '  we  have  never  pro- 
posed to  treat  drinking  as  a  crime — the  sale  is  the 


'*  To  admit  tliat  a  man  has  a  legal  right  to  drink, 
and  then  stand  between  him  and  the  opportunity, 
is  to- add  insult  to  tyranny.  To  say  that  a  man 
has  a  legal  right  to  use  patent  medicine,  and  send 
an  officer  to  stand  between  him  and  the  drug  store, 
would  be  a  like  absurdity.  The  right  to  drink 
includes  the  right  to  buy. 

" '  But  may  we  not  sui)press  a  nuisance? ' 

"  Our  right  to  suppress  a  nuisance  is  as  clear  as 
our  right  to  defend  ourselves  against  any  other 
personal  assault.  A  legal  nuisance  is  any  offen- 
sive smell,  noise,  or  sight,  or  anything  which  in- 
jures health.  A  loud  noise  in  a  grog-shop,  nudity 
at  its  windows,  or,  as  the  dictionary  phrases  it, 
'  any  annoyance  to  the  community  in  general,'  is  a 
nuisance  and  may  be  sui^pressed.  But  if  sane 
adults  compromise  their  health,  usefulness,  and 
character  in  a  grog-shop,  it  does  not  make  the 
place  a  legal  nuisance,  any  more  than  it  would 
make  a  hotel  such  if  its  visitors  ate  too  much  or 
imi)roi)er  food,  or  indulged  in  any  other  vice  there. 

"A  moral  nuisance  is  not  necessarily  a  legal 
nuisance.  Colonel  Ingersoll  may  preach  infidel- 
ity, and  lead  a  million  young  men  from  the 
churches  into  infidel  ways ;  it  is  not  a  legal  nui- 
sance.   If  you  were  to  bring  an  action  against  him 


under  tlie  nuisance  act  you  would  be  laughed  out 
of  court.  But  if  Colonel  IngersoU  were  to  be  con- 
verted to  Christianity,  and  were  to  gather  a  crowd 
in  the  jDublic  street  to  hear  him  plead  the  claims 
of  Christ,  such  a  crowd,  if  it  interrupted  public 
traffic,  would  be  a  nuisance,  and  could  be  sup- 
pressed under  the  common  law. 

"  If  my  own  beloved  clergyman  should  preach 
so  loud  as  to  disturb  the  neighborhood  it  would 
be  a  nuisance  and  might  be  abated.  But  if  the 
large  grog-shop  round  the  corner  sells  ten  thou- 
sand drinks  a  day,  in  a  quiet  and  unobtrusive 
manner,  to  adult  ]3€irsons,  legally  sane,  it  is  not  a 
nuisance.  The  fact  that  my  minister  preaches  the 
most  j)recious  truths,  and  that  the  grog-shoj)  is 
doing  infinite  harm,  is  not  pertinent. 

"  Good  x)eox3le  seem  to  forget  that  a  bad  man, 
full  of  avarice,  bitterness,  gluttony  and  drink  has 
the  same  legal  rights  and  the  same  claim  to  pro- 
tection as  the  best  man  in  the  world.  When,  in 
the  field  of  human  conduct,  the  law  has  punished 
crime  its  work  is  done.  Public  opinion,  infinitely 
more  potent  than  the  civil  law,  must  control  in 
all  other  departments  of  human  life. 

''A  prohibitionist  with  whom  I  had  a  newspaper 
discussion  some  years  ago  rested  his  case  upon 
the  affirmation  that '  The  public  good  is  the  only 
object  and  limit  of  the  law-making  power.' 

"  In  this  matter  of  human  rights  there  is,  strictly 


speaking,  no  siicli  creature  as  the  public.  Per- 
sons wlio  talk  so  flippantly  of  the  rights  of  society 
should  be  asked  to  find  society.  Let  them  go 
down  street,  turn  to  the  right,  to  the  left,  every- 
where; they  will  find  a  man,  a  woman,  a  child; 
another  man,  another  woman,  another  child.  Each 
of  these  men,  each  of  the  women,  each  of  the  chil- 
dren has  rights.  No  human  being  has  any  rights 
whatever  excei^t  as  an  individual.  And  when  a 
million  of  men  act  together  in  what  is  called  a 
government,  not  one  of  them  obtains  any  rights 
thereby  except  as  an  individual. 

"Another  prohibitionist  speaks  of  an  old  maxim : 
'The  public  good  is  the  supreme  law.'  I  have 
never  heard  of  such  a  maxim ;  but  I  have  heard 
that  '  The  public  safety  is  the  supreme  law.' 

"  The  Avhole  difference  between  the  vieAvs  I  am 
advocating  and  the  views  of  the  extreme  prohibi- 
tionist is  found  in  the  difference  between  the  words 
'  good '  and  '  safety^  '  The  public  safety'  is  endan- 
gered by  an  armed  invasion,  by  a  conflagration  or 
contagion,  and  in  their  presence  the  riglits  of  in- 
dividuals must  give  Avay. 

" '  The  public  good '  is  endangered  by  false  relig- 
ious and  political  theories,  by  errors  in  dress, 
sleep,  food,  drinks,  etc.  To  these  vices  nothing 
but  reason  and  persuasion  can  be  addressed. 

''  If  the  Central  Park  reservoir  should  give  way, 
the  man  who  saw  it  Avpuld  be  Justified  in  seizing 


his  neighbor's  liorse  and  rushing  down-town,  shont- 
iag, '  The  waters  are  coining!  run  for  your  lives! ' 

"  But  if  some  zealous  temperance  man  were  to 
seize  another's  horse  and  tear  down  Broadway, 
shouting,  'Turn  out!  turn  out!  for  God's  sake, 
turn  out !  Jim  Biles  is  selling  Pete  Smith  a  glass 
of  whiskey,'  the  chances  are  that  the  temperance 
man  would  have  to  ask  some  friend  to  bail  him  out 
of  jail. 

"Instead  of  its  being  an  aphorism  that  'the 
public  good  is  the  supreme  laAv,'  it  is  one  of  the 
wisest  of  maxims  that  '  a  wrong  done  by  the  gov- 
ernment to  the  humblest  individual,' — that  is,  the 
violation  of  any  one  of  his  rights  of  person  or 
X)roperty, — '  is  a  wrong  done  to  the  whole  people.' 
And  this  is  not  only  true  but  vital;  because  if 
one  man's  personal  rights  may  be  violated  with 
imi)unity  then  the  rights  of  all  the  people  may 
be  so  violated.  The  greatest  public  good  of  which 
any  government  is  capable  is  to  secure  to  each  and 
every  individual  the  full  and  free  enjoyment  of 
all  his  natural  rights  of  person  and  property. 

"All  ]Drogress  and  happiness  begin  and  end  in 
personal  liberty. 

"  Prohibitionists  say :  '  We  rejoice  in  the  utmost 
liberty  if  people  will  only  do  right.' 

"  The  Inquisition  believed  in  the  liberty  of  all 
men  to  be  Catholics,  but  if  they  found  a  man  with 
other  notions  they  put  a  thumb-screw  on  him, 


''  Our  Puritan  forefathers  were  stout  advocates 
of  personal  liberty.  They  left  their  homes,  crossed 
a  stormy  ocean,  and  braved  a  thousand  dangers, 
that  they  might  be  free  to  think  and  to  say  what 
they  j)leased.  And  they  were  perfectly  willing  that 
all  who  came  after  them  should  be  free  to  think 
and  to  speak,  unless,  as  sometimes  happened,  the 
new  men  uttered  opinions  which  conflicted  with 
what  the  fathers  held.  Sometimes  they  came 
across  a  Quaker  with  wrong  views  and  hung  him. 

"All  men  are  believers  in  personal  liberty  for 
themselves ;  few  men  are  willing  to  grant  liberty 
to  others. 

"  Perhaj)s  no  man  on  earth  believes  in  personal 
liberty  so  intensely  as  the  Czar  of  Russia,  but  it 
is  liberty  for  himself.  Kings  and  princes  every- 
where cherish  the  doctrine  of  i:)ersonal  liberty — 
for  themselves.  The  aristocracies  in  all  lands  be- 
lieve in  personal  liberty — for  themselves.  The 
slaveholders  believed  in  personal  liberty  more 
strongly  than  any  other  men  on  this  continent, 
but  it  was  only  for  themselves. 

"  That  is  no  true  doctrine  of  personal  liberty 
which  does  not  include  all  adult,  sane,  non-crimi- 
nal x)ersons. 

"A  government  which  protects  only  the  liberty 
of  the  czar,  the  king,  the  aristocrat,  the  white 
man,  the  intelligent  man  or  tlie  good  man  is  not 
a  true  government,     Kich  men,  intelligent  men, 

THE    BIOGRAPHY   OF    DIO    LEWIS.  881 

strong  men  take  care  of  themselves.  The  worse 
the  government  the  better  the  chance  for  them. 

"  It  is  the  glory  of  a  true  government  that  it 
jealously  guards  the  rights  of  the  ignorant,  the 
weak  and  the  vicious,  while  it  vigorously  pun- 
ishes criminals  of  all  classes. 

"  Personal  liberty  is  the  source  of  all  progress, 
the  lever  of  all  conquests,  the  inspiration  of  all 
achievements,  the  precious  jewel  of  the  ages,  and 
yet  it  is  the  source  of  many  vices.  Liberty  is  ex- 
pensive and  troublesome.  If  you  let  a  man  go 
free  he  may  get  into  mischief.  Chain  him  to  the 
floor  and  take  him  only  such  things  as  are  best 
for  him  and  he  will  be  guilty  of  no  excesses.  The 
measure  of  liberty  for  the  individual  is  everywhere 
the  measure  of  liberty  in  society. 

"  I  would  rather  inaugurate  a  temperance  refor- 
mation with  ten  reformed  drunkards  free  to  drink 
at  pleasure,  than  with  a  hundred  total  abstainers 
kept  sober  by  the  constable.  That  kind  of  tem- 
perance is  strong,  this  kind  is  weak.  That  kind 
is  a  living  princijjle,  this  kind  is  a  lifeless  sub- 

"  Whenever  in  our  country  personal  liberty  is 
violated,  except  in  the  presence  of  a  great  and  im- 
mediate danger,  the  intruder,  if  a  person,  is  sure 
to  receive  rough  treatment;  if  a  law,  it  is  sure  to 
be  dodged  or  defied. 

"  Some  of  us  think  we  were  horn  to  control 


others.  We  ask  what  A.  B.  onght  to  do,  and  if 
he  will  not  act  in  accordance  with  our  judgment 
we  consider  how  to  compel  him. 

"  We  come  to  such  a  course  in  this  way: 

^^ Resolved^  That  the  Almighty  has  given  the 
government  of  the  w^orld  into  the  hands  of  His 

'^Resolved,  That  we  are  His  saints. 

"  '  But  is  it  not  just  to  make  a  law  against  the 
sale  of  certain  poisonous  drugs,  against  the  sale 
of  gunpowder,  and  against  the  circulation  of  ob- 
scene literature?  If  so,  why  is  not  the  law  against 
the  sale  of  alcoholic  drink  just?  It  does  vastly 
more  harm  than  any  one  of  the  others.' 

"  What  is  the  basis  of  the  law  against  the  sale 
of  dangerous  drugs?  It  is  the  danger  of  a  fatal 
accident  to  people  ignorant  of  their  nature.  The 
Legislature,  therefore,  forbids  their  sale  except  un- 
der the  guidance  of  an  exx)ert.  This  is  wise  and 
just.  It  is  the  railing  and  the  warning  light  about 
an  open  sewer,  while  the  j^rohibitory  law  is  a 
fence  across  a  street  running  down  to  the  sea, 
where,  by  wading  far  out,  many  persons  have  been 
drowned.  Such  a  fence  would  be  an  insult.  If 
there  were  danger  that  lager  beer  might  suddenly 
kill  then  it  would  be  right  for  the  Legislature  to 
forbid  the  sale  of  lager  beer  except  under  X\\q 
guidance  of  an  expert. 

"Prohibitionists  remind  us  that  there  is  infi- 

Me  jBiOGiiAPHY  OF  r>io  lewis.  883 

nitely  more  danger  in  strong  drink  tlian  in  gun- 
powder. True !  But  it  would  be  diificult  to  im- 
agine two  perils  more  unlike. 

"  We  enter  a  store  wliere  a  barrel  of  gunpowder 
is  kept.  We  do  not  know  it  and  cannot  protect 
ourselves.  By  the  dealer's  carelessness  we  may 
be  blown  into  eternity.  It  is  right  that  tke 
Legislature  should  protect  us  against  sack  a  catas- 

"  We  enter  another  store  where  the  merchant 
keeps  a  barrel  of  whiskey.  It  is  the  very  thing 
we  desire.  Our  legal  right  to  drink  it  is  absolute. 
We  are  legally  sane  and  choose  to  drink  whiskey. 
We  take  the  responsibility.  We  ask  for  it,  drink, 
pay,  and  depart,  ^o  man  capable  of  logical 
thought  will  find  the  two  dangers  parallel. 

"  The  case  of  obscene  literature  seems,  at  first 
sight,  to  be  j)ertinent.  Whoever  reads  the  speeches 
made  on  the  j^assage  by  Congress  of  the  law 
against  the  circulation  of  obscene  literature,  will 
recall  that  it  was  put  on  one  distinct  ground,  the 
only  one  on  which  it  can  rest,  namely,  that  forty- 
nine-fiftieths  of  it  is  circulated  among  children. 
This  is  a  grave  crime,  as  it  is  to  sell  them  strong 

"  Some  time  since  I  had  occasion,  in  prex)aring 
a  volume,  to  pick  up  books  on  this  class  of  sub- 
jects. 'No  man  committed  a  crime  by  selling  them 
to  me.     If  this  class  of  literature,  like  strong  drink, 

334         .       THK   BIOGRAPHY   OF   DIO   LEWIS. 

were  in  great  part  sold  to  adults,  the  only  just  law 
would  be  one  wliicli  forbade  its  sale  to  children. 

"  Of  the  success  of  prohibition  in  the  State  of 
Massachusetts,  I  was  a  constant  and  attentive  ob- 
server for  twenty  years.  At  first  i)ublic  sentiment 
in  its  favor  was  very  strong.  Earnest  temperance 
men  wrote  the  law.  The  Legislature  passed  it 
without  changing  a  word.  Soon  it  was  discovered 
that  it  did  not  cover  every  case,  and  it  was  amended. 
Several  times  it  was  amended,  until  the  cunning  of 
the  Evil  One  could  find  no  iDossible  escape  from 
its  provisions. 

"  This  prohibitory  law  was  not  allowed  to  take 
its  chances  with  other  laws,  but  a  large  number  of 
selected  men,  known  as  State  constables,  with 
headquarters  in  Boston,  were  for  years  on  the  qui 
mve  for  transgressions  of  prohibition.  They  were 
sworn  to  enforce  that  law. 

"  Our  tax-payers  knew  that  a  large  percentage 
of  their  taxes  sprang  from  the  rum  traffic,  Ave  knew 
that  nearly  all  crimes  originated  in  strong  drink, 
every  father  knew  that  his  son's  success  and  his 
daughter's  liai)piness  were  imi)erilled  by  the  traf- 
fic, and  we  all  knew  that  the  success  of  our  repub- 
lican institutions  was  endangered  by  strong  drink. 

"Under  all  these  overwhelming  convictions, 
sustained  by  an  immense  force  of  State  constables, 
at  the  end  of  twenty -four  years  of  prohibition 
there  were,  in  Boston,  including  wifch  the  saloons 


those  drug  stores  where  drinks  could  be  purchased 
without  difficulty,  groceries,  many  of  which  sold 
by  the  drink  and  all  of  which  sold  by  the  bottle, 
almost  five  thousand  places  where  intoxicating 
drinks  could  be  purchased  without  let  or  hin- 
drance. And  this  in  the  most  law-abiding  large 
city  in  our  country.  All  the  considerations,  all 
the  conceivable  motives  that  could  inspire  an  in- 
telligent, brave  community,  were  concentrated  in 
Boston.  Does  not  this  suggest  to  thoughtful  men 
and  women  that  prohibition  is  not  the  medicine 
for  this  patient? 

"  The  sale  to  a  child,  to  a  man  who  is  drunk,  to 
a  sot,  or  to  a  person  known  to  be  dangerous  when 
under  the  influence  of  drink,  is  a  crime.  The  sale 
to  a  man  who  is  insane,  or  non  compos  mentis^ 
is  a  crime.  A  determined  prosecution  of  these 
offences  would  overwhelm  the  whole  horde  of 

"  But  prohibitionists  miss  their  great  opportu- 
nity in  not  prosecuting  adulterations.  An  adultera- 
tion is  a  frauds  and  a  fraud  is  always  a  crime. 
Ofl&cers  can  go  anywhere  in  search  of  a  fraud, 
and  in  this  movement  the  drinkers  themselves 
would  cheer  on  the  attack.  A  vigorous  prosecu- 
tion of  adulterations  would  paralyze  the  whole 

"  We  are  the  first  people  at  liberty  to  make 
laws  at  pleasure,  and  we  are  nearly  crazy  over  it. 

336  THE   BlOGRAt>HY   OF  DlO   LEWiS. 

''  Extravagant  notions  obtain  of  the  importance 
of  our  law-makers.  People  think  that  the  gov- 
ernor is  the  commander-in-chief  of  the  State, 
Avhile  he  is  only  the  chief  of  police.  To  crimi- 
nals he  is  a  great  man,  but  to  respectable  citizens 
he  is  a  policeman  without  bright  buttons,  whose 
principal  duty  it  is  to  watch  the  streets  while 
people  sleep.  Men  of  the  highest  class  can  serve 
better  by  wielding  those  social  and  moral  forces 
which  mould  society  and  govern  the  world. '^ 



The  following  pen-picture  of  Dr.  Lewis  will 
vividly  recall  him  to  those  who  have  listened  to 
his  addresses,  and  portray  him  to  such  readers  as 
have  not  done  so. 

From  the  Phrenological  Journal  and  Life 
Illustrated  of  June,  1874: 

"Here  is  an  original  character.  Nobody  will 
ever  mistake  Dr.  Dio  Lewis  for  Dr.  somebody  else. 
His  large,  rotund  body  and  well-formed  head  make 
him  at  once  a  striking  and  consiDicuous  figure. 
He  stands  nearly  six  feet  high  and  weighs  over 
two  hundred  jjounds.  His  complexion  is  fair, 
eyes  blue,  hair  formerly  auburn,  now  white.  His 
skin  is  fresh,  with  a  peachy  hue.  His  brain  is 
very  large,  measuring  twenty-four  inches  in  cir- 
cumference, and  is  both  long  and  high.  His  na- 
ture is  peculiarly  sympathetic.  Though  the  in- 
tellectual organs  are  large  the  moral  sentiments 
are  still  larger,  and  he  exxDeriences  the  most  ex- 
alted and  rapturous  emotions.  He  is  overflowing 
with  good  feeling,  affection,  charity,  aspiration 
and  adoration.  His  brain  is  also  broad  through 
the  region  of  constructiveness,  and  he  is  inventive. 



He  is  not  belligerent  and  would  rather  avoid  than 
seek  controversy.  His  destructiveness  is  moder- 
ate and  he  cannot  be  cruel.  All  his  fighting  will 
be  done  with  tongue  and  pen,  save  in  defence." 

"  What  of  his  religion? " 

"  Look  again  at  the  portrait.  See  how  high  the 
head  is  from  the  ear  upward  to  the  top.  See  how 
long  the  head  is  from  the  ear  forward.  This 
clearly  indicates  a  moral  and  a  religious  tendency. 
If  it  were  asked  us  to  what  particular  church  he 
may  belong,  or  to  what  creed  he  subscribes,  our  an- 
swer would  be,  '  we  do  not  know ; '  and  yet  we  be- 
lieve that  he  will  be  found  working  as  heartily 
with  those  of  one  Christian  church  as  with  those 
of  another.  When  he  worships  God  it  is  with 
little  regard  to  creeds,  forms  or  ceremonies.  His 
prayer  would  include  all  mankind." 

"  Has  he  business  capabilities? " 

"  Yes,  but  he  could  never  become  absorbed  in 
mere  money -making.  If  he  seeks  money  it  is  for 
the  purpose  of  usefulness,  that  he  may  carry  out 
some  reformatory  enterj)rise,  and  not  for  the  love 
of  lucre. 

"  He  is  a  very  active  man,  a  hard  worker,  though 
he  works  easily.  He  is,  in  brief,  a  live,  original, 
energetic,  enthusiastic,  sympathetic,  emotional 
gentleman.    He  is  emphatically  Dr.  Dio  Lewis." 

A  Rouse's  Point  (N.  Y.)  paper  says: 

"  Dr.  Lewis  has  a  jolly,  well-fed  look,  and  an 


inimitable  delivery.  His  diction  is  pure,  lie  speaks 
not  at  all  in  a  hurry,  but  with  a  zest  that  dwells 
on  the  words  and  makes  every  sentence  tell.  His 
actions,  illustrations^  and  anecdotes  are  all  felici- 
tous and  well-sustained.  He  doesn't  drag.  You 
listen  in  spite  of  yourself,  and  follow  his  speech 
without  effort.  It  is,  in  fact,  like  an  animated  par- 
lor conversation  between  the  speaker  and  the  au- 
dience, conducted  by  one  thoroughly  at  home 
with  himself  and  at  ease  with  all  the  world.  ISTo 
stilts,  puffery,  or  airing  of  medical  terms,  but  a 
cozy  talk  on  common-sense  subjects." 

The  Bangor  (Me.)  WJiig  of  May  11th,  1874, 

"  Dr.  Lewis  tells  the  story  of  this  Western  tem- 
perance campaign  in  a  quiet  manner,  with  no  out- 
burst of  enthusiasm,  in  no  flighty,  rhetorical  lan- 
guage, but  with  an  impressiveness  of  manner  and 
speech  that  thrills  his  audience. 

"  People  used  to  say :  '  Dr.  Lewis,  how  is  it  that 
you  hold  the  children  so?  My  little  boys  will  not 
stay  away  from  your  lectures.' 

"  'Let  them  come,'  was  the  reply:  *  when  I  can- 
not speak  so  that  the  children  can  understand  me 
I  will  stop  lecturing.'  " 



Under  the  combined  strain  of  labors  in  the  lec- 
tnre-field,  the  school,  the  gymnasium,  with  the  pen 
and  in  the  conduct  of  business  affairs  in  Boston, 
and  finally  in  crusade  work,  into  each  of  which 
Dr.  Lewis  threw  himself  with  his  characteristic 
zeal  and  industry,  warnings  came  to  him  of  an 
overwrought  nervous  system  and  of  the  imperative 
need  of  rest.  To  gain  this,  feeling  that  he  must 
"  burn  his  ships  behind  him,"  he  sold  his  family 
hotel,  "  The  Bellevue,"  in  1875,  and  with  Mrs.  Lewis 
went  to  California  for  out-of-doors  life.  Here 
they  remained  three  years,  their  stay  being  inter- 
rupted only  by  a  return  to  the  East  in  the  Cen- 
tennial year  to  visit  the  Exposition. 

During  these  years  they  enjoyed  all  the  pleas- 
ures which  gypsy-life  and  congenial  companion- 
ship could  afford,  in  a  climate  incapable  of  sur- 
prises, where  days,  weeks  and  months  could  be 
made  one  long  picnic,  and  where,  with  no  appoint- 
ments to  meet,  time  seemed  to  have  lost  signifi- 

During  their  first  winter  in  San  Francisco,  a 
young  Norwegian  in  the  emjDloyment  of  a  relative 


of  Dr.  Lewis  failing  in  health  came  under  the 
doctor's  care,  and  inspired  a  warm  interest  in  him 
and  in  Mrs.  Lewis.  A  summer  camping -party 
was  planned,  with  "  Joe  "  for  major-campo.  His 
rare  good  qualities  made  the  summer  one  alto- 
gether free  from  care.  There  were  rest  and  health 
in  the  long  days  of  sunshine  on  horseback,  and 
in  the  nights  of  balm  spent  beneath  the  spreading 
trees  or  the  overhanging,  star-lit  sky,  or,  if  need 
were,  sheltered  by  the  canvas  roof;  in  the  evening 
tale  of  some  chance  acquaintance— a  "  forty-niner," 
a  pony-express -rider  turned  guide,  a  famous 
"  whip,"  a  ranchman,  sheep-herder,  or  proprietor  of 
the  land, — as  they  gathered  around  the  blazing 
camp-fires,  now  of  logs  from  ten  to  twenty  feet  long, 
now  of  the  curiously-twisted,  rosewood-hued 
branches  of  the  manzanita,  or  of  odorous  bay- 
tree  ;  now  of  the  monster  cones  of  the  pines,  whose 
shafts,  rising  from  two  hundred  to  two  hundred 
and  fifty  feet  high,  caught  the  light  of  the  flames, 
which  opened  to  view  long  forest  aisles.  There 
was  inspiration  in  the  towering  mountain  walls 
and  precipitous  gorges,  between  which,  on  narrow 
and  curving,  but  well-made  roads — mere  scratches 
they  seemed  on  the  mountain  side — the  cavalcade 
and  baggage-wagon  wound  their  way ;  within  the 
cathedral-like  walls  of  Yosemite  there  was  wor- 
ship. There  was  cheer  in  the  hospitality  which  the 
land-ow^er  and  his  family  were  always  ready  to 


extend  to  those  who  courteously  asked  to  occupy 
a  portion  of  his  land,  Avhich  was  heartily  granted 
for  a  night,  or  a  week,  or  a  month.  Everywhere, 
too,  in  humble  cottage  and  in  statelier  home,  there 
was  the  possible  surprise  of  cordial  recognition  of 
one  whose  name  had  become,  through  his  books,  a 
household  word,  and  perliaps  there  was  added  the 
grateful  tribute  of  tears. 

One  day  Jack,  the  dog,  had  lost  himself,  and 
search  was  made.  After  a  while  the  doctor  came 
back  to  camp  with  the  dog  at  his  heels,  and 
shouted  as  he  came:  "I've  found  Jack,  Nellie, 
and  I've  found  iriends.  I  don't  know  them,  but 
they  know  me  and  will  have  us  to  dinner,  so  tie 
on  your  hat  and  come !  " 

Another  day  the  j^arty  met  one  of  the  long, 
white,  duck-covered  wagons  known  as  "prairie- 
schooners,"  into  which  were  packed  father,  mother, 
and  a  bevy  of  children.  They  were  migrating  to 
"other  parts."  The  friendly  salutation,  w^hich 
was  always  ready,  was  acknowledged,  and  was  fol- 
lowed by  question  and  answer  till,  at  the  doctor's 
announcement  of  his  name,  the  emigrant  dropped 
his  reins,  and  wife  as  Avell  as  husband  climbed 
down  from  the  wagon  to  greet  him,  exclaiming: 
"  Why,  all  our  children  have  been  brought  up  ac- 
cording to  your  books,  but  we  reckoned  we'd 
never  see  you  with  our  own  eyes." 

It  was  i)lain  that  wherever  Dr.  Lewis's  books 

THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF    DIO    LEWIS.  343 

miglit  not  have  gone  tliey  had  found  their  way 
into  the  liomes  of  the  people  along  the  Pacific 

But  perhaps  the  keenest  enjoyment  of  Dr. 
Lewis  in  this  novel  life  came  from  the  close  rela- 
tion into  which  it  brought  him  with  his  pet  ani- 
mals. There  was  his  own  beautiful  gray  horse, 
and  the  sleek,  black  Indian  pony  of  Mrs.  Lewis, 
which  was  so  tame  that  he  was  not  hobbled  for 
the  night,  though  the  rest  were,  until  one  day 
some  wild  mustangs  drew  near  camp,  at  sight  of 
which  Dick  felt  the  native  instinct  for  freedom  stir 
in  his  veins,  paused  a  moment,  tossed  his  head  in 
air,  snorted,  threw  up  his  heels  and  was  off  with 
the  herd.  Ah  happy  Dick!  During  the  night, 
however,  he  came  home  for  his  oats,  and  had  to 
pay  the  penalty  of  being  treated  with  distrust  and 
hobbled  like  che  rest. 

Even  the  great  mules  which  drew  the  baggage 
wagon  were  friendly,  for  Joe  treated  them  as  Sir 
Walter  Scott  is  said  to  have  treated  his  dogs,  "  like 
a  gentleman,"  and  soon  handled  their  heels  as 
freely  as  he  did  those  of  the  horses,  while  the  mem-- 
bers  of  the  party  fed  them  with  bread  whenever 
Lung  Sing,  the  cook,  missed  his  usual  good  luck, 
and  sometimes  with  choicest  grapes,  which  were 
lavishly  contributed  from  vineyards  through 
which  the  party  rode  and  by  those  among  whom 
their  temporary  lot  was  cast, 

844  THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF    DIO    LEWIS. 

There  was  Jack,  the  dog,  so  confiding  that  when 
an  irritating  seed-vessel,  popularly  called  a  "  fox- 
tail," became  imbedded  in  his  foot,  he  laid  his 
paw  trustingly  in  the  doctor's  hand,  and  plead 
with  his  eyes  for  the  surgical  treatment  from  which 
he  did  not  shrink. 

All  these,  in  their  freedom  and  closeness  of  re- 
lation, were  a  delight  to  one  with  whom  kindness 
to  animals  was  an  instinct  as  well  as  a  creed. 
Never  from  the  day  when  little  Dio's  mother, 
finding  a  toad  in  the  cellar  which  she  supj)osed 
her  boys  had  brought  in  for  sj)ort,  called  them  to- 
gether to  receive  her  severest  reproof  because  she 
thought  they  had  cruelly  cut  off  its  tail,  and  was 
told,  with  shouts  of  convulsive  laughter,  that 
^'  toads  don't  have  tails,"  had  any  one  charged  him 
with  lack  of  tenderness  to  any  creature  that  lived. 

Being  entertained  at  one  time  by  a  deacon 
of  the  severer  type,  where  the  dogs  belonging 
to  the  family  were  sharply  forbidden  to  cross  the 
threshold  of  the  house.  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Lewis  went 
to  the  stable  to  pet  them.  As  they  drove  away 
from  the  house  the  doctor  said,  reflectively,  "  If  I 
should  have  occasion  to  come  here  again  it  is  the 
dogs  I  should  think  most  of  meeting."  He  evi- 
dently sj)oke  his  mind  Avlien  he  said :  "  The  best 
part  of  a  man  is  the  dog  that  is  in  him." 

After  two  summers  in  saddle  and  camp  the 
doctor's  health  was  so  far  i^estored  that  a  winter 


of  enjoyment  and  pioderate  activity  Avas  passed  in 
beautiful  Oakland. 

While  liere  Dr.  Lewis  served  as  president  of 
the  Society  for  the  Prevention  of  Cruelty  to 
Animals,  and  co-operated  with  others  in  ojoeiiing 
a  free  library  and  reading-room  to  which  he  con- 
tributed by  public  lectures  and  donations  of  books. 
It  was  his  pleasure  to  take  the  newsboys  for  out- 
ings into  the  country,  in  a  sort  of  stage  which  he 
owned.  His  sym]3athies  were  wide  enough  to 
reach  all  people,  without  question  of  race,  color, 
sex  or  condition.  He  never  sought  favor  of  rank, 
wealth  or  talent.  "To  do  some  good  in  the 
world,"  was  his  single  aim,  steadily  pursued,  with 
apparently  never  a  question  whether  the  world 
favored  or  frowned.  If  honors  came  to  him  they 
came  unsought,  as  did  the  degree  of  A.M.  con- 
ferred on  him  by  Amherst  College  in  1864,  of 
which  he  first  learned  through  the  public  press. 

When,  at  one  time,  Mrs.  Lewis  tried  to  persuade 
him  not  to  resume  the  cares  of  business,  he  re- 
plied with  pathos  in  his  voice:  "Nellie,  when  I 
can  no  longer  be  doing  something  for  somebody, 
I  want  to  die  and  let  some  decent  dog  have  my 

That  every  good  chance  should  be  for  every- 
body was  the  desire  of  his  heart. 

Visiting  the  famous  Royal  Albert  Hall,  near 
Hyde  Park,  London,  he  wrote; 


"  I  have  seen  notliing  in  Europe  which  so  deex)ly 
interested  me.  My  bump  of  reverence  for  what 
is  merely  old  is  not,  I  fear,  up  to  the  i)rescribed 
level;  for  if  you  can  believe  me,  this  'Albert 
Hall,'  with  its  modern  freshness  and  beauty,  with 
its  comfortable  sittings  for  thousands  of  tJie  peo- 
ple, so  arranged  as  to  bring  ten  or  twelve  thou- 
sand persons  within  hearing  of  a  single  voice,  im- 
pressed me  more  than  Westminster  Abbey,  with 
all  its  sacred  chaj)els,  filled  with  the  awfully  sacred 
remains  of  a  lot  of  old  kings  and  queens,  whose 
lives,  for  the  most  part,  w^ere  cheap  and  vulgar 
and  mean  to  the  last  degree. 

"Ah !  I  wish  the  great  American  cities  would 
build  such  halls.  Think  of  halls  so  large  that  the 
very  highest  class  of  concerts  and  operas  may  be 
offered  to  the  public  for  ten  cents !  I  heard  Cam- 
panini  when  he  first  came  out,  Parepa,  and  several 
other  great  artists,  including  Sims  Reeves,  all  in 
one  grand  concert  in  Albert  Hall,  for  four  cents." 

Dr.  Lewis  was  greatly  opposed  to  vivisection, 
and  when  he  had  A^tten  an  article  on  the  sub- 
ject for  publication,  reversing  his  usual  custom  he 
begged  Mrs.  Lewis  not  to  read  it,  for  he  said  it 
would  be  sure  to  keep  her  awake  at  night.  He 
was  himself  so  prostrated  by  the  nervous  strain 
of  reviewing  facts  in  preparing  it  that  at  night  he 
was  sleepless,  and  Mrs.  Lewis  rose  and  read  to 
him  something  pleasant  to  divert  his  mind, 


In  tlie  spring  following  his  winter  in  Oakland 
Dr.  Lewis  planned  another  summer's  gyjjsy-life, 
and  made  arrangements  for  a  large  party.  In  the 
midst  of  preparations,  however,  he  fell  in  the 
street  from  an  attack  of  paralysis,  and  for  four 
weeks  could  not  be  removed  from  the  small  hotel 
into  which  he  was  taken.  He  shortly  rallied  so 
far  as  to  go  quietly,  with  a  few  gentlemen,  into 
the  Sierras.  In  August  he  felt  quite  recuperated, 
and  with  Mrs.  Lewis  returned  to  'New  England. 
During  his  three  years  in  California  he  had  been 
entirely  free  from  the  malady  of  hay-fever,  with 
which  previously  he  had  been  afflicted,  but  he 
had  scarcely  crossed  the  E-ocky  Mountains  when 
it  returned  with  great  violence. 

After  six  months  of  comparative  freedom  from 
business  care  in  New  England  his  unconquera- 
ble love  of  work  mastered  him,  and  he  bought  a 
large  hotel  property  at  Arlington  Heights,  seven 
miles  from  Boston,  Mass.,  and  soon  converted  it 
into  a  finely-appointed  sanitarium,  which  he  con- 
ducted for  three  years,  when  renewed  symptoms 
of  overwork  led  him  to  sell  it. 

Among  the  services  done  to  suffering  humanity 
in  the  Arlington  Heights  Sanitariiim  no  case  was 
more  noteworthy  than  that  of  a  prominent  physi- 
cian of  Williamsburg,  Mass. — Dr.  Palmer,  who 
suffered  from  general  paralysis.  Tlie  most  skilled 
physicians  had  pronounced  him  beyond  cure,  and 

348  THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF   DIO    LEWIS. 

Dr.  Lewis  regarded  tlie  case  as  a  severe  test  of  the 
possibilities  of  liis  methods  and  skill. 

A  communication  from  Dr.  Lewis  to  a  Williams- 
burg pai)er  states  the  case  and  the  method  of 
treatment,  which,  in  view  of  its  success,  seems 
worth  chronicling. 

"  Boston-,  March  25th,  1881. 
"Editor  Hampshire  Gazette: 

"  Permit  me  to  say  a  word  through  your  jour- 
nal of  Dr.  Dudley  Palmer's  remarkable  recovery. 
When  he  came  to  my  sanitarium  he  was  taking 
a  large  dose  of  morj^hine  every  five  hours;  he  was 
also  taking  strychnine  and  quinine  in  large  quan- 
tities. He  was  in  a  profound  paralysis,  extending 
to  almost  every  muscle  except  those  of  respiration 
and  circulation ;  his  muscles  were  reduced  to  mere 
threads  from  lack  of  exercise;  mind  seriously 
compromised — altogether  in  a  very  wretched  con- 
dition. He  was  six  feet  tall  and  formerly  of  noble 
bearing;  he  was  reduced  to  indescribable  emacia- 
tion, helplessness  and  agon^^  To-day,  ten  months 
after  his  coming,  he  leaves  the  sanitarium  to  re- 
turn to  his  professional  labors,  a  well  man.  From 
the  hour  he  came  until  now  he  has  not  taken  a 
particle  of  any  narcotics  or  any  substitute  for 
narcotics.  His  treatment  has  consisted  of  Turk- 
ish baths,  an  immense  amount  of  hand-rubbing,  a 
frequent  use  of  a  large  fifty-cell  electrical  battery, 


and  from  12,000  to  25,000  daily  blows  upon  vari- 
ous portions  of  Ms  body  with  susjoended  rubber 
balls.  I  liave  been  trying  to  induce  Dr.  Palmer 
to  remain  in  an  annex  of  my  sanitarium  and  take 
charge  of  the  victims  of  opium  and  drink ;  but  the 
impulse  to  out-door  activities  and  to  the  resump- 
tion of  his  surgical  practice  is  too  strong  at  ]Dresent. 
I  trust  he  may  return  to  us  at  some  future  time. 
Dr.  Palmer  is  in  perfect  health,  without  the  slight- 
est desire  for  narcotics ;  his  skin  is  singularly  clear, 
eyes  bright,  breadth  sweet,  digestion  excellent,  and 
his  slee^D  is  better  than  for  the  last  twenty  years. 
His  entire  condition  is  natural  and  satisfactory. 
I  am  very  happy  to  have  been  the  means  of  restor- 
ing one  whom  we  have  learned  to  love  and  resjDect, 
and  who  will  carry  back  to  his  i^rof  essional  labors 
in  your  midst  a  restored  body,  a  clear  head,  and  a 
strong  purpose  to  fill  the  full  measure  of  a  large 
professional  usefulness. 

"  I  am,  my  dear  sir,  yours  very  truly, 

"  Dio  Lewis." 

A  communication  to  the  Hampshire  County 
Journal  of  Northampton,  Mass.,  from  the  Hon. 
Oliver  Warner,  formerly  Secretary  of  State  of 
Massachusetts,  who  had  watched  the  case  with  in- 
terest, pays  tribute  to  the  devotion  of  Dr.  Lewis, 
from  which  we  make  extracts : 

"...  Those  who  were  familiar  with  this  case 


will  never  forget  the  self-sacrifice  and  utter  devo- 
tion to  liis  patient  which  characterized  Dr.  Lewis's 
treatment  of  the  case.  With  a  patience  and  kind- 
ness more  than  paternal  he  watched  and  worked 
over  him  day  and  night,  giving  x^ersonal  attention 
to  the  case  to  the  neglect  of  his  other  interests, 
until  he  could  safely  leave  him  to  the  care  of 
others  in  the  establishment.  ...  At  last  the  pa- 
tient's strength  and  powerful  use  of  his  good  right 
arm  and  hand  were  a  marvel  to  behold.  On  the 
day  he  left  I  saw  Dr.  Palmer  take  hold  of  two 
rings  suspended  from  the  ceiling  of  the  cooling- 
room,  and  swing  himself  so  as  to  touch  with  his 
feet  the  plastering  abov^e.  If  Dr.  Lewis  had  never 
before  benefitted  a  poor,  suffering  fellow-creature, 
this  instance  of  marvellous  cure  ought  to  establish 
his  reputation." 

Dr.  Palmer  wrote  to  Mrs.  Lewis  on  November 
3d,  1887: 

"7^  would  he  an  utter  impossibility  for  me  to 
take  a  dose  of  morphine  since  leaving  the  sani- 
tarium. ...  I  weigh  two  hundred  pounds.  I 
shall  always  regard  your  dear  husband  as  the  best 
friend  I  ever  had,  to  whom  I  owe  more  than  life." 



Dr.  Lewis's  marvellons  activity  of  mind  and 
body  came  under  the  observation  of  the  writer  of 
this  sketch  at  this  period. 

In  addition  to  the  personal  conduct  of  the  sani- 
tarium he  was  writing  the  story  of  his  camp-life 
in  California,  entitled  "  Gypsies,"  he  was  issuing 
Dio  Lewises  Monthly  for  Jolly  FoTks^  he  was 
publishing  miniature  volumes  containing  the  gist 
of  his  views  on  vital  topics,  known  as  the  "  Gem 
Health  Series,"  a.nd  was  publishing  an  illustrated 

It  was  his  habit  to  retire  early,  by  nine  and  a 
half  o'clock  when  possible,  and  he  was  an  early 

Having  visited  such  patients  as  required  his 
personal  attention  he  went  to  Boston  at  usual  bus- 
iness hours.  There  his  office  was  a  hive  of  indus- 
try, w^here,  almost  without  pause,  he  counselled 
with  callers,  directed,  through  his  manager,  the 
work  of  printers,  engravers  and  type-writers,  dic- 
tated to  his  amanuensis,  or  seized  his  pen  and 
dashed  off  copy  with  speed,  and,  promptly,  as  the 
hour  for  return  home  came,  he  shut  down  the 

852  ^HE   BlOGRAiPilY   01^   biO   LEWIS. 

gates  of  business  and  was  off  to  the  railway  sta- 
tion, usually  without  having  broken  fast  since  the 
early  morning  meal.  In  the  railway  car  he  met  his 
neighbors  like  a  man  fresh  from  sleep,  not  from 
work.  Seven  miles  travel  brought  him  to  Arling- 
ton Heights,  where,  leaving  the  carriage  to  others, 
he  climbed  on  foot  the  steep  hill,  nearly  a  mile 
long,  to  the  sanitarium,  which  he  entered  with 
the  cheer  and  spirit  of  one  who  had  been  storing 
up  vitality  all  day,  not  expending  it.  He  ate  his 
supper  with  relish,  but  never  criticised,  rarely 
commented  upon  what  was  set  before  him.  Then 
he  was  ready  for — rest  ?    Oh,  no ! 

While  others  lingered  he  visited  the  patients 
who  were  confined  to  their  rooms,  observed  the 
workings  of  the  machinery  of  the  establishment, 
correcting  any  imperfection  in  its  movement,  but 
never  with  grumbling  or  a  disposition  to  find 
fault.  The  oil  to  remove  friction  was,  for  him,  a 
kindly  word  to  the  workers,  and  the  implied  as- 
surance that  faithfulness  in  his  absence  met  due 
appreciation.  This  consideration  for  the  humblest 
of  his  employees  appeared  in  many  ways. 

It  was  gratifying  to  see  them  summoned  to  such 
lectures  or  entertainments  as  were  likely  to  appeal 
to  them,  and  to  see  the  big  carriage  which  served 
the  patrons  and  guests  of  the  house  for  picnic  or 
jaunting-car,  carry,  at  another  time,  these  tireless 
workers,  on  whom,  to  such  a  degree,  the  health 


and  comfort  of  all  dejoended,  to  the  churcli  of 
their  choosing,  whether  Catholic  or  Protestant, 
or  again  to  some  merry-making,  or  just  for  an 

By  the  time  the  household  had  gathered  in  the 
music-room,  in  leisurely  way,  the  doctor  was  there 
to  start  story-telling,  for  which  he  had  a  rare  gift, 
and  of  stories  he  had  an  eyer-increasing  store. 
Then  came  reading  of  some  amusing  or  tender  sort, 
games,  gymnastics  and  music  in  spirited  succes- 
sion, with  all  of  which  mingled  fun  and  laughter, 
till  the  invalids  seemed  a  group  of  hajDpy  well 
people  on  a  good  time. 

However  hilarious  the  fun,  on  the  stroke  of  the 
clock  at  nine  all  separated  for  the  night. 

The  rax^idity  with  which  Dr.  Lewis  thus  went 
from  one  interest  to  another  was  almost  bewilder- 
ing to  observers,  not  at  all  so  to  himself.  With 
all  his  speed  there  was  no  flurry,  not  even  appar- 
ent haste,  but  there  was  marvellous  directness  of 
movement.  He  appeared  to  be  made  up  for  rapid 
work.  By  temx^erament  he  seemed,  as  comx)ared 
with  others,  like  a  clock  set  to  beat  seconds  while 
others  beat  minutes.  He  never  said  "  to-morrow  " 
of  anything  which  could  be  included  in  to-day. 
"  Life  is  too  short  to  x>ut  anything  off,''  he  would 
say;  ''we  are  not  sure  of  to-morrow  and  the  work 
must  be  done."  His  voice,  while  very  strong,  was 
low  and  gentle ;  his  speech  was  so  deliberate  as  to 

854  THE   BIOGKAPHY    OF   DIO    LEWlg. 

appear  measured.  He  seemed  devoid  of  botli 
mental  and  physical  inertia,  and  so  produced  on 
casual  observers  an  impression  of  acting  on  tlie 
sp  Lir  of  tlie  moment — of  rushing  affairs.  His  sense 
of  the  relative  importance  of  movements  was,  how- 
ever, very  quick,  and  into  actions  which  seemed 
impulsive  there  usually  went  a  degree  of  judgment 
which  comes  to  most  people  only  through  long 
and  careful  consideration. 

Mr.  Theodore  D.  Weld,  than  whom  no  abler  an- 
alyst could  be  found,  and  who  knew  Dr.  Lewis 
through  years  of  associated  work  in  their  school 
at  Lexington,  Mass.,  said  to  the  writer,  during  the 
loreparation  of  this  memoir: 

"  Dr.  Lewis's  schemes  and  ventures  looked  like 
reckless  ground-and-lof ty  tumbling,  but  so  often 
turned  out  well  that  they  came  to  seem  like  inspi- 
ration, rather. 

"  He  had  unlimited  confidence  in  himself  and  in 
his  power  of  accomplishment,  and  nine  times  out  of 
ten  he  carried  his  project  through;  but  show  him 
a  flaw  in  his  project  and  he  acknowledged  it  and 
dropped  the  plan  altogether." 

It  would  seem  that  his  own  quick  decision  and 
unusual  powers  of  accomplishment  might  have 
made  him  an  over-stimulating  guide  to  others, 
especially  to  the  young  and  the  delicately  organ- 
ized, who  mainly  composed  his  school. 

Mr.  Weld  said: 

'rJHE   BIOGRAPHY   OF   DlO   LEWIS.  855 

"  I  was  often  consulted  privately,  when  at  Lex- 
ington, by  parents  wlio,  observing  the  doctor's  en- 
thusiasm and  his  temperament,  feared  lest  their 
daughters  should  be  overpressed  and  so  broken 

""  I  therefore  observed  with  great  care,  and  can 
say  that  I  never  knew  an  instance,  during  the 
years  I  was  there,  of  any  gymnastic  exercise  that 

was  overdone  or  harmful.     One  lady,  Miss  I , 

from  Clinton,  111.,  was  brought  on  a  stretcher. 
She  improved,  returned  home,  got  sick,  and  came 
again.  It  was  doubtful  whether  she  could  live. 
But  she  was  cured,  studied  medicine,  walked  the 
hospitals  for  a  year,  established  herself  as  a  phy- 
sician, and  conducted  a  large  practice.  .  .  . 

"  I  made  up  my  mind  long  ago  that  the  doctor's 
books  are  of  great  value.  .  .  . 

"  Whatever  failings  the  doctor  had,  he  never 
blinded  himself  to  them.  His  imagination,  which 
was  not  the  poetic  imagination,  sometimes  played 
him  false,  and  when  stimulated,  blurred  the  lines 
of  his  perceptions.  When  I  taxed  him  with  it  he 
saw  and  owned  it.  I  recall  a  long,  long  ride  with 
him  through  woods  and  towns,  when  he  talked  of 
his  shortcomings  with  the  simplicity  and  frank- 
ness of  a  child,  and  begged  me  to  be  frank  with 
him,  and  when  I  was  so,  he  said  I  had  been  his 
truest  friend  and  he  wished  he  could  have  had 
such  all  his  life." 

856  THE   BIOGRAPHY   OF   t)IO    LEWIS. 

]S"otliing  is  more  apparent  on  careful  study 
of  Dr.  Lewis's  life  tlian  that,  while  he  naturally 
conveyed  to  the  casual  observer  the  impression 
of  acting  from  impulse,  he  was  governed  by  car- 
dinal princix3les  to  which  he  adhered  through 
severe  tests,  through  lack  of  sympathy,  through 
sneer  and  obloquy,  through  misrepresentation,  the 
more  j^ainful  that  it  came  from  some  whose  com- 
munity of  aim  seemed  only  to  make  them  the 
more  intolerant  of  honest  difference  of  method. 

That  his  views  on  medicine  and  on  reform  mat- 
ters often  cut  him  olf  from  symj^athetic  affiliation 
with  his  professional  brethren,  and  especially  from 
the  workers  for  temperance,  was  a  source  of  ten- 
der regret  to  him.  He  repeatedly  said  "  nothing 
is  so  sweet  to  me  as  the  love  and  confidence  of  my 
fellow-men,"  but  it  seems  never  to  have  warx)ed 
his  judgment,  nor  to  have  led  him  beyond  resist- 
ance into  temptation  to  modify  his  action  or  to 
compromise  his  convictions. 

He  wrote: 

"  It  costs  me  a  great  and  painful  struggle  to 
make  my  effort  against  jirohibition.  Years  ago, 
when  I  published  my  volume  discussing  the  func- 
tion of  civil  law  in  human  society,  it  produced 
such  painful  conflict  with  my  best  friends  that 
I  resolved  to  go  not  one  step  farther.  But  seeing 
the  subject  as  I  do,  believing  that  we  can  do  noth- 
ing more  for  temperance  until  prohibition  is  re- 


moved  from  our  path,  there  is  nothing  left  me 
but  to  enter  the  arena  again.  No  one  knows  so 
well  as  I  how  much  it  costs  me  in  patronage,  bus- 
iness, and  friends,  and  no  one  can  realize  so  well 
as  I  how  inflexible  is  my  determination  to  con- 
tinue the  struggle  as  long  as  I  live,  if  need  be ;  but 
I  hope  this  prohibition  mania  will  soon  pass  away." 

The  element  of  combattiveness,  so  often  a  part 
of  the  mental  constitution  of  the  reformer,  was 
almost  wanting  in  Dr.  Lewis.  He  even  avoided 
argument,  unless  urged  to  it  in  defence  of  princi- 
ples, and  he  would  rather  run  than  wrangle. 

Whatever  form  opj)osition  took  his  x^atience  was 
unfailing,  and  to  all  he  maintained  unvarying 
courtesy.  Indeed,  toward  those  who  most  sorely 
wounded  him  he  cherished  no  unkindly  feeling, 
and  he  never  lost  his  sweetness  and  composure  of 

Sometimes  when  Mrs.  Lewis  would  say  to  him, 
"  It  is  hard  to  meet  such  opposition,"  he  would  an- 
swer quietly,  "  It  will  all  come  right  in  time." 

When  some  one  spoke  rudely  to  him,  Mrs. 
Lewis  said:  "  Why  did  you  not  resent  it'^ " 

"  Oh,  that  would  not  have  been  the  best  way," 
he  replied.  "Now  he  will  think  over  what  he 
has  said  and  be  sorry  for  it,  and  perhaps  come  to 
me  and  tell  me  so."  That  the  right  would  pre- 
vail was  an  abiding  trust  with  him. 

As  the  present  writer  was  one  of  the  party 


which,  in  1876,  enjoyed,  under  the  leadership  of 
Dr.  Lewis,  six  months  of  out-of-door  life  in  a 
gypsy  trip  through  California,  it  is  pleasant  to 
her  to  add  to  the  story  of  a  life  whose  character- 
istics have  been  told  as  far  as  possible  in  events, 
a  few  imj^ressions  of  those  traits  which  best  ap- 
peared in  the  freedom  of  long  personal  intercourse, 
and  which  are  put  to  test  by  the  varied  experi- 
ences of  travel. 

As  we  were  always  sitting  under  vine  and  fig- 
tree  not  our  own,  it  was  gratifying  to  see  that  Dr. 
Lewis's  principle  of  non-intrusion  was  as  plainly 
exemplified  in  his  daily  life  as  in  his  theories  as 
to  methods  of  reform. 

He  had  the  happy  gift  of  establishing,  at  once, 
pleasant  relations  with  i)eop]e  of  all  types.  To 
meet  him  was,  on  the  part  of  these  most  hospita- 
ble Californians,  to  give  to  him  and  to  his  party 
cordial  welcome  to  the  use  of  their  lands,  and 
often  to  their  vineyards,  their  orchards,  and  their 
homes ;  his  liberal  spirit  was  frequently  taxed  to 
keep  pace  with  the  generosity  of  our  hosts. 

Though  Dr.  Lewis  was  suffering  from  nervous 
prostration,  and  bore  the  resjDonsibility  of  choos- 
ing routes  and  camping-places  and  of  i)roviding 
supplies,  I  think  no  one  ever  heard  him  utter  a 
word  of  complaint  or  regret  over  any  mischance 
of  travel.  If  Joe  brought  any  unfavorable  report 
of  the  situation,  his  one  invariable  response  was  a 


clieery  "  good !  "  and  the  trouble  was  at  once  rem- 
edied or  apparently  never  tliouglit  of  again. 

We  knew  when  the  day's  trip  had  been  over- 
long  for  him,  and  had  brought  suffering  from 
headache  or  exhaustion,  only  by  his  asking  Joe  to 
please  to  put  up  his  cot-bed  first,  and  by  his  ap- 
peal to  "  Nellie  "  (his  wife)  to  sit  by  him,  and  hold 
his  hand  and,  perhaps,  to  quietly  read  to  him.  His 
sufferings  were  never  allowed  to  tax  even  the  sym- 
pathy of  others. 

Our  enjoyments  were  always  without  discount, 
so  far  as  the  doctor's  influence  went.  He  was 
alw^ays  genial  and  considerate  of  others,  never 
calculated  what  '^  might  have  hapi^ened  ^,"  and 
never  Avished  for  the  unattainable.  Yesterday 
was  buried  for  him.  To-morrow  seemed  to  cast  no 
shadows  before  it.  He  loved  to  make  noio  haj^py. 
I  read  in  his  life  before  I  saw  that  he  had  put  it 
in  words. 

"If  you  did  but  know  it,  my  dear  friends, 
speaking  pleasantly  and  lovingly  to  those  near- 
est you  is  the  straight  road  to  a  pleasant  temper 
in  yourself.  You  can't  make  things  outside  of 
yourself  go  to  suit  you." 

As  he  exemplified  it  the  word  "  promptness " 
seemed  to  have  quickened  its  meaning.  It  was, 
of  course,  his  province  to  decide  ways  and  move- 
ments, and  if  he  was  left  to  his  own  plans,  when  we 
were  to  move  forward  he  was  sure  to  have  tents 


struck  and  the  party  in  the  saddle  or  carriage  bright 
and  early,  but  if  Mrs.  Lewis  said,  "Why,  I  don't 
see  why  we  need  to  start  so  early,"  he  changed  his 
plans  in  an  instant.  '^  No  reason  in  the  world," 
would  be  the  reply,  "  at  eight  o'clock,  nine  o'clock, 
afternoon,  to-morrow  or  next  week,  whenever  you 
will ; "  and  the  change  of  plan  seemed  as  satisfac- 
tory to  him  as  its  fulfilment. 

On  one  occasion  the  ladies  were  urgent,  alto- 
gether against  his  judgment,  to  make  a  trip  north- 
ward along  the  coast  from  Santa  Cruz  to  a  pebble- 
beach  at  Pascadero.  He  deferred  to  their  wishes, 
and  for  nearly  a  day  they  journeyed  through  deep 
sand  and  in  face  of  a  high,  rasping  Avind,  which 
they  were  at  length  told  was  peculiar  to  the  sea- 
son and  Avould  last  for  days.  Dr.  Lewis  made  no 
comx)laint,  and  Avhen  at  length  the  ladies  resolved 
that  further  progress  would  be  intolerable,  he  said, 
''  Very  Avell,"  and  turning  his  horse  the  retinue 
followed.  He  alone  hastened  forward — backward, 
rather — to  choose  a  camping-place  for  the  night. 
We  soon  saw  him  on  his  horse,  stox)ping  the  way 
and  waving  liis  hand  as  a  signal  to  us  to  follow 
him.  He  had  found  a  fine  dairy  establishment  of 
three  hundred  cows,where  the  party  wei*e  refreshed 
with  cool  milk ;  then  on  the  doctor  sped  upon  his 
errand,  as  evening  was  already  approaching.  That 
night  we  had  the  one  poor  camping-place  of  the 
trip.    Our  Chinese  cook.  Lung  Sing,  found  it  Ji^r^^j 


from  the  resources  at  command,  to  kindle  the  fire 
for  supper,  and  when  it  was  at  length  ready  Joe 
announced  that  the  horses  had  stampeded.  So. 
the  doctor  went  through  tangle  and  swamps  to 
help  hunt  for  them,  and  it  was  an  hour  or  two 
before  they  were  recovered.  The  morning  re- 
vealed  still  more  clearly  the  dismalness  of  our 
surroundings,  but  nobody  comj)lained,  and  a  few 
hours  later  the  doctor  returned  from  a  search^ 
rejoicing  like  a  very  Columbus,  to  say  that  he  had 
found  a  fine  live-oak  grove,  and  that  the  family 
o^vning  it,  whose  cottage  was  near  by,  were  natives 
of  New  England  and  were  waiting  to  give  us  cor- 
dial  welcome. 

So  rapidly  broke  all  the  light-gathering  clouds 
which  beset  us  in  our  novel  ex^Derience  under  Cah 
ifornia  skies.  So  dropped  into  our  life,  for  bless, 
ing,  the  memory  of  one  who  made  light  of  all  mis. 
haps,  who  never  regretted,  who  never  foreboded 
evil,  and  who  never  said  "  I  told  you  so." 



From  this  record  it  will  be  plain  to  all  tliat 
while  devotedly  considering  the  health  of  others, 
Dr.  Lewis  was  unmindful  that  prostration  was  as 
inevitable  a  consequence  of  overwork  for  himself 
as  for  them.  From  states  of  nervous  exhaustion, 
consequent  upon  this  lavish  outlay  of  vital  force, 
he  rallied  with  marvellous  facility,  though  beyond 
doubt  failing  each  time  to  regain  the  former 
health  standard,  and  he  seemed  unmindful  of  the 
need  of  self-restraint  in  his  varied  activities.  He 
did  not  appear  to  know  the  meaning  of  the  word 
rest.  Work  was  his  normal  condition — an  inheri- 
tance directly  from  his  mother. 

A  fresh  reminder  of  waning  power  caused  the 
sale  of  the  Arlington  Heights  property  in  1881, 
but  vacations,  when  taken  in  time,  seemed  only  to 
insjpire  him  with  fresh  plans  of  work.  As  he  still 
controlled  the  only  excellent  Turkish  baths  in 
Boston,  he  planned  to  make  them  the  largest  and 
finest  in  the  country,  to  which  end  he  bought  val- 
uable prox)erty,  centrally  situated,  and  was  push- 
ing the  work  rapidly,  when  again  his  health  gave 


way  and  a  change  of  climate  became  necessary. 
At  heavy  loss  he  disposed  of  the  property  and  re- 
moved to  jN'ew  York  City. 

Cut  off  from  active  work  for  the  next  year  and 
a  half,  he  found  interest  in  daily  study  of  micro- 
scopy. In  1883,  at  the  request  of  the  president 
of  one  of  the  IN'ew  England  colleges  that  he  should 
publish  a  volume  of  suggestions  to  college  stu- 
dents on  topics  of  vital  importance  to  them,  and 
make  it  so  small  as  to  secure  a  very  large  sale,  he 
issued  '*  In  a  Nutshell."  It  immediately  drew 
from  scores  of  college  presidents  and  other  edu- 
cators of  distinction  the  wamiest  expressions  of 
commendation  and  gratitude. 

In  August  of  this  year  he  commenced  the  pub- 
lication of  Dio  Leiois's  MontTily,  which  imme- 
diately reached  an  enormous  sale.  Lacking  the 
necessary  vigor  to  conduct  so  large  a  business,  he 
employed  as  publisher  a  man  who  soon  proved 
himself  fraudulent,  thus  causing  great  mental 
strain  and  pecuniary  loss  to  Dr.  Lewis. 

Under  the  advice  of  specialists  in  brain  diseases 
Dr.  Lewis  yielded  to  the  necessity  of  giving  up 
the  exacting  work  of  publishing  to  take  entire 
rest.  To  secure  this,  in  the  spring  of  1884  he 
bought  a  farm  remote  from  the  city,  at  Smith- 
town,  Long  Island,  N.  Y.  Here  he  built,  at  a  cost 
of  more  than  two  thousand  dollars,  a  large  hen- 
nery, to  be  heated  by  steam,  and  tried  to  concen- 


trate  liis  attention  on  cliickens.  But  with  the 
first  indication  of  returning  health,  in  the  succeed- 
ing July,  he  was  induced  to  give  a  course  of  lec- 
tures, with  gymnastic  training,  at  the  Martha's 
Vineyard  Summer  Institute,  founded  by  Prof. 
Agassiz.  This  so  greatly  interested  him  that  he 
hoped  to  be  able  to  continue  it  for  successive 

By  the  succeeding  winter  the  doctor  and  Mrs. 
Lewis  were  again  at  work  at  his  office  of  publica- 
tion in  the  city,  though  it  involved  rising  at  four 
and  a  half  o'clock  a.m.,  a  drive  of  two  and  a  half 
miles  to  the  station,  and  forty -nine  miles  by  rail- 
road to  the  city,  with  return  in  the  afternoon. 
Though  both  were  considerably  past  sixty  years, 
Avith  their  usual  optimism  they  each  spoke  of  this 
as  ''a  pleasant  variety." 

They  were  enjoying,  at  least,  what  their  married 
life  had  furnished  them  in  unusual  degree,  asso- 
ciated activities.  Having  no  children,  it  had  been 
possible,  except  for  a  feAV  years  of  special  home 
cares,  for  Mrs.  Lewis  to  accompany  her  husband 
even  on  his  lecture  trips,  and  with  his  business 
interests  she  was  always  closely  associated. 

The  doctrine  of  personal  freedom,  which  was  so 
forcibly  enunciated  by  Dr.  Lewis  as  bearing  on 
methods  of  temjjerance  work,  he  respected  within 
as  well  as  without  the  pale  of  marriage.  "  I  could 
jiot  respect  my  wife,"  he  said, "  if  she  did  not  have 


Opinions  of  lier  own,  and  the  largest  right  of  ex- 
pressing tliem." 

His  very  instincts  revolted  from  the  cnstoniary, 
and,  so  far  as  the  law  holds  sway,  com]3ulsory, 
dependence  of  the  wife,  i3ecuniarily,  upon  the 
husband.  During  the  earliest  days  of  their  mar- 
riage he  adopted  a  device  to  spare  his  wife  the 
humiliation  of  asking  for  money,  Avhich  he  held 
that  no  woman  could  do  without  com^Dromising 
self-respect.  This  method  he  had  many  occasions 
to  commend  in  cases,  such  as  were  often  appealed 
to  him,  where  the  symptoms  indicated  neither 
drugs,  diet,  nor  gymnastics,  but  rather  a  quicken- 
ing of  the  sense  of  justice  and  of  the  infinite  po- 
tency of  love. 

He  purchased  a  nice  mahogany  bureau  for  the 
use  of  his  wife  and  himself.  Into  one  small  drawer 
money  received  was  to  be  placed.  To  this  he  pro- 
vided two  keys,  and  passing  one  to  Mrs.  Lewis 
he  said :  "  This  is  a  key  to  the  drawer  which  holds 
our  money.  I  have  another,  so  that  each  may 
take  from  it  what  is  needed  without  question  or 
account."  Upon  this  freedom  he  never  infringed, 
and  the  bureau  is  to-day  a  treasured  reminder  of 
an  equal  union  in  which  mutual  love  deex3ened  for 
thirty-seven  years. 

In  witness  of  this  union  it  may  be  jDermitted  to 
open  the  record  of  private  relation  so  far  as  to 
copy,  with  other  tributes,  one  i^encilled  in  1875 


on  tlie  fly-leaf  of  a  copy  of  the  volume  on  "  ProM- 
bition,"  then  just  issued. 

"  To  my  precious  wife,  the  regulator  and  com- 
fort and  honor  of  my  life,  my  companion  and 
real  partner,  I  present  this  little  volume  which 
has  already  deeply  interested  her  while  I  was 
writing  it.  Dig  Lewis." 

Here  is  a  note  written  at  his  office  desk,  on  an 
anniversary  of  their  marriage: 

"Bible  House,  New  York,  July  Uth,  1884. 
"My  Darling  Wife: 

"  It  was  a  happy  day  for  me  thirty -five  years 
ago  this  day.  You  have  been  a  wise  adviser,  a 
sincere  friend,  a  loving  wife,  my  precious  other 
half.  I  have  no  words  to  adequately  express  my 
gratitude  and  love. 

"  Ever  most  lovingly  your  own, 

"  Dio." 

The  sincerity  of  the  doctor's  convictions  as  to 
individual  independence  found  still  fuller  demon- 
stration in  his  treatment  of  differences  in  religious 

Dr.  Lewis  was  brought  up  in  the  belief  of  the 
sect  known  as  "  Disciples,"  whose  creed  is  "  the 
simple  word  of  God."  Mrs.  Lewis  was  educated, 
religiously,  in  the  Episcopal  Church.    Before  his 


marriage  with  Miss  Clarke,  Dr.  Lewis  said  to  her: 
"  I  will  never  interfere  with  yonr  religions  views, 
and  I  hojDe  yon  may  not  with  mine." 

Mrs.  Lewis  was  visiting  Madam  Lewis  the  doc- 
tor's mother,  some  years  after.  A  "  Christian  " 
minister,  also  a  gnest,  tried  to  convince  her  that 
she  shonld  join  her  husband's  chnrch.  On  learn- 
ing this  Dr.  Lewis  confronted  the  minister  with 
nn wonted  warmth  of  feeling.  He  said :  "I  have 
no  right,  and  shonld  not  presume  to  interfere  with 
my  wife's  religions  views,  and  I  do  not  hold  that 
it  is  yonr  privilege." 

When  living  in  Buffalo,  where  there  was  then 
no  "  Disciples' "  church,  Dr.  Lewis  attended  the 
Episcopal  church  with  Mrs.  Lewis.  At  one  time 
when  a  visit  from  the  bishop  was  anticipated,  the 
rector  strove  to  impress  upon  Mrs.  Lewis  that  it 
was  her  duty  to  urge  her  husband  to  be  confirmed, 
Mrs.  Lewis  proved  as  resistant  to  the  suggestion 
of  intrusion  as  her  husband  had  been. 

Though  of  a  deeply  religious  nature,  or,  rather, 
because  of  it.  Dr.  Lewis  was  unusually  devoid  of 
sectarian  prejudices,  and  sincerely  grieved  over 
the  antagonisms  which  grev/  out  of  so-called  relig- 
ious bias  and  intolerance.  When  his  wife  held, 
as  she  did,  beliefs  which  he  could  not  accept,  he 
respected  them  absolutely,  and  often  expressed  to 
her  his  joy  that  she  found  comfort  in  what  he 
always  spoke  of  to  her  as  "your  beautiful  faith." 


Referring  to  lier  belief  in  communication  with 
the  spirit- world,  which  he  did  not  share,  he  wrote 
to  her  one  day,  as  he  not  infrequently  did  while 
sitting  in  the  same  office: 

"  Monday,  January  19th,  1885. 
"My  Precious  One: 

"  I  am  thinking  of  you  to-day  a  good  deal,  and  I 
must  tell  you  so.  You  are  my  all.  I  cannot  think 
of  your  death  without  a  sinking  at  my  heart. 

"  You  see,  if  you  were  to  die  before  I  do  I  should 
have  very  little  of  the  great  comfort  which  would 
support  you.  It  would  be  dreadfully  blank  to 
me.  But  if  I  were  to  die  you  could  see  through 
the  darkness  away  up  to  the  brightness  beyond. 
Darling,  I  am  yours  ever,  Dio." 

To  be  compared  only  with  Dr.  Lewis'  love  for  his 
wife  was  his  love  for  his  mother.  The  aifection  and 
confidence  between  them,  which  was  so  marked  in 
Dio's  youth,  deepened  and  grew  tenderer  if  pos- 
sible with  the  i)assing  years,  until  at  his  farm  at 
Smithtown,  tended  by  her  daughter,  Mrs.  Handy, 
and  by  Dr.  Lewis's  wife,  whom  she  loved  as  a 
daughter,  at  the  age  of  eighty-six  she  passed  away. 
"  Happily  for  her,"  said  Judge  Lewis  a  year  later, 
"  for  I  do  not  think  she  could  have  lived  to  bear 
the  loss  of  Dio." 

She  was,  indeed,  a  woman  to  win  love  and  to 
command  the  reverence  of  her  children.    These 

THll  BloaRAPKY  OF   DIO   LEWIS.  869 

Were  no  empty  words  wliicli  were  sx)oken  by  lier 
pastor,  Rev.  J.  M.  Tribble,  at  her  funeral  in  Buf- 
falo, N.  Y: 

"  Piety  in  the  morning  of  life  makes  peace  in 
the  evening,  and  as  this  woman\s  life  of  service 
was  begun  early,  so  was  it  faithful  and  dutiful 
throughout.  That  first  of  all  duties,  the  plain 
and  imperative  duty  of  work,  was  well  learned 
and  well  performed.  .  .  .  Her  life  was  spent  in 
the  atmosi^here  of  prayer.  Hence  the  spiritual 
world  seemed  very  real  and  very  near.  Her  whole 
life  was  saturated  with  the  spirit  of  obedience 
and  service.  It  was  marked  also  by  singular  in- 
telligence. Strong  and  vigorous  in  all  faculties  of 
her  mind  by  natural  endowment,  she  added  to 
this  the  work  of  a  sound  and  generous  culture. 
So  she  kept  herself  in  sympathy  with  the  world's 
progress.  So  her  heart  kex3t  young  when  her 
head  was  gray." 

•The  tribute  this  noble  mother  paid  in  her  latest 
years  to  the  unfailing  tenderness  and  devotion  of 
her  children  from  youth  to  age  may  well  have 
stood  to  them  as  a  rich  inheritance.  To  her  early 
influence  may,  naturally,  be  largely  due  the  ex- 
alted resjDect  for  her  sex  which  Dr.  Lewis  always 
felt.  He  reverenced  woman's  natural  endow- 
ments. He  believed  in  her  right  to  freedom  and 
to  every  opportunity  for  culture  and  for  the  prac- 
tical use  of  her  powers.  He  claimed  for  her,  in 

870  TfiE  BIOGilAI^HY  OF  DlO   LEWIS. 

private  and  in  public  speecli,  the  full  exercise  of 
the  franchise.  With  true  chivalry  he  was  even 
patient  with  her  inherited  weaknesses.  Though 
he  had  devoted  his  life  to  securing  to  her  the 
conditions  of  physical  health  and  freedom,  Mrs. 
Lewis  says  that  after  walking,  as  long  as  he  could 
endure  it,  behind  some  woman  who  had  artifi- 
cially made  herself  wasp-waisted,  his  severest  ex- 
pression would  be, "  Let  us  x)ass  her,  Nellie ;  I  can't 
bear  it  another  minute.  I  can  see  too  plainly  the 
distorted  and  diseased  condition  of  every  organ  in 
her  body."  Yet  he  never  sneered  at  her  or  her 
sex,  nor  became  unmindful  of  her  possibilities. 

It  was  a  recognition  as  well-deserved  as  it  was 
cordial  and  graceful  which  was  paid  him  by  his 
honored  countrywoman  in  the  following  letter: 

"Philadelphia,  December  4th,  1883. 
"Dr.  Dio  Lewis — 

''Dear  Sir:  As  one  of  the  great  enslaved  class, 
I  beg  to  offer  you  my  devout  thanks  for  the 
brotherly  stand  you  have  always  taken  for  our 
liberties,  and  never  more  ably  than  in  the  Decem- 
ber Norili  American  Remem. 

"  To  have  been  the  prime  mover,  under  God,  in 
the  crusade,  and  to  fight  the  battle  of  dress- 
reform,  is  a  twofold  achievement  such  as  an 
archangel  might  envy. 

"  Yours  sincerely, 
"Frances  E.  Willard." 

'THfi   BIOGKAt'HY   OF   DIO   LEWIS.  871 


Dr.  Lewis's  literary  style  was  the  outcome  of 
his  sincere  purpose  to  say  what  he  thought  should 
be  known  by  all,  so  simply  that  a  child  could  un- 
derstand it.  Hence  his  studious  use  of  short, 
Anglo-Saxon  words,  and  his  crisp  sentences,  which 
made  so  easy  reading  that  they  seemed  the  result 
of  easy  writing.  But  that  success  came  to  him, 
as  to  others,  only  by  hard  work,  is  shown  by  a 
reviewer  in  The  Sanitary  Era  who  had  observed 
Dr.  Lewis  at  his  desk.  He  says:  "The  art  of 
concealing  art  was  never  more  perfect.  It  was 
surprising  how  many  times  he  would  revise  every- 
thing he  wrote,  vehemently  driving  his  pen 
through  words  and  clauses  that  nobody  else  would 
have  thought  superfluous,  altering  and  shortening, 
until  it  seemed  as  if  the  composition  would  never 
be  done." 

A  sheet  in  hand  bears  witness  to  this  habit. 
Although  prepared  with  apparent  care  by  Dr. 
Lewis,  and  then  copied  by  his  type-writer,  it  is 
marked  all  over  with  erasures  and  interlinings 
and  transpositions  in  fche  doctor's  handwriting. 


The  sentences  which  seemed  direct  and  simple  are 
pruned  to  greater  directness  and  simplicity  and 
are  often  divided.  Words  already  short  are  made 
shorter,  and  the  number  of  them  is  reduced  by 

The  titles  of  his  books  are  models  of  brevity: 
"Chats"  (reduced  from  "Five-Minute  Chats"); 
"In  a  mitshell;"  "Chastity;"  "Our  Girls;" 
"Gypsies;"  "Our  Digestion;"  "New  Gymnas- 
tics;" " The  Treasury ; "  "Nuggets." 

While  it  was,  in  a  sense,  the  business  of  his  life 
to  preach  health  and  morals,  he  had  the  gift  not 
to  preach  dryly  nor  too  long.  He  stated  his  thought 
briefly,  illustrated  it  with  a  spirited  and  pointed  an- 
ecdote, incident,  or  personal  sketch,  and  stopped. 
Stopping  was  a  part  of  his  genius  in  literary  work 
as  it  was  in  business  and  in  x)leasure. 

Both  instinct  and  experience  taught  him  what 
was  expressed  by  M.  Yessiot,  the  Academic  In- 
spector of  Schools  at  Marseilles,  France,  "That 
moral  lesson  which  is  announced  risks  being  lost." 

A  few  quotations  from  Dr.  Lewis's  writings  will 
serve  to  illustrate  what  has  been  said. 

"Our  Brains  and  Nerves. 

"  If  you  prick  a  tree  it  keeps  very  still ;  no  cry 
and  no  wincing.  But  if  you  prick  a  dog  it  yelps 
and  jumps.     The  tree  has  no  nerves ;  the  dog  has 



nerves.  This  explains  wliy  the  tree  keeps  so  still 
and  why  the  clog  makes  such  a  fuss. 

"A  nerve  is  a  white  thread  running  between  two 
different  parts  of  the  body.  Its  business  is  to 
carry  messages.  You  pinch  the  end  of  a  dog's 
tail.  There  are  white  threads  running  from  the 
end  of  a  dog's  tail  to  his  brain.  The  message  sent 
over  these  is  the  following:  'To  headquarters 
in  the  skull:  There  is  an  awful  pinching  here. 
Tipendoftail.'  When  this  message  reaches  the 
brain  and  is  recorded  and  considered  there  the 
brain  sends  back  at  once  the  following  message : 
'  Tipendoftail,  Esq. :  Jerk  away  from  the  pinch, 
quick  I  Commander-in-chief.  Headquarters ! '  The 
tail  is  jerked  away  and  everything  is  lovely  again. 
It  is  not  the  same  white  thread  which  conveys 
the  pinching  message  that  brings  back  the  jerk- 
ing message.  They  look  alike  but  they  are  not 
alike.  The  one  that  carries  the  message  from 
the  end  of  the  tail  to  the  brain  is  called  a  nerve 
of  feeling,  and  the  w^hite  thread  which  brings  back 
the  message  from  the  brain  to  the  tail,  command- 
ing it  to  jerk,  is  called  a  nerve  of  motion. 

'•  You  will  say  that  these  messages  pass  between 
a  dog's  tail  and  his  head  instantaneously — 'as 
quick  as  lightning';  that  there  is  no  time  for 
framing  formal  messages.     You  are  mistaken. 

''  The  nature  of  the  nerve-force  used  in  convey- 
ing messages  is  not  understood.     Since  the  dis- 


covery  of  electricity  some  physiologists  have  held 
that  the  nerve-fluid  is  electricity,  and  that  the 
nerves  or  white  threads  are  simply  conductors 
of  electricity.  But  no  one  has  yet  been  able  to 
discover  electricity  in  the  nervous  system. 

"  Besides,  experiments  have  proved  that  electric- 
ity moves  at  the  rate  of  445,000  miles  in  a  second, 
while  the  velocity  of  the  nerve-fluid  is  not  more 
than  eighty-eight  feet  in  a  second.  It  would  take 
the  nerve-fluid  more  than  two  hundred  days  to 
pass  through  the  distance  which  electricity  tra- 
verses in  one  second.  So  the  supi^osition  that 
the  two  are  identical  seems  absurd. 

"  If  a  dog  were  a  thousand  miles  long  it  would 
take  sixteen  hours  for  a  message  to  go  from  the 
end  of  his  tail  to  his  head  and  back  again.  You 
might  cut  off  his  tail  and  carry  it  from  New  York 
to  Cleveland  before  the  ncAvs  could  get  to  the 
dog's  head  and  the  order '  jerk ! '  could  come  back. 
And  when  the  message  arrived  there  would  be 
no  tail  there  to  jerk.  .  .  . 

"  When  the  message  from  the  dog's  tail  arrives 
in  his  brain  it  is  there  subject  to  weighty  consid- 
eration before  the  command  to  jerk  is  ready  to  be 
sent  back.  The  brain  not  only  feels,  but  it  thinks, 
it  judges,  it  contrives,  it  wills.  It  takes  a  mar- 
vellous thing  to  do  that.  In  all  God's  universe 
the  brain  alone  can  perform  these  feats," 


From  Dio  Lewises  Monthly^  October,  1883.  Ex- 
tracts from : 

"Our  E-ich  Me^. 

"AVe  hear  bitter  complaints  of  our  ricli  men. 
Tliey  are  denounced  as  monopolists  and  monsters 
who  rob  the  poor  and  sit  down  hard  upon  labor- 
ing men. 

"  There  are  several  ways  by  which  we  may  rid 
ourselves  of  a  rich  man.  One  is  to  kill  him. 
This  simple  remedy  has  not  been  generally  ad- 
vocated. .  .  . 

"A  still  wiser  measure  would  be  a  monster  peti- 
tion to  the  Creator,  praying  that  all  such  big- 
brained,  keen-eyed,  ingenious,  plucky  chaps  be 
prevented  altogether.  If  they  are  allowed  to  ap- 
pear among  us  they  are  almost  sure  to  make 
trouble.  Some  of  them  will  turn  out  Vanderbilts 
and  Goulds.  'An  ounce  of  prevention  is  worth  a ' 
ton  '  of  cure.' 

"  Then  there  are  several  legislative  schemes 
much  discussed.  One  is  to  forbid  rich  men  leaving 
their  wealth  by  will  to  their  children.  .  .  . 

"A  legislative  scheme  much  liked  is  to  tax  large 
estates  down  to  reasonable  proportions.  By  the 
simplest  arithmetic  any  one  can  see  that  in  this 
way  we  should  soon  have  Mr.  Yanderbilt  where 
we  could  manage  him. 

"  During  the  late  war  graduated  taxation  wa§ 


instituted  as  a  war  measure  and  practically  borne 
for  a  brief  time ;  but  if  such  laws  were  admissible 
in  times  of  peace,  then  clearly  we  could  take  all 
fortunes  and  distribute  them  at  pleasure.  .  .  . 

"  Many  people  seem  to  think  that  in  a  country 
where  the  majority  rules,  we  can  make  laws  to 
compass  any  desired  end.  Law  is  a  science,  and 
can  no  more  be  made  than  the  science  of  chemis- 

"When  a  man  gets  a  million  dollars  through 
legal  methods  tl  e  money  is  his.  He  may  violate 
moral  laws ;  he  may,  in  the  course  of  his  money- 
getting,  foreclose  mortgages  on  the  homes  of  the 
poor;  but  the  money  he  thus  obtains  is  legally 
his,  and  until  we  resolve  to  throw  all  laws  over- 
board, we  must  resx3ect  and  defend  his  legal 

"  But  how  can  we  bear  an  existence,  which,  mea- 
sured by  Yanderbilt's,  is  a  pitiful  failure?  Are 
you  sure,  my  friend,  that  his  life  is  a  magnificent 
success?  If  a  man  were  happy  in  proportion  to 
his  possessions,  which  is  really  the  popular  no- 
tion, then  indeed  money  would  be  the  great  good. 
Here  is  a  gardener  worth  a  hundred  dollars.  He 
sings  while  about  his  work,  enjoys  and  digests 
his  dinner,  watches  his  children  as  they  play 
among  the  flowers,  and  seems  contented.  Sup- 
pose Mr.  Vanderbilt  with  his  $200,000,000  were  as 
happy  in  proportion  to  his  wealth?    He  would 

THE    BIOGRAPHY   OF   DIO    LEWIS.  8 1  I 

climb  to  the  to^)  of  Trinity  steex)le,  face  Wall 
Street,  shriek  Ms  tumultuous  emotions,  and,  in 
the  madness  of  his  joy,  leaj)  into  eternity. 

''May  there  not  be  some  mistake  about  the 
power  of  a  large  fortune  to  make  a  man  happy? 
May  it  not  be  true  that  carrying  $200,000,000  or 
even  $5,000,000  for  board  and  clothes  is  doing  a 
great  deal  of  hard  work  for  very  small  pay? 

"If  a  man's  eating  could  keep  pace  with  his 
wealth,  if  Mr.  Yanderbilt  could  swallow  a  cord  of 
tenderloin  and  a  ton  of  slapjacks  for  breakfast, 
and  a  gross  of  turkeys  and  an  ocean  of  champagne 
for  dinner,  then  his  great  wealth  would  amount  to 
something;  but  he  does  not  enjoy  his  rich  dinner 
half  as  much  as  one  of  his  humblest  workingmen 
enjoys  a  crust.  Mr.  Yanderbilt  probably  consumes 
with  indifference  four  inches  of  sausage,  followed 
by  heartburn  and  a  balloon  full  of  gas,  w^hile  his 
130orest  railroad-digger  surrounds  with  eager  joy 
sixteen  inches  of  sausage,  and  secretly  wishes 
sausage  were  cheaper.  The  digger  eats  four  times 
the  length  and  enjoys  it  ten  times  as  much.  Mul- 
tiply four  by  ten  and  you  have  forty.  This  poor 
digger  is  forty  times  as  well  off  at  the  table  as  the 
richest  man  in  the  world.  And  in  the  luxuries  of 
life  the  table  occupies  a  very  prominent  place. 

"  When  Mr.  Grould  reaches  home  and  his  rubber 
has  spent  an  hour  in  trying  to  rub  life  into  him 
he  goes  to  the  table.    Just  as  he  begins  to  pick  a 

378  THE   BIOGRAPHY    O^   DIO   LEWIS. 

little  and  sip  a  little,  all  at  once  the  skeleton  of 
some  wretched  stock  speculation  darts  before  him, 
and  even  that  little  appetite  is  gone.  And  yet 
his  gardener,  wdio  enjoys  with  keenest  relish  every 
mouthful  of  plain  food,  mourns  that  he  cannot 
take  Mr.  Gould's  place;  not  to  secure  food,  for  he 
has  enough  of  that;  not  to  secure  clothing  and 
bed,  for  he  has  these;  but  to  be  envied  by  his 
neighbors,  and,  sweeter  than  all  else,  to  have  the 
street  point  at  him  with  the  exclamation,  '  That's 
him!  That's  him! '  If  this  silly  gardener  knows 
what  he  is  wishing  for  and  still  goes  on  wishing, 
he  is  a  fit  subject  for  the  insane  asylum. 

"  If  Mr.  As  tor  could  wear  a  thousand  coats  at 
once,  with  as  many  breeches,  a  pyramid  of  hats 
reaching  the  sky,  and  unnumbered  boots;  if  he 
could  be  accompanied  by  a  procession  of  exj^ress 
wagons  crammed  and  flutteaing  with  richest  hand- 
kerchiefs, loaded  with  choicest  perfumes;  if  he 
could  wear  shirt  collars  of  finest  Irish  linen,  so 
wide  that  they  Avould  turn  over  and  drag  on  the 
very  ground,  or  if  he  could  wear  golden  garments 
covered  with  diamonds,  then  his  great  fortune 
would  signify.  But  Mr.  Astor  probably  wears 
but  one  suit  of  clothes  at  a  time.  He  may  indulge 
in  silk  underwear,  but  it  is  not  as  good  as  the 
workingman's  flannel;  he  may  wear  fine  boots, 
but  the  skin  was  probably  taken  from  the  back 
of  an  untitled  calf,  and^  if  examined,  would  bQ 

THE    BIOGRAPHY   OF    DIO    LEWIS.  379 

found  very  like  that  worn  by  tlie  janitor  of  one  of 
Ms  twelve  hundred  houses. 

''  If  Mr.  Mackay  could  get  out  of  one  regal  bed 
and  into  another  more  regal  every  thirty  seconds 
all  night  long,  his  enormous  wealth  would  tell. 
But  he  occupies  a  single  bed,  after  the  poor  man's 
fashion,  and  his  snoring  is  probably  quite  as  bar- 
barous as  it  was  when  he  was  working  in  the  mines 
at  four  dollars  a  day. 

"  I  have  watched  the  faces  of  rich  men  when  they 
were  entering  church  on  a  pleasant  Sabbath  morn- 
ing, and  again  as  they  left,  and  have  thought  that 
unless  these  people  are  consummate  actors,  as- 
suming the  expression  of  discontent  and  dissatis- 
faction which  they  wear,  they  are  not  happy 
people.  I  have  talked  with  some  of  these  rich 
men,  asking  them  frankly  if  their  money  made 
them  happy.  Their  answers  confirm  the  testi- 
mony of  their  faces.  Their  load  of  care  and  end- 
less round  of  social  dissij)ations  bear  heavily  upon 

"  I  have  known  a  great  many  workingmen,  such 
as  carpenters  and  blacksmiths.  They  are  gener- 
ally interested  in  their  little  homes,  are  well  ac- 
quainted with  their  wives,  watch  with  loving  in- 
terest the  progress  of  their  little  ones  in  our  free 
schools,  earn  an  honest  living,  are  envied  by  no 
one,  are  free  from  vexing  cares,  enjoy  good  health, 
and  with  it  all  the  sweet  and  natural  blessings  of 


life.  I  have  studied  their  faces  and  have  talked 
with  them,  and  unless  they  also  are  consummate 
actors  and  hypocrites,  they  are  fivefold  happier 
and  therefore  fivefold  better  off  than  the  rich. 

"  You  will  ask  me,  '  But  would  you  not  like 
$10,000,000  yourself?'  If  I  would,  unless  for 
some  j)hilanthropic  use,  it  proves  only  that  I  am 
as  silly  as  some  other  j)eople.  .  .  . 

"  Supx^ose  a  rich  man  were  to  show  you  in  his 
large  warehouse  a  million  pairs  of  boots,  all  fitted 
to  himself,  and  should  pause  to  hear  your  congrat- 
ulations. You  should  ask  him  of  what  possible 
use  that  vast  collection  could  be  to  him.  He 
would  probably  say  that  a  man  can't  have  too 
many  boots,  and  that  the  extra  ones  are  for  a 
rainy  day.  You  would  politely  keep  silence,  but 
go  away  thinking  him  a  fool.  What  essential 
difference  is  there  between  this  man  and  that  other 
one  who  keeps  laid  away  a  thousand  times  as 
many  dollars  as  he  can  use? 

" '  Yes,'  says  a  rich  man, '  all  this  is  very  well  so 
far  as  I  am  personally  concerned.  I  don't  care  for 
money  for  myself;  it  is  for  my  children.  They 
shall  not  toil  as  I  have  done.' 

"Ask  him  what  he  thinks  of  his  neighbor  who  is 
laying  by  a  large  fortune  for  his  sons,  and  he  will 
tell  you  that  the  man  is  an  idiot;  that  he  will 
spoil  every  one  of  them. 

"  This  rich  man  thinks  about  his  neighbor's  sons 


exactly  what  Ms  neighbor  thinks  of  his  sons,  and 
exactly  what  observation  of  American  life  leads 
ns  all  to  think  of  the  chances  of  young  men  who 
begin  with  fortunes.  Even  if  they  retain  their 
money  and  do  not  become  idle  and  dissipated, 
they  fail  to  develop  a  vital,  sturdy  manhood. 

"  I  have  never  met  a  man,  even  one  of  the  small- 
headed  variety,  who,  if  this  point  were  raised,  was 
not  confident  that  he  could  take  ten  millions  and 
use  them  most  wisely.  And  yet  we  have  not  had 
a  rich  man  in  ISTew  York  City,  with  the  exception 
of  Peter  Cooper,  of  blessed  memory,  and  in  a 
less  degree  two  or  three  others,  who  could  use 
wisely  even  one  million.  It  takes  very  rare  ca- 
pacity to  use  a  large  fortune  wisely.  Of  the  rich 
men  in  this  country  a  great  majority,  after  a  long 
life-struggle,  involving  generally  much  wrong  to 
the  poor,  can  do  nothing  better  with  their  dollars 
than  to  leave  them  to  emasculate  and  demoralize 
their  children. 

"AYe  all  seek  happiness.  On  waking  in  the 
morning  we  begin  the  search,  and  keep  it  up  till 
we  lie  down  at  night.  It  is  the  constant  aim  of 
human  life.  Most  persons  being  without  wealth 
fondly  dream  of  the  perfect  happiness  they  would 
secure  with  a  fortune.  Almost  any  one  can  sit  up 
with  a  sick  friend,  do  a  kindness  to  a  needy  per- 
son, speak  tenderly  to  a  weeping  child,  or  do  any 
other  of  a  thousand  kind  acts  without  making  a 

88^  THE  iBlOGRAPar  OP  DiO   LfiWlS. 

mistake.  But  give  a  million  dollars  to  each  of 
the  first  ten  men  you  meet  in  the  street,  and  the 
chances  are  ninety-nine  in  a  hundred  that  not 
only  will  you  fail  to  make  them  happier  in  the 
long  run,  but  they  will  fail  to  make  others  hap- 
pier. So  to  all  the  true  uses  and  enjoyments  of 
life  you  will  surely  wreck  every  one  of  the  ten 

''  Happiness  comes  of  health  and  the  harmonious 
play  of  our  faculties.  It  comes  almost  entirely 
from  within,  in  very  small  degree  from  without." 

THi]   BIoaHAPHY   OF   DIO   LEWIS.  383 


"How  Girls  Should  Walk." 

From  *'  Onr  Girls." 

"  I  oi^CE  read  a  book  about  walking.  It  was  a 
Frenck  book  and  contained  a  kundred  and  twenty 
pages.  In  it  we  were  told  wkat  part  of  tke  foot 
to  bring  down  first ;  just  wkat  angle  must  be  main- 
tained between  tke  feet ;  tke  style  of  movement  in 
tke  ankle;  tke  management  of  the  knees,  tke  kips, 
tke  skoulders,  tke  kead,  tke  arms,  etc.,  etc. 

"  I  am  sure  I  can  write  a  better  book  on  walking 
and  mine  skall  contain  only  four  words.  Let  us 
see.  We  must  kave  two  leaves,  and  eack  leaf  must 
be  as  large  as  your  tkumb-nail.  We  kave  four 
pages.    We  now  proceed  to  print  tkis  book. 

"  On  tke  first  page  we  print  one  word, '  ckin,'  on 
tke  second  a  single  word, '  close,'  on  tke  tkird  page, 
'to;'  now  we  approack  tke  end  of  tke  volume; 
turn  over,  and  on  tke  last  page  we  print  tke  word 
'  neck.' 

"  Tke  volume  is  complete.  lN"o  explanatory  notes 
need  be  given,  not  anotker  word  need  be  said. 

S84  ME   BIOGRAPHY   OF   DIO   LEWlg. 

Whoever  carries  the '  chin  close  to  neck '  is  all  right 
from  top  to  toe  and  will  walk  well. 

"  Girls,  do  you  wish  to  secure  this  upright^  queen- 
ly 230sition  as  soon  as  possible?  Then,  in  addition 
to  walking  as  I  have  described,  for  half  an  hour 
morning  and  evening,  carry  on  the  head  a  sheep- 
skin bag  containing  fifteen  or  twenty  pounds  of 

"  In  some  countries  the  laborer  carries  burdens 
upon  his  head.  All  such  laborers  can  be  easily 
recognized  at  a  glance  by  their  bearing,  no  mat- 
ter what  their  age.  The  water-carriers  in  Italy 
and  in  the  suburbs  of  the  German  cities  are  all 
queens  in  their  carriage." 

"Vital  Facts." 

From  Montlily  for  Jolly  Folks, 

*'The  majority  of  mankind  need  no  caution 
against  overwork.  Where  overwork  kills  one  the 
want  of  work  kills  ten,  the  fires  of  passion  consume 
twenty,  aiid  sinful  indulgence  destroys  fifty.  In 
cases  where  work  seems  to  undermine  health,  it  is 
not  so  often  that  the  labor  is  excessive  as  that  the 
spirit  in  which  it  is  performed  is  at  fault.  Labor 
to  be  long  endured  must  be  healthy ;  that  is,  it 
must  be  adapted  to  the  mental  and  physical  ca- 
pacities of  the  worker,  and,  especially  if  it  be 
brain  labor,  it  must  be  pleasing. 

fHE   BlOG^HAPHY   OF  DIO   LEWIS.  385 

"  The  liealtliiest  men  we  know  are  those  who  do 
not  work  the  hardest,  but  those  who  do  the  most 
work.  There  is  no  paradox  about  this.  Every 
business  man  sees  among  his  employees  men  who 
work  hard  yet  accomplish  little,  and  others  who 
easily  accomplish  much. 

"  How  is  this  to  be  explained?  Much  may  be  at- 
tributed to  want  of  system  on  the  part  of  the  in- 
efficient, more  to  want  of  the  proper  spirit.  Ner- 
vous irritability  is  the  great  weakness  of  American 
character.  It  is  the  sharp  grit  which  aggravates 
friction  and  cuts  out  the  bearing  of  the  entire 
human  machine.  Nine  out  of  every  ten  men  we 
meet  are  in  a  chronic  state  of  annoyance.  The 
least  untoward  thing  sets  them  in  a  state  of  fer- 
ment. Impatience  is  the  poison  that  heats  the 
blood  and  ruins  the  stomach  much  oftener  than 
excess  of  pepper  and  mustard. 

"When  the  machinist  finds  his  machinery 
squeaking  he  applies  the  oil ;  if  the  bearings  have 
become  so  hot  as  to  endanger  the  works  he  stops 
and  allows  them  to  cool.  The  human  machine 
should  be  treated  in  like  manner.  It  should  be 
kept  well  oiled  and  cool. 

"  What  is  the  oil  that  will  stop  the  squeaking — 
the  lubricator  that  will  keep  the  machinery  from 
heating?  Dickens  has  given  us  the  formula  in 
the  words  of  his  inimitable  Mark  Tapley:  "Keep 


886  THi:   BIOGRAPHY   OF   DIO   LEWIS. 

"A  very  curious  and  interesting  table  might  be 
made  by  a  tliouglitful  physiologist  and  liygienist, 
showing  each  person  where  his  strength  goes. 

"  Suppose  we  rej^resent  the  full  working  force 
of  a  strong,  healthy  man  by  100,  and  the  entire 
absence  of  force,  leaving  him  lying  flat  on  his 
back,  helpless,  by  0. 

"Now  let  us  see  how  many  a  man's  account 
would  stand. 

"  Spent  in  digesting  a  big  dinner,  which  the 
body  did  not  need,  50. 

"  Spent  in  hesitation,  doubt,  and  uncertainty,  20. 
Total,  70. 

"  Left  for  x)ractical  and  useful  purposes,  only  30 
— less  than  one-third  of  the  working  force. 

"  Sometimes,  to  meet  demand,  there  would  be  a 
draft  on  the  original  caj)ital,  so  that  there  would 
not  remain  enough  to  keep  the  body  warm,  the 
food  well  digested,  the  muscles  plump  and  full, 
the  hearing  acute,  the  eyes  keen  and  bright,  or 
the  brain  thoughtful  and  active. 

"  Very  often  a  single  debauch  would  use  up  the 
entire  available  power  of  the  whole  system  for  a 
week  or  a  month.  Then  the  account  would  stand 
somewhat  as  follows: 

"  Spent  in  getting  rid  of  several  drinks  of  wine 
and  brandy,  40. 

"  Spent  in  smoking  six  cigars,  20. 

"  Spent  in  keei*)ing  awake  all  night  at  a  spree,  45. 

THE    BIOGRAPHY    OF    DlO    LEWIS.  387 

"  Spent  in  breathing  bad  air,  35. 

"  Spent  in  cheating  a  neighbor  out  of  thirty  dol- 
lars in  a  business  transaction,  20. 

"  Spent  in  reading  worthless  books  and  new^s- 
papers,  15. 

"Here  is  a  balance  on  the  wrong  side  of  the 
account,  you  see,  and  capital  is  fast  going." 

"Chats  with  Lovers." 

From   "Chats." 

"  The  separation  system  of  the  French  is  fatal  to 
true  love  and  marriage,  i^lready  it  has  obtained 
a  footing  among  us.  A  girl  sees  her  future  hus- 
band in  a  drawing-room.  The  ambitious  mother, 
who  is  in  attendance  as  stage  manager,  has  arranged 
the  programme.  After  three  performances  the 
engagement  is  announced,  and  in  due  time  the 
ceremony  is  solemnized  by  the  Church.  The  couple 
are  driven  to  their  home,  and  then,  for  the  iirst 
time,  the  mask  being  removed,  they  get  a  peep  at 
each  other.  That  both  of  them  should  soon  set 
about  a  search  for  more  agreeable  partners  is  only 
the  natural  result  of  such  a  union. 

"  Without  perfect  freedom  of  choice,  a  true  and 
happy  marriage  is  exceedingly  improhable. 
There  can  he  no  such  freedom  without  intimate 
acquaintance.  Our  separate  schools  have  con- 
tributed much  to  the  loall  between  the  sexes. 


"  Some  years  ago  I  had  the  supervision  of  a 
school  for  young  men  and  young  women.  The 
desks  were  double — each  one  accommodated  two 
persons.  I  placed  a  young  man  and  a  young 
woman  at  each.  Permission  was  given  the  pupils 
to  render  such  assistance  to  their  desk-mates  as 
they  thought  profitable,  keeping  the  noise  within 
bounds.  But  we  did  not  often  check  the  hum  and 
buzz  ;  for  as  these  young  people  were  being  trained 
for  life,  and  as  in  actual  life  there  is  a  hundred 
times  as  much  chance  of  noise  as  of  silence,  I 
should  hardly  have  felt  at  liberty  to  train  their 
faculties  in  silence  for  use  in  noise.  I  only  said, 
"  Don't  be  too  noisy." 

What  I  wish  to  bring  before  you  is  the  strik- 
ing influence  of  this  system  upon  the  love  passion. 
When  Thomas  and  Lucy  first  sat  down  together, 
they  looked  and  acted  just  as  a  young  man  and  a 
young  woman  are  likely  to  do  when  they  first 
meet.  I  need  not  describe  it.  You  have  seen 
how  they  look  and  act.  This  soon  began  to  wear 
off,  and  in  a  month  the  young  people  acted  toward 
each  other  like  brother  and  sister.  All  that  pecu- 
liar expression  and  manner  which  you  often  see 
among  lovers,  and  which  you  recognize  at  the  dis- 
tance of  three  blocks,  soon  disappeared.  With 
the  new  arrangement  in  our  school  there  was  more 
or  less  of  this  through  the  room,  but,  as  already 
stated,  it  soon  gave  place  to  a  social  atmosphere 


which  seemed  identical  with  that  of  a  home  among 
brothers  and  sisters. 

''  Still  f  urtlier,  they  were  j)ermitted  to  change 
partners  at  pleasure  on  the  lirst  Monday  of  each 
month.  This  renewed  the  "  lovers  "  exhibition  a 
little  at  first,  but  after  three  months  even  thi^ 
change  of  companions  evoked  no  visible  disturb 
ance  of  the  school-work. 

'  But  what  good  came  of  it  ? ' 

"  It  is  just  that  question  I  wish  to  answer. 

"  1st.  From  the  day  this  system  was  introducec! 
the  school  required  no  government.  It  was  like  a 
company  of  ladies  and  gentlemen  in  a  drawing- 
room.  There  was  no  necessity  for  rules  in  the 
one  case  more  than  in  the  other. 

"  2d.  The  average  progress  in  the  studies  was 
strikingly  enhanced.  Stupid,  coarse  fellows  who 
in  a  company  of  men  alone  would  loaf,  and  growl, 
and  chew,  became  bright,  gentlemanly,  and  studi- 
ous, and  girls  of  light,  frivolous  composition  be- 
came earnest.  The  average  progress  was  greatly 

"  3d.  The  young  men  came  to  regard  women  not 
as  charming  creatures  to  be  toyed  with  and  to  be 
talked  down  to,  but  as  brave,  hard-working  com- 
panions, competitors  and  equals.  They  ceased  to 
think  of  their  bodies,  and  thought  only  of  the 
quality  of  their  minds.  The  young  women  no 
longer  looked  up  to  the  young  men  as  chivalrous 

390  THE    BIOGRAPUY    OF    DIO    LEWIS. 

lieroes  seeking  opportunity  to  die  for  their  lady- 
loves, but  as  fair,  honorable  companions  whom 
it  was  a  pleasure  to  know  and  sometimes  to  con- 
quer. In  a  few  months  they  came  to  feel  toward 
men  as  those  girls  do  who  have  been  reared  in  a 
large  family  of  boys,  and  who  are  rarely  wrong  in 
the  choice  of  husbands.  The  girls  who  are  edu- 
cated in  a  separate  school  are  like  the  '  only 
child,'  who  is  almost  sure,  if  she  has  been  brought 
up  in  seclusion,  to  fall  into  some  trap.  The 
young  men  after  a  year  in  such  school  compan- 
ionship, are  like  the  young  man  with  half  a  dozen 
sisters,  who  is  equally  sure  to  be  wise  in  the  selec- 
tion of  a  wife. 

"  In  its  bearing  upon  the  most  important  inter- 
ests of  our  earthly  life  there  is  no  part  of  our  ed- 
ucation so  vital  as  an  early,  large,  intimate  ac- 
quaintance with  many  persons  of  the  opposite 
sex.  .  .  . 

"  Nothing  hut  unrestrained^  unaffected  inter- 
course detween  the  sexes  can  assure  an  average 
of  wise  and  happy  marriages.  This  can  never 
he  secured  until  looman  is  elevated  to  a  legal  and 
financial  equality  with  man. 

"  The  Little  Shepherd  Dogs.'' 

From  ''  G-ypsies." 
"  The  best  of  these  dogs  are  worth  two  hundred 
dollars,  or  even  more. 

THE    BIOGKAPIIY    OF    DIO    LEWIS.  391 

"One  herder,  wliom  we  met  at  Cold  Spring 
ranch,  showed  us  a  very  pretty  one  that  he  said  he 
would  not  sell  for  five  hundred  dollars.  She  had 
at  that  time  four  young  pux3pies.  On  the  night 
we  arrived  we  visited  his  camp,  and  were  greatly 
interested  in  the  little  mother  and  her  nursino; 
babies.  Amid  those  wild,  vast  mountains,  this 
little  nest  of  motherly  devotion  and  baby  trust 
was  very  beautiful.  While  we  were  admiring  it 
the  assistant  herder  came  to  say  that  there  were 
more  than  twenty  sheep  missing.  Two  male  dogs, 
both  larger  than  the  little  mother,  were  standing 
about  with  their  hands  in  their  breeches,  doing 
nothing.  But  the  herder  said  that  neither  Tom 
nor  Dick  would  find  them :  Flora  must  go. 
n  "It  was  urged  by  the  assistant  that  her  foot  was 
sore,  she,  had  been  hard  at  work  all  day,  was 
nearly  worn  out,  and  must  suckle  her  puppies. 

"  The  boss  insisted  that  she  must  go.  The  sun 
was  setting.     There  was  no  time  to  lose. 

"  Flora  was  called  and  told  to  hunt  for  lost  sheep, 
while  her  master  pointed  to  a  great  forest,  through 
the  edge  of  which  they  had  passed  on  their  way 
up.  She  raised  her  head,  but  seemed  very  loath 
to  leave  her  babies.  The  boss  called  sharply  to 
her.  She  rose,  looked  tired  and  low-spirited,  with 
head  and  tail  down,  and  trotted  wearily  off  to- 
ward the  forest. 

"  I  said,  '  That  is  too  bad,' 


"  Oh,  she'll  be  right  back.  She's  lightning  on 
stray  sheep." 

"  The  next  morning  I  went  over  to  learn  Avhether 
Flora  found  the  strays.  While  we  were  speaking 
the  sheep  were  returning,  driven  by  the  little  dog, 
who  did  not  raise  her  head  nor  wag  her  tail,  even 
when  spoken  to,  but  crawled  to  her  puppies  and 
lay  down  by  them,  offering  the  little  empty 
breasts.  She  had  been  out  all  night,  and  while 
her  hungry  babies  were  tugging  away  she  fell 
asleep.  I  have  never  seen  anything  so  touching. 
So  far  as  I  was  concerned  '  there  was  not  a  dry  eye 
in  the  house.' 

"  How  often  that  scene  comes  back  to  me !  The 
vast,  gloomy  forest,  and  that  little  creature  with 
the  sore  foot  and  her  heart  crying  for  her  babies, 
limping  and  creeping  about  in  the  wild  canons 
all  through  the  long,  dark  hours,  finding  and 
gathering  in  the  lost  sheep. 

"  I  wondered  if  any  preacher  of  the  Gospel  ever 
searched  for  lost  sheep  under  circumstances  so 
hard,  and  with  such  painful  sacrifices.  But  then 
we  must  not  expect  too  much  from  men.  It  is  the 
dog  that  stands  for  fidelity  and  sacrifice.  The 
best  part  of  man  is  the  dog  that  is  in  him, 



It  was  the  desire  of  Dr.  Lewis  to  prepare  a 
"Cyclopedia  of  Sanitary  Science  and  Hygiene," 
and  upon  it  lie  spent  many  months  of  labor  with 
the  assistance  of  Professor  N.  B.  Webster,  an 
experienced  educator  and  writer  of  IS'orfolk,  Ya. 
At  the  same  time  he  compiled  from  his  own  writ- 
ings, with  additions,  a  volume  afterward  published 
as  ''  Dio  Lewis's  Treasury." 

The  resumption  of  literary  work  made  it  neces- 
sary to  live  nearer  the  city,  and  in  Se^Dtember, 
1885,  a  home  was  made  in  Yonkers-on-the-Hudson, 
N.  Y.  On  the  fine  and  picturesque  roads  in 
the  vicinity  the  doctor  found  recreation  in  the 
saddle.  He  was  a  skilled  horseman,  but  riding 
his  spirited  animal  one  day  he  met  a  lady  driv- 
ing whose  horse  had  become  unmanageable.  The 
carriage  struck  Dr.  Lewis's  horse,  and  a  sudden 
spring  of  the  startled  animal  unseated  the  rider. 
In  his  violent  fall  one  leg  was  injured.  This 
wound  never  healed. 

The  doctor  could  not,  however^  regard  himself 


as  an  invalid.  He  still  made  trips  to  the  city, 
and  occasionally  took  long  walks. 

Ke  was  greatly  interested  in  the  noble  project 
inaugurated  by  Miss  Mary  B.  Butler,  of  Yonkers, 
to  establish  a  "  Free  Public  Library  for  Self- Sup- 
porting Working  Women,"  and  had  lectured  to 
its  patrons. 

He  attended,  one  evening  in  May,  1886,  a  lecture 
given  in  its  interest  by  Prof.  N.  B.  Webster,  and 
spoke  at  its  close  Avith  much  cheer  and  spirit. 
This  proved  to  be  his  last  public  utterance,  and 
this  last  word,  like  his  first,  given  in  a  lecture  in 
Virginia  in  1853,  was  inspired  by  his  interest  in 

This  was  no  chance  coincidence  of  thought.  If, 
at  any  time  in  the  years  between,  the  word  on  his 
lips  had  proved  to  be  the  final  one,  it  would  surely 
have  been  spoken  for  humanity,  almost  certainly 
directly  in  behalf  of  woman,  for  whom  his  venera- 
tion was  so  great  that  he  believed  that  when  she 
shall  be  freed  from  the  repressive  influence  of  cus- 
tom and  tradition  she  will  prove  the  most  effective 
lever  for  the  uplifting  of  the  race. 

On  the  day  of  the  lecture  above  referred  to  over- 
walking  exhausted  Dr.  Lewis,  and  erysipelas  soon 
developed  in  his  injured  limb.  Observing  this  he 
said  to  his  wife:  "  This  is  my  last  sickness.  Well, 
it  is  a  comfort  to  feel  that  my  life  has  not  been 
entirely  in  vain.    I  am  willing  to  go,    I  hope  I 


shall  find  your  beautiful  faitli  true,  and  tliat  I 
may  be  permitted  to  visit  you  often." 

One  of  liis  latest  expressions  was,  "  Use  is  still 
my  word." 

His  only  solicitude  was  that  a  beloved  niece  of 
Mrs.  Lewis  should  succeed  to  the  sweet  care  and 
companionship  which  he  had  known  so  long  and 
so  happily  and  must  now  surrender. 

Calling  an  amanuensis,  he  dictated  these  direc- 
tions, with  his  customary  calm  seK-possession: 

"Although  I  am  averse  to  the  somewhat  un- 
pleasant notoriety  which,  as  yet,  cremation  in- 
volves, my  very  strong  conviction  is  that  it  is  the 
right  disposition  of  the  dead.  I  leave  directions, 
with  the  full  sym]pathy  of  my  wife,  that  my  body 
shall  be  cremated,  and  that  the  ashes  shall  not  be 
placed  in  an  urn,  but  in  the  earth,  over  which  my 
wife  will  lovingly  plant  forget-me-nots,  and  when 
she  may  move  the  forget-me-nots  and  the  ashes 
may  be  removed  to  her  new  place  of  residence. 

"  I  direct  also,  with  my  dear  wife's  assent,  that 
all  funeral  parade  and  expense  shall  be  avoided, 
and  that  my  remains  be  placed  in  a  plain  pine 
casket  for  removal  to  the  crematory. 

"  I  desire  also  that  no  flowers  shall  be  sent  by 
my  friends.  Dig  Lewis." 

Dr.  Lewis  had  often  said  to  his  wife:  "I  have 

896  THE   BIOGRAPHY   OF   ])10   LEWIS. 

tried  to  do  what  good  I  could  to  all  living  things 
with  which  I  have  come  in  relation.  I  should  be 
sorry  that  the  humblest  animal  that  breathes 
should  be  liarmed  by  my  body  after  I  have  left 

After  nine  days  of  great  suffering,  during  which 
he  was  fully  conscious,  Dr.  Lewis  passed  from 
this  life  on  May  21st,  1886. 

He  had  reached  only  his  sixty-fourth  year,  but 
nature  could  not  be  cheated  of  her  dues,  and  the 
life  of  this  ardent  apostle  of  temperance  in  food 
and  drink  and  all  personal  indulgence  was  a  sac- 
rifice to  intemperance  in  work. 

It  would  be  difficult  to  choose  from  the  many 
tributes  of  friends  which  were  gratefully  received 
after  Dr.  Lewis's  death.  A  single  one  from  a 
stranger  may  be  inserted  here,  as  it  was  one  of  a 
kind  that  always  gave  him  great  satisfaction,  for 
it  assured  him  that  his  work  had  been  widely 

It  appeared  in  the  Yonkers  Gazette  of  May 
29th,  1886: 

"A  lady  friend,  writing  us  from  Macon,  Ga., 
under  date  of  May  23d,  1886,  says:  'I  was  much 
shocked  yesterday  when  I  read,  in  the  telegrams, 
of  the  death  of  Dio  Lewis.  Tliough  I  never  met 
him,  yet  I  had  formed  a  very  clear  idea  of  him 
from  his  writings,  and  I  feel  that  the  country  has 
sustained  a  great  loss  in  his  death.    Any  voice 

The  biography  of  dio  lewis.  397 

whicli  lias  been  raised  in  the  cause  of  humanity 
against  wrong-doing  must  be  missed  when  its 
tones  are  stilled.  It  is  easy — too  easy— =to  fill  the 
place  of  a  blatant  politician  or  a  charlatan  of  any 
kind,  but  the  disciples  of  right  are  so  few  and  the 
evils  of  life  are  so  many  that  when  God  stills  one 
voice  among  tlie  feio,  there  is  silence  which  can- 
not pass  unnoticed  by  the  thoughtful  listeners  on 
life's  highway.  "Dr.  Dio  Lewis,  author  and  re- 
former." Thus  the  telegram  was  worded.  For 
every  word  he  has  written  and  for  every  one  he 
has  spoken  to  lessen  the  vices  of  the  world,  there 
will  spring  up  some  sweet  flower  of  remembrance 
in  the  hearts  of  those  who  knew  and  loved  him, 
and  the  Master's  promise  will  be  kept  concerning 
"  the  good  seed  "  which  he  has  sown  in  His  earthly 
vineyard.  .  .  .  God  rest  the  soul  of  Dio  Lewis, 
and  may  He  perjjetuate  the  good  which  His  ser- 
vant hath  done.' " 

Rev.  James  Haughton,  of  St.  John's  Episcopal 
Church,  conducted  appropriate  funeral  services  at 
the  late  home  of  Dr.  Lewis  on  the  Sunday  after- 
noon which  followed  his  death. 

Dr.  Lewis's  request  that  there  should  be  no  pa- 
rade or  display  of  any  kind  at  his  funeral  services 
was  strictly  and  most  willingly  carried  out  by 
Mrs.  LeAvis,  as  also  one,  made  in  the  early  days 
of  their  married  life,  that  she  should  never  i)ut 
on  gloomy  mourning  for  him. 


A  day  later,  in  the  rosy  glow  of  the  furnace  at 
Mount  Olivet,  Long  Island,  N.  Y.,  untouched  by 
the  repellent  processes  of  slow  decay,  the  dust  re- 
turned to  the  dust  as  it  was  because  the  spirit  had 
already  returned  to  the  God  who  gave  it. 

*'  What  is  excellent, 
As  God  lives,  is  permanent, 
Hearts  are  dust,  hearts'  loves  remain  ; 
Heart's  love  will  meet  us  again." 


A.  M.,  M.  D. 


The  New  Gymnastics  for  Men,  Women  a2^d  ChtldrEx^. 
With  three  hundred  illustrations.  New  edition,  revised 
and  enlarged.    By  Dio  Lewis,  M.  D.     1  vol.,  12nio.,  $1.50. 

Prop.  Moses  Coit  Ttxek,  of  Cornell  University,  in  an  address  on  ''Dio 
Lewis's  Gymnastics  "  before  the  College  of  Preceptors  in  London,  England^ 
said  :  "  Dr.  Lewis's  system  is  fitted  for  both  sexes.  He  has  devised  movements 
for  every  muscle.  Tlie  result  is  a  beautiful,  harmonious,  and  complete  cultiva- 
tion 01  the  enrire  body." 

''This  book  treats  of  physical  education,  and  presents  a  system  far  in 
advance  of  any  one  heretofore  recommended." — Taunton  Gazette. 

"■  Dr.  Lewis's  condensed  and  pithy  style  brings  to  mind  the  nervous  accu- 
racy of  the  gymnasium  itself,  and  is  as  refreshing  to  the  mind  as  one  of  his 
lessons  is  to  the  newly  invigorated  body." — American  Pvebyterian. 

"We  cannot  imagine  anything  more  important  to  the  rising  generation 
than  the  careful  study  of  this  vohmie.  It  is  WTitten  with  such  vivacity  of  style, 
such  ardor  and  sincerity,  that  if  generally  perused,  its  lessons  cannot  fail  to  im- 
prove the  physical  capabilities  of  our  men  and  women.  It  is  the  clearest,  most 
sensible,  and  most  practical  effort  yet  made  to  reduce  gymnastics  co  a  popular 
and  useful  form."— Philadelphia  Enquirer. 

"It  teaches  how  all  parts  of  the  body  may  be  exercised  and  developed  by 
vei-y  simple  forms  of  gymnastics,  many  of  which  are  as  practicable  at  home  as  in 
a  buildinix  appropriated  for  the  purpose.  It  is  a  capital  book  for  parents,  show- 
iuy:  them  liow  to  furaish  a  variety  of  amusements  for  their  children  which  may 
l«^<!n  them  in  good  humor  and  promote  their  hesiliW^— Watchman  and  Re- 

Forwarded,  postpaid,  on  receipt  of  price, 


And  How  to  Make  Them  Steong  ;  or.  Diseases  of  THK 
Organs  of  the  Chest,  with  their  Home-Treatsient  bt 
THE  Movement- Cure.  Profusely  Illustrated  ^^  JOio 
Lewis,  M.  D.    1  vol.,  12mo.    $1.50. 

' '  'Dr.  Lewis  has  given  serious  attention  to  consumption.  Th. ,  C7ork  is  the 
.rjutcome  of  a  long  and  varied  experience  in  the  treatment  of  that  malady."— 
.Salem  Gazette. 

"God  speed  the  day  when  Dr.  Lewis's  treatment  shall  supersede  cod- 
iliver  oil,  steaming  inhala+ions  and  tar  cordials."— JKev.  J.  C.  Fletcher,  in 
Indianapolis  Journal. 

"It  compresses  within  less  than  four  hundred  pages  more  practical 
Bense  regarding  the  home  treatinent  of  diseases  of  the  organs  of  the  chest 
than  we  have  ever  before  seen  in  a  single  volume." — Chicago  Tribune. 

"But  few  Americans,  city  residents,  can  read  this  book  without  re« 
ceivlng  hints  of  importance." — New  York  Evening  Post. 

"  A  careful  study  of  this  work,  with  attention  to  its  suggestions,  we 
firmly  believe  would  materially  diminish  the  ravages  of  consumption  in  New 
England."— flarf/ord  Press. 

"This  valuable  volume,  from  the  pen,  and  embodying  the  experience  of 
Dr.  Lewis,  is  full  of  the  most  important  suggestions  in  regaid  to  health. 
Wherever  his  book  reaches  intelligent  men  and  women,  it  will  do  good,  and 
lessen  human  suflEering," — New  York  Commercial  Advertiser. 

Forwarded,  postpai/^ ,  on  receipt  of  price, 


Or,  My  Jolly  Friend's  Secret.    By  Dio  Lewis,  M.  D. 
1  vol.,  12mo.,  $1.50. 

From  Prestdent  TvIahk  Hopkins.  "The  work  is  wholly  in  the  right 

From  Akdrew  D  White,  President  of  Cornell  University,  and  late  TJ.  iS. 

Minister  to  Germany.  "Your  book  on  Digestion  seems  to  me  admirable. 
Your  shrewd  way  of  presenting  matters,  the  good  healthy  comraon-sense  oi' 
the  book  from  cover  to  cover,  its  many  valuable  facts,  its  genial  way  of  pic- 
turing follies,  and  its  cogent  way  of  rebuking  vices,  make  the  book  an  armory 
of  weapons  effective  and  easily  handled  in  the  warfare  against  the  whole 
body  of  physical  crimes  and  folUes  which  have  oppressed  us." 

From  Prof.  Moses  Coit  Tyler,  to  the  Pubhshers.  "  With  f riendiinesB, 
wisdom  and  a  cat«htQg  mirth,  Dr.  Lewis  preaches  the  gospel  of  simple  liv- 
ing, of  bodily  activity,  of  repose  of  a  clear  conscience,  and  a  merry  heart. 
He  has  struck  a  very  happy  vein  of  authorship,  investing  subjects  which 
to  many  are  dry  and  repulsive  with  the  attractions  of  great  common- 
sense,  racy  humor,  shrewd  glimpses  of  mankind  and  a  vivid  and  pithy  style 
of  expression.''' 

From  Prof.  James  Aitken  Meigs,  of  JefEerson  Medical  College,  Phila. 
"It  is  well  calculated  to  impart  to  the  public  many  important  hygienic 

From  Prof.  Hitchcock,  of  Amherst  College.  "lam  much  interested 
in  the  results  of  Dr.  Lewis's  extensive  experience  in  connection  with  the 
subiect.  He  has  stated  iriauy  ideas  which  will  be  carefully  pondered  by 
thinking  people.'* 

forwarded.  r)ostpaid,  on  receipt  of  price. 


Or,  Our  Secret  Sins.  By  Dio  Lewis,  M.  D.  A  handsome 
volume,  full  gilt,  $2.00.  "A  work  of  thrilling  power.  It 
will  »Taake  a  sensation. " 

Mrs.  DtJFFET,  author  of  several  excellent  books  on  woman,  writes :  "  The 
T70rld  is  borne  down  to  the  gates  of  death  and  hell  by  its  woetul  ignorance 
on  the  subject  of  which  '  Chastity  '  treats.  Dio  Lewis  is  not  only  a  hero,  but 
an  apostle.    I  thank  him  lor  writing  the  work." 

The  Advertiser,  Elmira,  N.  Y.,  says  :  "  To  many  this  book  will  prove  a 
beacon  light  to  warn  them  off  the  hidden  rocks  on  which  they  are  dashing." 

Rev.  Henry  A.  Wales,  Congregational  Church,  Leominster,  Mass.  "I 
am  grateful  to  Dr.  Lewis  for  his  fearless  manner  of  speaking  vital  truth,. 
The  thanks  of  all  good  men  are  due  the  widely  known  author." 

Rev.  J.  W.  Weatherby,  Baptist  Church,  Hillsboro.  Ohio,  says:  "Dio 
Lewises  a  man  of  noble  integrity  and  iCrtue.  Cordially  do  I  commend 
•  Chastity.'" 

Dr.  Beebe,  one  of  the  leading  physicians  of  Chicago,  says  :  "I  should  be 
glad  if  every  man,  woman  and  youth  would  give  '  Chastity '  a  careful  and 
thoughtful  reading." 

Prof.  Churchill,  Oberlin  College,  says  :  "  I  know  Dio  Lewis,  and  the  high 
moral  tone  of  his  writings.    '  Chastity    should  find  a  place  in  every  home." 

The  Gazette,  Washington,  D.  C,  says:  "A  singularly  interesting  and 
instructive  volume.  Few  books  now  before  the  public  are  calculated  to  confer 
greater  or  more  vital  benefit  on  the  rising  generation," 

Dr.  ]Mary  Safford  Blake,  of  Boston,  says  :  "You  have  done  the  world 
good  service  in  pubUshing  this  book." 

Pres.  Butterpield,  of  Harlem  Springs  College,  Ohio,  saya.  "  *  Chastity'  ifl 
the  best  work  on  the  subject  I  have  ever  se^n." 

Mrs.  Thompson,  a  well-known  teacher  of  Hygiene  in  the  Schools  of  Boston, 
says:  "I  wish  this  book  coii'd  be  read  by  every  man  and  woman  in  the 

Ifrs.  Graves,  wife  of  Judge  Graves  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  Michigan, 
declares :  "The  knowledge  contained  in  this  book  is  invaluable." 

Prof.  Moses  Coit  Tyler,  of  Cornell  University,  vrrites :  "  I  have  examined 
*  Chastity  carefully.  I  find  in  it  evidence  of  the  great  care  and  high  mood  in 
which  it  was  composed.  I  cannot  doubt  that  so  frank  and  noble-minded  a  dis- 
cussion of  topics  usually  consigned  to  a  silence  that  is  at  once  ^queamiSh  and 
criminal,  will  be  of  immense  use  to  multitudes  of  men  and  women." 

Miss  Georgiana  Davis,  Boston,  Mass.,  Secretary  of  the  New  England 
Moral  Education  Association,  says:  "I  have  read  'Chastity'  and  wist  to 
express  my  pleasure  m  the  possession  of  the  book.  I  am  glad  to  own  the  Dook, 
and  shall  put  it  into  the  hands  of  the  young  in  whom  I  am  interested.  At  this 
time  two  have  read  it.  I  believe  that '  Chastity'  will  educate  in  right  principles 
in  the  relations  of  the  f  3xes,  and  I  trust  that  it  will  also  be  a  means  of  education 
to  a  purer  life  " 

The  notices  of  this  remarkable  book,  largely  from  leading 
women,  married  and  unmarried,  would  if  published,  fill  a 
hundred  pages. 

"Chastity"  treats  this  delicate  and  vital  subject  in  a  new 
spirit  and  a  new  light.  Mothers  have  written  with  tearful 
gratitude  of  "  its  holy  atmosphere."  Xothing  is  left  to  a  pru- 
rient curiosity.  The  whole  subject  is  turned  inside  out ;  no 
opportunity  is  left  to  guess,  suspect  or  imagine.  The  author 
evidently  feels  that  the  Creator  has  given  us  no  passions  or 
organs  of  which  we  need  be  ashamed  to  speak,  if  only  we  ara 
inspired  by  a  lofty  purpose. 

Forwarded,  postpaid,  on  receipt  of  price,  by 


Or,  Why  We  Went  Gypsying  in  the  Sierras     Illustrated. 
By  Dio  Lewis,  M.  D.     Pica  Edition,  $1.50. 

♦Brimful  of  adventures  told  in  a  chatty  style."— Boston  Globe. 

"  The  author  is  a  capital  story-teller,  and  the  book  is  full  of  bright,  witty 
recitals." — Boston  Times. 

"SetDio  Lewis  to  compiling  the  census  or  the  live  stock  reports,  and  he 
would  make  them  racy  and  interesting.  Dr.  Lewis  spent  three  years  camping 
in  California.  In  this  book  of  four  hundred  pages,  he  has  given  a  series  of 
pictuies  from  his  vivacious  pen,  of  wild,  romantic,  ridiculous  and  periculous 
experiences.  It  is  interesting  reading,  as  breezy,  free  and  unconventional  in 
style  as  the  scenes  it  describes."— C/irjs^ian  Register. 

"It  is  a  thoroughly  wide-awake  book  from  beginning  to  end.  Its  descrip- 
tions of  characters  and  scenes  are  graphic  and  racy,  while  the  reflections  and 
judgments  induced,  and  particularly  in  relation  to  some  of  the  questions  which 
agitate  the  Pacific  coast,  evince  shrewd  and  rare  good  sense."— Zree  Religious 

Forwarded,  postpaid,  on  receipt  of  price, 


By  Dio  Lewis,  M.  D.    1  vol.,  12mo,  Cloth.    $1.50, 

"  This  really  important  book." — Christian  Union. 

*'  We  like  it  exceediBgly." — Christian  Advocate. 

"  A  timely  and  niost  desirable  book." — Springfield  Union. 

*'  The  whole  tone  of  the  book  is  ijure  and  healthy." — Albany  Express. 

*'•  Full  of  practical  and  very  sensible  advice  to  young  women. ^'-Episcopalian^ 

"  We  wish  the  book  could  enter  thousands  of  our  homes." — N.  Y.  Inde- 

"  The  book  not  only  dcsei-ves  to  be  read,  but  it  will  be  read." — N.  Y.  Even- 
ing Post. 

"  Full  of  spicy,  sharp  things  about  matters  pertaining  to  health." — Liberal 

"  One  of  the  most  popular  of  modern  writers  upon  health,  and  the  means  of 
its  preservation." — Presbyterian. 

"Dr.  Lewis  is  well  known  as  an  acute  observer,  a  man  of  great  practical 
sagacity  in  sanitary  reform,  and  a  lively  and  brilliant  writer  upon  medical  sub 
jects." — N,  Y.  Observer. 

"  Written  in  Dr.  Lewis'  free  and  lively  style,  and  is  full  of  good  ideas,  the 
fruit  of  long  study  and  experience,  told  in  a  sensible,  practical  way,"— jBostow 

"  Every  page  shows  him  to  be  in  earnest,  and  thoroughly  alive  to  the  sub- 
jects he  discusses.  He  talks  like  one  who  has  a  solemn  message  to  deliver."—' 

1^'orwarded,  postpaid,  on  receipt  of  price, 


BY  DIO  LEWIS,  A.M.,  M.D. 
1  vol..  l<2ino.  Illustrated,  flexible  cloth,  full  gilt,  75c.;  paper,  50c 


"  'In  a  Nutshell'  is  the  hest  thing 
of  its  kinil  that  ever  came  to  my  no- 
tice. The  style  is  unique,  fascinating 
and  vigorous;  and  the  matter  deeply 
interesting  and  important.  It  should 
be  in  the  hands  of  every  young  per- 
son in  Christendom.  Thus  dihsemi- 
nated,  carefully  read,  and  faithfully 
practiced,  the  benelits  that  would 
accrue  to  the  race  are  incalculable." 
—Horace  E.  Smith,  Dean,  Albany 
Law  School  (Albany,  N.  Y.) 

'  '  have  just  cracked  and  eaten 
Dr  Oio  Lewis's  'In  a  Nutshell.'  It 
was  a  most  delicious  mental  repast. 
This  book  is  '  Multum  in  Parvo,'  and 
should  be  the  '  Vade  Mecum'  of  a 
thousand  million  of  the  rising  gen- 
iStration.  Every  page  is  sweetened 
with  wit,  fact,  truth,  and  valuable 
advice.  The  mastication  of  it 
^ives  pleasure;  the  digestion  of  it  is 
easy;  and  the  assimilation  of  its  wise 
teachings  are  highly  beneficial  to 
the  whole  physical  economy  of 
man."— CoZ.  George  Soule  (New  Or- 
'eans,  La.) 

"Much  pleased.  The  brief  and 
earnest  statements  need  to  be  read 
by  every  student.  What  our  boys 
most  need  just  now  is  not  the  advice 
which  they  so  much  get,  but  that 
which  they  do  not  get,  and  Dr.  Lewis 
has  supplied  some  of  it."— Prin. 
Smith,  Conn.  Literary  Institution 
(Sufti^ld,  Conn.) 

"  I  have  long  been  a  reader  of  Dr. 
Lewis'  works  and  have  been  greatly 
benefited  by  them.  'In  a  Nutshell' 
is  just  the  book  tnat  ought  to  be  in 
the  hands  of  every  student.  At  what 
rate  could  you  furnish  100  copies  for 
distribution?"— i¥o/.    Weidner,    Au- 

?'ustana  Theological  Seminary  (Rock 

"  Sincere  thanks  for  Dr.  Lewis' 
little  book.  ...  If  the  habits  of  our 
children  were  formed  upon  his  coun. 
sels,  health  an  i  longevity  would 
largely  take  the  place  of  'physical 
»veakness  and  premature  death.  .  .  . 
Have  observed  these  rules  (>f  health 
and  can  testify  to  their  benign  effi- 
cacy. I  am  just  entering  on  n.y 
seventy-eighth  year  with  a  .sense  of 
Tigijr  rare  with  me  forty  years  ago. 
.  .  .  Whoever  begins  to  read  his  lit- 
tle book  will  not  be  apt  to  stop  short 
of  the  end.  Please  let  me  know  the 
price  sinjjiy  and  bj'  the  dozen."— 
Pres.  T}iompson,Theological Institute 
(Hartford,  Conn.) 

"  The  more  I  read  it  the  more  I  ara 
convinced  that  it  ought  to  be  circu- 
lated bj^  the  hundred  thousand."— 
Pres.  Hooper,  Rust  University  (Miss.) 

"  Admire  its  comprehensiveness 
and  completeness.  .  .  .  Worthy  of 
universal  circulation. "—Pro/.£fai/es, 
Bates  College  (Lewiston,  Me.) 

"  Most  heartily  endorse  its  style 
and  matter."— Prin,.  Bannister, Rock- 
land College  (Nyack-on-the  Hudson, 
N.  Y.) 

"  Contains  in  a  nutshell  invaluable 
information."— JV'tJS.  Smith,  North- 
western College  (111.) 

"  You  put  many  things  well  in 
your '  Nutshell.'  The  points  are  just 
in  a  form  to  arrest  attention  and  do 
good."— Pres.  Herrick,  Pacific  Uni- 
versity (Oregon.) 

"Wish  it  could  be  placed  in  the 
hands  of  all  students.  .  .  .  All  who 
read  would  surely  be  benefited."- 
Pres.  Weston,  Female  College  {Deef 
ing,  Maine.) 

"  Excellent  .  .  .  best  thing  of  the 
kind  J.  ever  saw.  What  can  they  be 
purchased  for  by  the  hundred?"— 
Pres.  Howe,  Talladega  College  (Ala.) 

"  Have  read  '  In  a  Nutshell'  wit> 
great  interest,  and  have  rarely  seen 
more  nutritious  food  stored  in  so 
small  a  shell." — Prin.  Davidson, 
Collegiate  Institute  (Salem,  N.  J.) 

"One  hardly  knows  what  to  ad- 
mire most,  the  perfect  English,  or 
the  strikhig  presentation  of  the  sub- 
ject by  this  the  most  eminent  sanlta- 
i-ian  in  the  United  States.  "—Pro/. 
Young  (Hartford,  Conn.) 

"Dr.  Lewis  is  a  philanthropist. 
His  methods,  style,  and  matter  are 
singularly  attractive.  I  trust  the 
.sale  will  be  immense."— P>'in.  AUyn, 
Southern  Illinois  Noitnal  University 

"  Full  of  practical  good  s'^nse  put 
pithily.  .  .  .  Fitted  to  seize  the  atten- 
tion of  -tudents  and  guard  them 
against  abuses.  Dr.  Lewis  has  done 
a  real  service  to  the  colleges  of  the 
country  by  preparing  it,  and  by 
making  it  so  short  and  terse."— 
Pres.  Magoun,  Iowa  College  (Iowa.) 

"  I  have  read  thousands  of  pagee 
of  medical  works  in  search  of  the 
very  information  here  given  '  In  a 
Nutshell'  without  being  benefited 
as  I  have  by  this  work.  It  Is  a  gem." 
—Ben.  Livingston  Smith  (Utah.) 



1.  It  takes  up  but  six  inches  square  of  Hoot 

2.  It  is  not  unsightly. 

3.  It  is  noiseless. 

4.  It  can  not  get  out  of  order. 

5.  Can  be  adapted  instantly  to  the  use  of  any  one 
over  four  years  of  age. 

6.  No  other  apparatus  is  necessary. 

7.  The  work  on  the  "  Exerciser  "  is  the  most  fas, 
cinating  form  of  exercise  ever  devised. 

8.  Especially  adapted  to  bring  about  the  cure  of 
biliousness,  dyspepsia,  constipation,  and,  above  all 
else,  weak  lungs,  or  even  the  first  stages  of  con- 

9.  By  its  means  one  can  strengthen  any  part  of 
the  body  at  will,  and  then,  having  brought  up  the 
weak  parts,  can  go  on  with  a  harmonious  develop, 
ment  of  the  body. 

The  "  Exerciser "  is  accompanied  with  a  book 
of  instructions,  entitled  "Phj'sical  Culture  for 
Home  and  School,  Scientific  and  Practical,"  322 
12mo.  pages,  80  illustrations,  by  Prof.  D.  L.  Dowd, 
giving  the  most  scientific  and  interesting  method 
of  Physical  Culture  ever  devised. 

If  the  "  Exerciser  "  be  attached  to  the  window- 
casing  it  can  be  covered  from  sight  by  the  curtair 
when  not  in  use.  The  change  from  one  attach 
ment  to  another  /S  almost  instaneous.  There  are 
over  30  different  movements  given  for  the  "  Ex  srciser."  The  weight  used  can  be  varied 
according  to  the  strength  of  the  user  from  3^  lbs.  to  15  or  more. 

Valuable  as  is  the  "Exerciser  "  in  itself,  its  value  is  increased  ten-fold  by  the  metnou 
given  for  its  use.    This  method  teaches  how  to  develop  every  muscle  in  the  body. 
Terms  for  "Exerciser  "  and  book,  S3.00.    Nickle-Plated,  $12.00.    Address  all  orders  to 

yowler  <fc  Weils  Co  ,  775  Broadway,  IVew  York:. 


WcT  Home  an:'  8chool.  Scientifi.c  and  Practical.  By  D,  L.  Dowd^ 
Professor  of  Physical  Culture.  822  12mo.  pages.  300  lUustra- 
traticns.     I 'in  2  i'inding.     Price  $1.50. 


Physical  Cuit:x8,    Scientific  and  Practical,   for  the  Home  and 

School.     Pure  Air  and  Foul  Air'. 
Questions  Constantly  Being  Asked  : 

No.  t.    Does  massage  treatment  strengthen  muscular  tissue? 

No.  2,    Are  boat-racing  and  horseback-riding  good  exercises  ? 

fJo.  3.    Are  athletic  sports  conducive  to  health  ? 

ffo.  4.    Why  do  you  object  to  developing  with  heavy  weights  ? 

Mo.  5.    How  long  a  time  will  it  take  to  reach  the  limit  of  development? 

No.  6.    Is  there  a  limit  to  muscular  development,  and  is  it  possible  to  gain  an  abt 

normal  development  ? 
No.  7     What  is  meant  by  being  muscle  bound  ? 

No.  f.    Why  are  some  small  men  stronger  than  others  of  nearly  double  their  sizei 
No.  9.    Why  is  a  person  taller  with  leas  weight  in  the  morning  than  in  tha 

evening  ? 
No.  10.    B-Ovr  shouJd  a  person  breathe  while  racing  or  walkirxg  up-stairs  or  up-hill  I 
No.  11.    Is  there  any  advantage  gained  by  weigiiting  the  shoes  of  sprinters  aad 

horses  ? 
No.  12.    What  kind  of  food  is  best  for  us  to  eat  ? 
No.  13.    What  form  of  bathing  is  best  ? 

No.  14,     How  can  I  best  reduce  my  weight,  or  how  increase  itt 
No.  15.    Can  you  determine  the  size  of  one's  langs  by  blowing  in  a  spirometer  ? 

Personal  Experience  of  the  Author  in  Physical  Training. 

Physical  Culture  for  the  Voice.     Practice  of  Deep  Breathing. 

Facial  and  Neck  Development.     A  few  Hints  for  the  Complexion, 

T'^e  Graceful  and  Ungraceful  Figure,  and  Improvement  of  De- 
formities, such  as  Bow-Leg,  Knock-Knee,  Wry-Neck,  Round 
Shoulders,  Lateral  Curvature  of  the  Spine,  etc. 

A.  few  Brief  Rules.     The  Normal  Man.     Specific  Exercises  for  the 
Development  of  Every  Set  of  Muscles  of  the  Body,  Arms  and 
Legs,  also  Exercises  for  Deepening  and  Broadening  the  Chest 
■     '  and  Strengthening  the  Lungs. 

These  34  Specific  Exercises  are  each  illustrated  by  a  full  length 
figure  (taken  from  life)  showing  the  set  of  muscles  m  contraction, 
which  can  be  developed  by  each  of  them.]   Dumb  Bell  Exercises. 

Ten  Appendices  showing  the  relative  gain  of  pupils  from  9  years 
of  age  to  40. 

All  who  value  Health,  Strength  and  Happiness  should  procure 
and  read  this  work  ;  it  will  be  found  by  far  the  best  work  evei' 
written  on  this  important  subject.  Sent  by  mail,  postpaid,  on 
receipt  of  price.     $1. 50. 

Address,  Fowler  &  Wells  Co,,  Publishers,  775  Broadway,  T^ew  York. 

The  Temperaments : 


Varieties  of  Physical  Constitution  In  Man 


B^T  ID.  li.  Cr.A.OGiXJES,  1^.  ID-, 

With  an  Introduction  by  H.  S.  Drayton,  M.D.,  Editor  of  the  "Phrenological  Jour- 
nal."   12mo,  350  pages,  nearly  150  Illustrations.    Extra  Cloth.    Price  $1.50. 

■^  This  is  the  onlj'' work  on  the  subject,  and  it  shows  the  Physiological  and  the 
Pathological  conditions  in  all  their  bearings,  and  the  Relation  of  Temperament  to 
Character,  Marriage,  Occupation,  Education  and  Training  of  Children,  Heredity, 
etc..  all  Illustrated  with  Portraits  from  Life.  To  show  something  of  the  compre- 
hensiveness of  the  work,  we  publish  the  following  from 
The  Human  Body  and  its  Functions — such  outlines  of  Anatomy  and  Physiol 
ogy  as  seem  necessary  to  the  right  understanding  of  the  Temperaments.  A 
General  View  of  the  Temperaments — Causes  of  Temperamental  Conditions^ 
Ancient  and  Modern  theories  and  classifications  briefly  described — The  Brain  as 
a  Temperamental  Element.  The  Pathological  view  of  the  Temperaments— The 
generally  received  classification  of  Medical  and  Physiological  writers,  in  which 
tour  Temperaments  (the  Sanguine,  the  Lymphatic,  the  Bilious,  and  the  Nervous) 
are  recognized,  is  fully  explained,  each  Temperament  somewhat  minutely  de- 
scribed. The  Anatomical  or  Rational  Classification — The  three  Temperaments 
(Motive,  Vital,  and  Mental)  fully  described  and  illustrated,  with  their  Causes, 
Characteristics,  means  of  Culture,  Counteractive  and  Restraining  agencies,  etc.; 
also  the  Compound  Temperaments,  Motive-Vital,  Motive-Mental,  etc.,  with 
Illustrations.  Temperament  and  Conflguratio*i — A  complete  and  detailed  exposi- 
tion of  the  relations  between  temperamental  conditions  and  the  form  of  the  head, 
features  of  the  face,  and  general  configuration  of  the  body.  Temperament 
and  Color — The  complexion  and  color  of  the  hair  and  eyes  as  indications  of  Tem- 
perament— Two  distinct  varieties  of  the  Motive  Temperament  distinguished  and 
described. — The  Blonde  and  Brunette  elements.  Changes  of  Temperament — Ex- 
ternal Influences  from  natural  growth,  climate,  age,  bodily  habits,  mental 
agencies,  direct  culture,  etc..  Temperament  and  Mentality — The  Phrenological 
developments  characteristic  of  each  Temperament — Brain  in  Vital,  Mental,  and 
Motive.  Temperament  in  Age  and  Sex — Temperament  in  Childhood,  in  Middla 
Age,  in  Old  Age — Temperament  in  Women.  Temperament  in  the  Domestic  Rela- 
tions— In  marriage,  domestic  life,  management  of  children,  etc. — Temperament  ie 
Matrimony  fully  illustrated.  Temperament  and  Education — Temperament  in  the 
Teacher,  in  the  pupil.  Temperament  as  Affecting  the  Choice  of  Occupation — 
Adaptation  of  the  Motive,  the  Mental,  and  the  Vital  Temperaments,  special  de- 
velopment for  practical  pursuits.  Temperament  ;in  Health  and  Disease — Predis 
position  of  the  Motive,  the  Vital,  and  Mental  Temperaments,  practical  hygienic 
rules  for  correcting  the  predisposition  of  each  temperament  to  particular  d  iseases . 
Temperament  in  Races  and  Nations — The  Caucasian,  the  Mongolian,  the  Malayan, 
the  American,  and  the  Ethiopian.  Studies  in  Temperament^ — ^The  Great  Tragedi- 
enne ;  The  Mormon  Leader  ;  .The  Daughter  of  a  Queen  ;  A  Savage  Chieftain  ;  A 
Working  Bishop  ;  Temperament  "in  the  Rough  ;"  An  Ardent,  Emotional  Charac- 
ter ;  An  American  Soldier  ;  The  Chief  of  the  Horsemen,  with  Portraits  of  each. 
Temperament  in  the  Lower  Animals — Temperament  in  Wild  Animals,  and  shomn^ 
the  effect  of  domestication  on  horses,  cattle,  sheep,  swine,  dogs,  etc. 

The  subject  is  one  which  is  easily  understood,  and  therefore  all  stu« 
dents  of  Human  Nature  should  procure  this  book.  Sent  by  mail,  post 
paid,  on  receipt  of  price,  $1.50.     Address, 

rOWLER  &  "WJ3LLS  CO.,  PuTjlishers,  775  Broadway,  New  York. 

Good  Health  Books. 


Or,  Hygienic  Cookery.   By  Susanna  W.  Dodds,  M.D.   One  large  i2mo  vol. 

600  pages,  extra  cloth  or  oil-cloth  binding,  price  $2.00, 

Undoubtedly  the  very  best  work   on  the  1  tables  with  food  that   is  wholesome   and  at 

preparation  of  food  in  a  healthful   manner  I  the  same  time  palatable,  and  will  contribute 

ever  published,   and  one  that  should  be   in  I  much  toward  Heallh  in  tlie  House- 

the  hands  of  all  who   would   furnish   their  |  hold. 


Of  Consumption,  Constipation,  Bright's  Disease,  Neuralgia,  Rheumatism. 
"  Colds  "  (Fevers),  Etc.  How  Sickness  Originates  and  How  to  Prevent  it. 
A  health  Manual  for  the  People.    By  C.  E.  Page.    278  pp.,  ex.  cloth,  $1.00. 

A  new  work  with  new  ideas,  both  radical 
and  reasonable,  appealingf  to  the  common- 
sense  of  the  reader.  This  is  not  anew  work 
with  old  thougrhts  simply  restated,  but  the 
most  original  Health   Manual  published  in 

many  years.  It  is  written  in  the  author's 
cleap,  attractive  manner,  and  should  be  in 
the  hands  of  all  who  would  either  retain  or 
regain  their  health,  and  keeo  from  the  hands 
of  the  doctors. 


For  the  Prevalent  Disorders  of  the    Human  Organism,    by  Felix  L.  Oswald, 
M.  D.,  i2mo,  extra  cloth.   Price  $1.00. 

portunity  to  launch  a  broadside  into  the  old 
tavorite  of  the  profession.  Nature  is  a  great 
healer  and  the  great  merit  of  the  book  is  that 
it  demands  for  nature  and  the  human  organ- 
ization a  fair  show. — "  McGregor  News." 

The  >eader  may  be  sure  of  this,  he  is  no 
agent  for  a  drugstore.  The  doctor  is  a  high 
aposLle  gospel  ot  hygiene,  and  gives  the 
mild  blue  pill  and  other  alteratives  fits  at 
every  opportunity,  and  often  forces  the  op- 


Or,  Common-Sense  Medical  Hygiene.  A  book  for  the  people,  giving  directions 
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amount  of  pain  and  suffering,  as  well  as 
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A  Complete  Explanation  of  the  Digestive  Processes,  with  the  Symptoms  and 
Treatment  of  Dyspepsia  and  other  disorders  of  the  Digestive  Organs.  Illus- 
trated.    By  R.  T.  Trail,   M.D.  $1.00. 

The  latest  and  best  work  on  the  subject. 
With  fifty  illustration  showing  with  all 
possible  fullness  every  process  of  digestion, 
and  giving  all  the  causes,  and  directions  for 
treatment  of  Dyspepsia.    The  author  gives 

the  summary  of  the  data  which  he  collected 
during  an  extensive   practice  of  more  than 
twenty-five  years,     largely  with    patxer 
who  were  suffering  from  diseases  caused  b  , 
Dyspepsia  ai\d  an  impaired  Digestion. 


for  the  Normal  Development  and  Trai 
Treatment  of  their  diseases  with  Hygie 

The  great  experience  and  ability  of  the 
author  enabled  him  to  give  just  that  advice 
which  mothers  need  so  often  all  through 
their  lives.  It  covers  the  whole  ground,  and 
if  it  be  carefully  read,  will  go  far  towards 
giving  us  an  "Enlightend  Motherhood." 
The  work  should  be  read  by  every  wife  and 

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ning  of  Women  and  Children,  and  the 

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every  woman  who  contemplates  marriae^e. 
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and  feel  assured  they  will  be  the  better  pre- 
pared for  the  responsibilities  and  duues  or 
married  life  and  motherhood. 

Brain  and  Mind, 


The  Temperaments. 

Structure  of  the  Brain  and  Skull. 

Classification  of  the  Faculties. 

The  Selfish  Organs. 

The  Intellect. 

The  Semi-Intellectual  FACULTiaB. 

The  Organs  of  the  Social  Functions. 

The  Selfish  Sentiments. 

The  Moral  and  Religious  Sentiments 


ByH.  S.  Drayton,  A.M.,  M.D..  and  Jame.!! 
McNeill,  A.B.  Illustrated  with  over  One 
Hundi-ed  Portraits  and  Diagrams.    gl,.50. 

The  authors  state  in  their  preface  :  "In  pre- 
paring this  volume  it  has  oeen  the  aim  to 
meet  an  existmg-  want,  viz  :  that  of  a  treatise 
whichnot  only  gives  the  reader  a  complete 
view  of  the  system  of  mental  science  known 
as  Phrenology,  but  also  exhibits  its  relation  to 
Anatomy  and  Physiology,  as  those  sciences  are 
represented  to- day  by  standard  authority." 

The  following,  from  the  Table  of  Contents, 
shows  the  scope  and  character  of  the  work : 

How  to  Examine  Heads. 

How  Character  is  Manifested. 

The  Action  of  the  Faculties. 

The  Relation  of  Phrenology  to  Meta- 
physics AND  Education. 

Vziue  of  Phrenology  as  an  Art. 

Fhhenology  and  Physiology. 

Objections  and  Confirmations  by  thb 

Phrenology  in  General  Literature. 

lsrot3±oes   o±  "tlxe   :Pz?ess_ 

objections  on  the  side  of  Faith  by  those 
admitted  as  existing  on  the  side  of 
Sight,  will  avail  as  well  in  one  case  as 
in  the  other.  We  will  only  add,  the 
above  work  is,  without  doubt,  the  best 
popular  presentation  of  the  science 
which  has  yet  been  made.  It  confines 
itself  strictly  to  facts,  and  is  not  writ- 
ten in  the  interest  of  any  pet  "  theory." 
It  is  made  very  interesting  by  its 
copious  illustrations,  pictorial  and  nar- 
rative, and  the  whole  is  brought  down 
to  the  latest  information  on  this  curi- 
ous and  suggestive  department  ot 
knowledge. — Christian  Intelligencer. 

As  far  as  a  comprehensive  view  of  ths 
teachings  of  Combe  can  be  embodied 
into  a  system  that  the  popular  mind 
can  understand,  this  book  is  as  satis- 
factory an  exposition  of  its  kind  as  has 
yet  been  published.  The  definition sar< 
clear,  exhaustive,  and  spirited. — Phila- 
delphia Enquirer. 
In  style  and  treatment  it  is  adapted  to  'the  general  reader,  abounds  witB 
valuable  instruction  expressed  in  clear,  practical  terms,  and  the  work  constitutes 
by  far  the  best  Text-book  on  Phrenology  published,  and  is  adapted  to  both  privat€ 
and  class  study. 

Theillustrationsof  the  Special  Organs  and  Faculties  are  for  the  most  pari 
from  portraits  of  men  and  women  whose  characters  are  known,  and  great  pains 
have  been  taken  to  exemplify  with  accuracy  the  significance  of  the  text  in  each 
case.  For  the  student  of  human  nature  and  character  the  work  is  of  the  highesi 

It  is  printed  on  fine  paper,  and  substantially  bound  in  extra  cloth,  by  roail, 
posjtoaid.  on  receiot  of  price.  $1..^0.        Address. 

MLBR  &  f ELtS^CO,  PiMersJIS  Broadway,  New  Tort 

Phrenology  is  no  longer  a  thing  laugh- 
ed at.  The  scientific  researches  of  the 
last  twenty  years  have  demonstrated 
the  fearful  and  wonderful  complication 
of  matter,  not  only  with  mind,  but  with 
what  we  call  moral  qualities.  Thereby, 
we  believe,  the  divine  origin  of  "our 
frame"  has  been  newly  illustrated,  and 
the  Scriptural  psychology  confirmed  ; 
and  ia  the  Phrenological  Chart  we  are 
disposed  to  find  a  species  of  "  urim  and 
thummim,"  revealing,  if  not  the  Crea- 
tor's will  concerning  us,  at  least  His 
revelation  of  essential  character.  One 
thing  is  certain,  that  the  discoveries 
of  physical  science  must  ere  long  force 
all  men  to  the  single  alternative  of  Cal- 
Ivinism  or  Atheism.  When  they  see 
'that  God  has  writteAHimself  sovereign, 
absolute,  and  predestinating,  on  the 
records  of  His  creation,  they  will  be 
teady  to  find  His  writing  as  clearly  in 
the  Word;  and  the  analogical  argu- 
ment, meeting  the  difficulties  and  the 

Men  and  Women  Differ  in  Character. 

No.  1. 
No.  2. 
No.  3. 
No.  4. 

[Portraits  from  Life  in  "  Heads  and  Faces."] 
James  Parton.  No.  5.    Emperor  Paul  of  Russia.  No.   9. 

A.  M.  Rice.  No.  6.    George  Eliot.  No.  10. 

Wm.  31.  Evarts.  No.  7.    King:  Frederick  the  Strong.     No.  11. 

General  Wisewell.       No.  8.    Prof .  George  Bush. 

General  Napier. 
Otho  the  Great. 


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